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SIXTY-EIGHTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



11 




BOARD OF EDUCATION 



OF MARYLAND 



195-* 




Maryland Room 
OmkretBity of Mafyla^id Library 
r^Wf.'ye Parle. Md 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 



Acc. 



m lOT mmm. 



I 



Digitized 


by the Internet Archive 






i 


in 2013 





http://archive.org/details/report00mary_63 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Sixty - Eighth Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1934 




MRRARY. IIMVFRSITV OF MARYUNh 

THE MAURICE LEESER COMPANY 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



^ r 

^f^jrj STATE OF MARYLAND 

^0 BOARD OF EDUCATION 

TASKER G. LOWNDES, President Cumberland 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

CHARLES A. WEAGLY Hagerstown, R. F. D. 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON.. Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD ...Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

ELISABETH AMERY. .. Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON (3 E. 25th St.) 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

J. K. COSGROVE (3 E. 25th St.) Assistant Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK (7 E. Mulberry St.) Supervisor of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (Enoch Pratt Library, 400 Cathedral St.) Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS _ Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY , Stenographer 

MARTHA KREJCI (3 E. 25th St.) Stenographer 

CLARA McD. SIMERING Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Senior Clerk 

MARGARET WOODWARD Senior Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

LIDA LEE TALL Maryland State Teachers College Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachers College Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL Maryland State Teachers College _ Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S, JAMES Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students; Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES '. State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME.. Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER ?. Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenogfapher 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1934-1935 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T, 
Winifred Greene, S. T. 
L. Grace Shatzer, S. T. 



ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 



BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Herghner, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, H. T.l 
Emma A. Boettner, S. T.2 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.2 
M. Annie Grace, S. T.2 
Nellie Gray, S. T.* 
Jennie E. Jegsop, S. T.3 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor2 



CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 



CAROLINE— Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 



CARROLL— Westminster 
tM. S. H. Unger, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Mary Norris Lynch, H. T. 



CECIL— Elkton 

Howard T, Ruhl, Supt. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 



CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, S. T. 



DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, S. T. 



FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt, Supt. 
Hal Lee T. Ott, S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 
A. DrucLMa Worthington, S. T. 



County Address 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, S. T.4 
Flossie Skidmore Shields, S. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air, 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Mary L. Grau, S. T.5 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
Herbert C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— RockviUe 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Kristin Nii^son, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Catherine R. Green, S. T. 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt, 
E. Violette Young, S. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, S. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
WiJiiam R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, H. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 



WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
Martha Sibley, S. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 



1 Sparrows Point 3 203 Burke Ave., Towson S. T. — Supervising Teacher 

2 200 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore 4 Grantsville H. T.— Helping Teacher 
* Catonsville. ' 5 Havre de Grace t — Deceased. 



CONTENTS Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budget for 1936 and 1937 Showing Effect of Cuts.... 7 

1935 General Legislation Affecting Schools 13 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment, Decline in Birth Rate, Parochial and Private Schools, Length 
of Session, Attendance, Long Absence, Late Entrants, Withdrawals.... 14 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 27 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City..... 39 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turn- 
over, Experience 45 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching 53 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 59 

Size of Schools and Consolidation - 72 

Supervision 77 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 80 

Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, Withdrawals, Teachers 95 
Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turnover, Ex- 
perience, Sex of Teachers - 109 

Number and Size of High Schools 118 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries 121 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, Health, 

Capital Outlay 128 

Supervision 138 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment, Decline in Birth Rate, Length of Session, Attendance, Late 

Entrants, Withdrawals 141 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions, Tests.. 149 

High Schools; Legislation; Schools in Baltimore -- 156 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations Turn- 
over, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 163 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of School 

Property. - 174 

Size of Schools, Physical Education, Health and Cleanliness Contests, 

P. T. A.'s. 179 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds; Supervision 185 

Bowie Normal School 189 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 193 

Evening Schools, Emergency Adult Education Program, Vocational Re- 
habilitation 200 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 208 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 220 

Federal Aid to Schools through C. W. A 222 

Transportation of Pupils - 223 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Bond Issues, Value of School Pro- 
perty _ 230 

County Residents Attending School Outside County..._ 241 

1934-35 County Budgets; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assessments; 

Tax Rates 242 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other than 

County Funds— White Schools.... 251 

County School Administration; Conference Programs; Certification of Teach- 
ers and Changes in Certificate Regulations 256 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury 264 

The State Teachers' Retirement System ..- 278 

Financial Statements; Statistical Tables 281 

Index 334 



June 15, 1935. 

Honorable Harry W. Nice, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Governor Nice: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of 
Maryland, the sixty-eighth "annual report, covering all operations 
of the State Department of Education and the support, condition, 
progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for the school 
year ending in June, 1934, and considerable data for the current 
school year 1934-35 is herewith presented to you. 

Thus far the Maryland schools have come through the depression 
without the serious curtailments of the program of minimum es- 
sentials common in a number of the States. Our session has not been 
curtailed. Salaries have been reduced since the close of the School 
year 1932-33, although in most counties the modest minimum 
salary schedules adopted by the Legislature in 1922 had been in 
effect. The classes of many teachers have been increased because 
vacancies due to resignation have not been filled or because in- 
creased enrollments have been cared for without the appointment of 
the teachers who would be added under normal conditions. The 
majority of the teachers and school officials have whole-heartedly 
contributed through reduced salaries and heavier teaching loads 
to the need of governmental economy in county and State. 

Expenditures for books and materials of instruction and for re- 
pairs have been curtailed. This type of economy can go on for a 
short period without bringing deterioration in instruction and 
buildings, but if continued, to remedy the ill effects in the long run 
will cost far more than the amount saved. The Maryland counties 
have always been economical in the books and materials provided 
and in the amount expended for repairs. 

The reduction in the allowance for transporting pupils to high 
school from 100 per cent to 50 per cent in Equalization Fund counties 
was absorbed in 1933-34 by decreasing the number of high school 
teachers formerly employed, thereby greatly increasing the size 
of classes, and/or by transferring funds from other items where 
temporary curtailment was possible. Expenditures for repairs, for 
replacement of text books, for materials of instruction and for 
equipment were postponed, but this cannot continue. Since the 50 
per cent cut in actual cost of high school transportation can no 
longer be absorbed, it must either be met by charges to parents or 
through an increase in the county levy, unless funds are made 
available by the Board of Public Works as authorized by Chapter 477 
of the laws of 1935. 

5 



Increased State aid provided in 1933-34 and 1934-35 through the 
distribution to the counties of that part of $1,500,000 which meant 
a net increase in State aid was used for the sole purpose of reducing 
county taxation for schools. The 1933 legislation reducing from 67 
cents to 47 cents the county tax for school current expenses required 
before a county is eligible to receive the State Equalization Fund 
made it possible for every county sharing in the Equalization Fund 
to reduce its school current expense tax rate for 1933-34 by 20 cents 
to carry the minimum State program. 

The budgets for 1936 and 1937 and the 1935 legislation affecting 
schools are summarized in the first part of the report. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school program, 
the simple and efficient plan for organization, administration, 
supervision and financing, as well as the enthusiastic cooperation 
received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance officers, super- 
visors, and superintendents, who have in most cases been given the 
whole-hearted moral and financial support of their patrons, county 
boards of education and county commissioner's have made possible 
the conditions shown in this report. 

This letter cannot be concluded without expressing our tribute 
to Dr. Henry M. Fitzhugh, whose death on January 26, 1935, ended 
his service for many years as president of the State Board of Educa- 
tion. The following is quoted from the minutes of the State Board 
of Education for February 26, 1935: 

"We, the members of the State Board of Education, 
individually and collectively desire to give expression to our 
deep feeling of personal loss in the death of our friend and 
colleague. Doctor Henry M. Fitzhugh, who for fourteen years, 
as Chairman of the Board, has guided its affairs with such 
singular fidelity, impartiality, and satisfaction to all concerned. 
The members of the Board wish further to record their united 
testimony to the fact that in the passing of Doctor Fitzhugh, 
the State of Maryland has lost one of her most distinguished 
and public-spirited citizens, and this Board one of its most 
valued and useful members. While his wise counsel will be 
sadly missed from our deliberations, the memory of his genial 
and inspiring personality will ever remain with those of us who 
were fortunate enough to have served under him." 



Respectfully submitted. 



Tasker G. Lowndes, President. 



Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer. 
State Board of Education 



Wendell D. Allen 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 



J. M. T. Finney, M. D 



Mary E. W. Risteau 
Charles A. Weagly 



6 



THE STATE SCHOOL BUDGETS FOR 1936 AND 1937 

The State public school budget appropriations for 1936 are lower 
than those for 1935 by $183,845. 

State Public School 
Year Budget Appropriations Change 

1935 $5,558,749 

1936 5,374,904 —$183,845 

1937 5,408,052 + 33,148 

Since the 1933 legislation temporarily reducing salaries for a two- 
year period was to expire at the close of the school year 1934-35, the 
budget requests for 1936 and 1937 were originally made up on the 
assumption that the minimum State salary schedules in effect from 
the fall of 1922 to July 31, 1933, would be restored. On request of 
the Governor who proposed to introduce a bill continuing the salary 
cuts of 1934 and 1935, new requests were prepared continuing salary 
reductions. It was hoped, however, that before making percentage 
salary reductions, allowances for salary increments, withheld since 
1932-33, could be provided for. The revised budget request presented 
to the Governor, therefore, included amounts to cover these salary 
increments, from which percentage reductions of 10 to 15 per cent 
were taken. The State Public School Budget Request for 1936 and 
1937 in this revised form is presented in detail in Table 1, together 
with appropriations for 1935, 1936 and 1937 and the decrease of the 
1936 appropriation under the 1936 request. (See Table 1). 

The effect of the major cuts in individual items are taken up 
according to their numbering in the budget. 

Item 1— High School Aid— Reduction $16,6-58 
The 1936 appropriation ehminates all provision for State aid for 
an increase in the number of high school teachers in any of the 
counties, either Equahzation or Non-Equalization, notwithstanding 
an increase of nearly 4,000 high school pupils during the past four 
years, with only five additional teachers appointed, and with this 
increase in number of pupils growing larger from year to year. 
Under the reduced State Budget, no State aid whatever is available 
for employing teachers to take care of the increased high school 
enrollments during the next two years, although such aid seems to 
be mandatory under Section 197 of the State School Law. 

The State of Maryland, like other states, finds itself with an ever 
increasing enrollment of high school pupils. This increase is due in 
part to a demand on the part of more people for a larger share of 
education for their children, in part to the labor laws which place 
restrictions upon the age of children who may enter industry, and 
in part to the inability of children of legal working age to secure em- 
ployment. It has thus become incumbent upon the schools to provide 
educational facilities to meet the varied interests, aptitudes, and 
abilities of this increasingly diverse group of high school pupils. 



7 



8 



If 34 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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9 



I*em 8— Fund for Reducing County Taxation— Reduction $250,000 

The reduction of $250,000 in the fund of $1,500,000 distributed 
to the counties on the basis of the 1930 federal census represents 
one-sixth of the fund distributed in 1934 and 1935. This fund was 
estabhshed in the effort to meet the insistent demand for reduction 
of the tangible property tax in the Counties and in Baltimore City. 
In setting up the fund the State followed the principle that local 
support could safely be supplemented by greater State participation. 

The costs of education will necessarily increase with increased 
enrollment, since emergency restrictions and failure to enlarge 
facilities cannot continue indefinitely. A reduction of one-sixth in 
the ''Tax Reduction Fund" will increase the county tax rates in the 
non-Equalization Fund counties by the amount shown in the last 
column of Table 2. 

TABLE 2 

Effect on Non-Equalization Fund Counties of Cut of One-Sixth in Fund for 
Reduction of County School Taxation 



County 



Amount of 
$1,500,000 
Fund 



Amount of 
$1,250,000 
Fund 



Amount 
of 

Reduction 



Reduction 
Expressed in 
Cents of 
County 

Tax Rate* 



Allegany $143,527 $119,606 $23,921 3.1 

Baltimore 226,029 188,359 37,670 2.16 

Cecil 46,864 39,053 7,811 2.1 

Frederick 98,784 82,320 16,464 3.12 

Harford 57,345 47,787 9,558 1.82 

Howard 29,340 24,450 4,890 2.75 

Montgomery 89,286 74,405 14,881 1.69 

Prince George's 109,043 90,869 18,174 2.8 

Taloot 33,7 20 28,100 5,620 2.74 

Washington 119,546 99,622 19,924 2.77 



* The 1934 assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes has been used to secure 
the figures listed. 

Item 6 — Equalization Fund — Reduction $74,626 

The 1936 Equalization Fund of $398,346 is sufficient to provide 
only for the teaching staff employed for the school year 1934-35 
on the reduced minimum salary scale which has been in effect since 
September, 1933. The amount allowed continues the temporary 
reduction of from 10 to 15 per cent in the State minimum salary 
schedule for teachers and extends the period of no service increases 
from September 1, 1932, to August 31, 1937. 

It has long been recognized that the salaries of teachers generally 
have not been commensurate with the importance and responsibility 
of the profession; yet the reductions made in response to the demands 
of the economic eniergency have been accepted without complaint 
by the teaching personnel of the State. 



10 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Recognition of the following factors probably accounts for the intro- 
duction into the House of Delegates and Senate of bills restoring one- 
half of the temporary cuts in salaries made by the 1933 legislature: 

a. That the costs of living have greatly increased during the past two years. 

b. That the increased enrollments have greatly increased the number 
and size of the classes for which the individual teachers are responsible. 

c. That partial economic recovery is definitely recognized. 

d. That the dignity and importance of the teaching profession, along 
with the above facts, demand favorable salary consideration. 

Although neither of the bills restoring salary cuts passed, there was 
legislation continuing the temporary reductions similar to those made 
in 1933 qualified by the following provision : 

"And be it further enacted, That the Governor and/or the Board 
of Public Works be and they are hereby, authorized, empowered and 
requested to pay out of any of the contingent funds in the budget, the 
cost of the bus transportation for the public schools of Maryland, the 
said payment to be made into the "Equalization Fund," and to be dis- 
tributed through it as now provided by statute. And the Governor 
and /or the Board of Public Works are further authorized, empowered 
and requested, if any budget funds are available, to restore the schedule 
of teachers' salaries, hereinbefore prescribed to the extent of one-half of 
the respective amount so specified." 

The reduced Equalization Fund also permits an allowance of only 
one-half of the cost of transporting pupils to high school in calculating 
the cost of the minimum program. Prior to the budget for 1933-34, 
the entire cost of high school transportation in Equalization Fund 
counties was provided for in the minimum program and carried in 
the Equalization Fund appropriation. In order to meet an emer- 
gency, this item was reduced in September, 1933, to a minimum of 
50 per cent of the total cost. Fortunately, most counties found it 
possible to absorb the remaining 50 per cent without an additional 
local county levy or direct charge on parents of high school pupils. 
This was done by decreasing the number of high school teachers 
formerly employed, thereby greatly increasing the size of classes, 
and by transferring funds from other items where temporary cur- 
tailment of expenditures was possible. For instance, expenditures for 
repairs, for replacement of texts, for materials of instruction, fcr 
equipment, etc., were postponed, but these can no longer be delayed, 
making it impossible to absorb the transportation expense in 1935-36 
and 1936-37. 

Provision for this item by means of local county levies would in- 
crease tax rates above the 47 cent minimum set for Equalization 
Fund counties of the State by amounts shown m Table Z. 

Parents of high school pupils living in isolated communities are 
due to this circumstance discriminated against if because of the 
required payment of the cost of transportation they have to con- 
tribute a greater amount to the cost of educating their children than 
do their more fortunate neighbors who reside near high schools. 
For many parents, present economic conditions make the pay- 



Budget Needs for Salaries and High School Transportation 



11 



ment of even a small sum per month for this purpose so heavy a 
burden as to prevent their children from receiving the benefits of 
secondary education. This violates the principle upon which the 
Maryland school system is founded — that all children of the State 
shall enjoy equal educational opportunities regardless of where they 
live. 

TABLE 3 

Additional County Levy Necessary to Provide for Fifty Per Cent ol the Cost of 
Transporting Pupils to High School 



Fifty Per Cent Additional Levy 



of Cost of Necessary 
High School Expressed in 

County Transportation Cents 

Total $87,516 

Anne Arundel 11,054 2.3 

Calvert 4,570 8.0 

Caroline 5,840 3.7 

Carroll 9,235 2.5 

Charles 7,667 

Dorchester 6,789 3.2 

Garrett 10,288 5.8 

Kent _ 4,969 3.1 

Queen Anne's _ 5,614 3.5 

St. Mary's 7,755 8.9 

Somerset 3,652 3.0 

Wicomico 5,868 2.0 

Worcester 4,215 2.0 



An addition to the EquaHzation Fund to care for the total cost of 
transportation to high school will require $87,516 as shown in Table 
3. Restoration of one-half of the cuts in salaries of teachers would 
increase the Equalization Fund from $398,346 for twelve counties 
to $573,419 for seventeen counties, an increase of $175,073. 

In general, the State School Budget without additions from the 
''cushion" fund for the next two years makes no provision for any 
additions to or extensions of the minimum program al State expense 
to keep school facilities at their present level. In counties with a 
growing population this involves an increase in the size of the ele- 
mentary classes, which in Maryland are larger than in most other 
states because of the requirements of the State School Law. No 
additional teachers can be appointed in high schools to take care of 
a much larger enrollment, unless the county tax rate is increased 
to provide for the added salaries. In heu of this, classes will have to 
be further increased in size during the next two years, a makeshijl 
in schoot administration that can not be indefinitely continued for a 



12 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



growing school population. No additional transportation routes 
can be established unless they can be undertaken without an increase 
in the expense of the minimum program. 

If for any reason, there should be a reduction of taxable basis in the 
counties entitled to share in the Equalization Fund, there will be no 
funds available in the State Public School Budget to replace the loss 
in county revenue from a 47-cent school tax on a reduced taxable 
basis. 

Other Reductions in the State School Budget 

Item 18 — Consultant Architect — Reduced by $750, the entire amount allowed 

in 1934-35 

Elimination of the payment of a very nominal amount to the 
architect who has been reviewing critically all plans for county school 
buildings which require the approval of the State Superintendent 
means that the counties will lose the benefit of the many con- 
structive suggestions regarding size, lighting, arrangement, etc., 
which have been available to them during the past fifteen years. 



Item 19— Vocational Rehabilitation— Reduced $3,342 

The reduction in the amount for vocational rehabilitation from 
$13,342, available in 1935, to $10,000 a year for the next two years 
means a reduction of $6,684 in the expenditures which may be made 
in rehabilitating handicapped individuals, since the Federal Govern- 
ment allots $13,342 to Maryland on a fifty-fifty basis. If the State 
supplies only $10,000 from State funds, only $10,000 of the Federal 
allotment may be used, and the remainder, $3,342, must be returned 
to the Federal Treasury unused. 



Items 20-22— The State Normal Schools— Reduced $58,094 

The State appropriations, exclusive of fees, for the Frostburg, 
Salisbury, and Towson Normal Schools were cut in 1933 by approx- 
imately 58, 53, and 45 per cent, respectively, reductions which were 
greater than those sustained by any other State institution. For two 
years the normal schools have been able to carry on only by reason 
of the increase of student fees from $200 to $316 per year. At 
Frostburg two teachers have had to work on a part-time basis 
because the funds would not permit their employment on a full- 
time basis. The schedule and enrollment for the next two years 
absolutely require the full-time service of these teachers. A library 
assistant has been eliminated at Frostburg and one at Towson, a 
fact which will greatly reduce the efficiency of this most important 
instrument of instruction at institutions of college grade. 



Cuts in School Budget; 1935 General School Legislation 13 



GENERAL 1935 LEGISLATION AFFECTING SCHOOLS 

In addition to fixing the budgets for 1936 and 1937, the 1935 
legislature enacted the following general legislation affecting schools 
which has been signed by the Governor: 

Chapter 46S Fixing 1937 as the year for the next general reassessment of 
property in the counties. 

Chapter 477 Reducing salaries of county teachers and school officials by 
10 to 15%, but providing that the Governor and/or Board of 
Public Works is authorized, empowered, and requested to pay 
out of any contingent funds in the budget the cost of bus 
transportation for the public schools of Maryland, the said 
payment to be made into the Equalization Fund, and also one 
half of the reduction in teachers' salaries. 

Chapter 577 Creating Commission on Higher Education for Negroes and 
providing scholarships for higher education of negroes. 

Chapter 552 Authorizing use of public school houses for meeting of Farm- 
ers' Educational Cooperative Union of America, but providing 
that all meetings held in school houses must be open to the 
public. 

Chapter 554 Changing the name of a State Normal School offering a four- 
year course to State Teachers College, changing the title of 
the principal of such an institution to president, and including 
the Salisbury Normal School whenever normal schools are 
mentioned in the law. 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



DECREASE I\ ENROLLMENT IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

For the first time the total enrollment in county white public ele- 
mentary schools, 111, 907 for 1934, showed a decline of approximately 
600 under 1933. All of the counties, except six, registered a decline, 
and these six have only from 7 to 56 more white elementary pupils 
than they had the previous year. (See Table A.) 

TABLE 4 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Public Elementary Schools, Excluding 
Duplicates, For Years Ending July 31, 1923, 1933 and 1934. 



County 



Total Counties.. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's 
Montgomery. .. 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel. .. 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



*106,069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
4,524 
8,505 
4,947 
5.902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



1933 



*112,509 

17,737 
12,700 
11,458 
8,530 
7,827 
7,812 
6,762 
5,133 
4,407 
4,242 
3,805 
3.420 



1934 



^111,907 

17,482 
12,723 
11,508 
8,494 
7,883 
7,661 
6,641 
5,106 
4,437 
4,195 
3,803 
3,394 



County 



Dorchester 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's... 

Charles 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Baltimore City 

State 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



3,432 
3,059 
2,984 
3,025 
2,241 
2,105 
2,101 
1,803 
1,748 
2,117 
1,060 

t*79,124 

t*185,193 



1933 



3,199 
2,427 
2,346 
2,303 
2,128 
1,899 
1,742 
1,533 
1,527 
1,109 
869 

t*77,639 

t*190,148 



* Total excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment in 
vocational schools. 

For enrollment in countie?, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 285. 

Probably the most important factor in explaining the decrease 
in white public school enrollment is the change in the birth rate. 

TABLE 5 

Birth Rates per 1,000 W hite Population 192^ to 1933 

(Figures Furnished by Stale Department oj Health) 





23 


Baltimore 


Entire 


Year 


Counties 


City 


State 


1920 


23.5 


25.3 


24.5 


1921 


24.2 


24.6 


24.4 


1922 


22.2 


22.7 


22.5 


1923 


21.7 


22.7 


22.2 


1924 


21.6 


21.9 


21.8 


1925 


20.9 


2L2 
20 


21.1 


1926 


20.0 


20.1 


1927 


19.7 


19.8 


19.7 


1928 


18.8 


19.0 


18.9 


1929 


17.1 


17.7 


17.4 


1930 


17.4 


17.6 


17.5 


1981 


16.2 


16.5 


16.4 


1932 


16.1 


16.2 


16.1 


1933 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 



14 



Decreased White Elementary Enrollment; Declining Birth Rates 



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16 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The white birth rate for Baltimore City and the counties as furnished 
by the State Department of Health exhibits the declines shown in 
Table 5, page 14. 

The effect of the declining birth rate will be cumulative as the 
smaller entering classes proceed through the course. 

Corresponding data for individual counties show declines from 1920 
to 1933 except in St. Mary's and Talbot. (See Tabic 6.) 

The increase in white elementary enrollment in private and 
parochial schools over a period of years is also significant in explain- 
ing the decrease in public white elementary enrollment. (See Table 
7.) 

TABLE 7 

White Elementary School Enrollment in Non-Public Schools 





Catholic 


Non-Cathot.ic 


YEAR 














Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1925 


5,331 


22,236 


* 


* 


1926 


6,083 


25,319 




* 


1927 


6,536 


25,942 


t360 


t305 


1928 


8,000 


27,285 


t455 


t)08 


1929 - 


8,351 


28,274 


1567 


tl,312 


1930 


8,626 


29,002 


1,354 


2,024 


1931 


8,976 


29,462 


1,381 


1,970 


1932 


P,309 


29,957 


1,337 


1,817 


1933 


9,532 


30,614 


1,183 


1,595 


1934..... 


9,762 


31,387 


1,212 


1,552 



* Data not collected. t Incomplete, See Tables III-V, pages 286 to 289, 



The white elementary school enrollment in the counties exceeds 
that in the City, even when the estimated enrollment in grades 
7 and 8 is included for the City. (See Ta bleS.) 

TABLE 8 

Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and City 

1934 White Elementary Enrollment 
Type of School Counties Baltimore City 

Public 111,907 76,560 

Catholic 9,762 31,387 

Private non-Catholic 1,212 1,552 

Total 122,881 109,499 

The excess for the counties is partly explained by the fact that the 
number of families having young children is greater in the counties 
than in the City. Data proving this point from the 1930 Federal 
census were included in the 1933 annual report on page 20. 



School Enroi-lment Data; Length of Session 



17 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The public schools for white pupils were open on the average 187 
days, but the counties varied in the length of their school sessions 
between 180 and 193 days. Montgomery, Dorchester, Cecil and 
Calvert had their white elementary schools open at least two more 
days in 1934 than in 1933, while Allegany, Kent, Carohne and Queen 
Anne's reduced their session by at least two days under 1933. (See 
Table 9.) 

The dates of opening and closing schools are given in the first half 
of Table 9. The dates of opening in 1933 covered the period from 
September 1 to 13, while the closing dates ranged over the period 
from May 31 to June 22, 1934. (See Table 9.) 



TABLE 9 

Length of Session in White Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel- 
Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline... 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard..... 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

"Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester... 



Baltimore City. 



School Year, 
1933-34 



No. of 

Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/11 

9/11 

9/11 

9/5 

9/4 

9/5 

9/5 

9/11 

9/11 

9/6 

9/6 

9/6 

9/5 

9/6 

9/13 

9/13 

9/11 

9/7 

9/4 

9/7 

9/5 

9/1 

9/4 

9/7 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/15 
6/15 
6/22 
6/8 
6/14 
6/8 
6/15 
6/15 
6/15 
6/8 
6/15 
6/21 
6/15 
6/15 
6/15 
6/19 
6/8 
i6/14 
6/1 
6/12 
6/7 
5/31 
5/31 

6/20 



COUNTY 



County Average. 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Howard 

Washington 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Kent 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester. 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Baltimore City 

State Average 



Average D^ys in 
Session 



White 
High 
Schools 



187.0 

193.0 
192.7 
189.2 
188.0 
188.5 
187.7 
187.0 
186.3 
188.5 
186.4 
185.2 
185.3 
184.8 
185.0 
183.8 
183.2 
183.1 
183.0 
183.9 
183.2 
182.6 
182.5 
180.0 

190.0 

188.1 



a High schools 6/12 and 6/13. 

The number of schools for white pupils open fewer than 180 days, 
the required number, showed a slight increase over 1933, which had 
the lowest number ever reported. Cecil County had four one-teacher 
schools open from 177 to 179 days. Frederick, Howard, Kent and 
Prince George's each had one school open fewer than the required 
number of days. (See Ta ble 10.) 



18 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 10 

Number of County White Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 Days, 
Year Ending July 31, 1934 



For All Counties by Year 

Having 
Having More 
Total One Than One 



Year No. Teacher Teacher 

1926 124 109 15 

1927 83 68 15 

1928 33 25 8 

1929 62 45 17 

1930 28 22 6 

1931 12 7 5 

1932 9 8 1 

1933. 5 2 3 

1934 8 6 2 



For 1934 by County 

Having 
Having More 
Total One Than One 



County No. Teacher Teacher 

Frederick 1 1 

Howard 1 1 

Kent 1 1 

Prince George's 1 1 

Cecil 4 4 



1934 PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE LOWER 

The difficult weather conditions and impassable roads account 
in part for the drop in the percentage of attendance in county white 
elementary schools from 1933 to 1934. The average attendance was 
90.5 per cent with a range among the counties from 80.9 to 92.5 per 
cent. Only three counties, CaroUne, Queen Anne's, and Dorchester, 
did not have a lower attendance in 1934 than they had in 1933. (See 
Table 11.) 

TABLE 11 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elemeniary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1932, 1933, and 1934 



County 


1923 


1932 


1933 


1934 


County Average 


84.2 


91.4 


92.2 


90.5 


Allegany 


89.0 


*92.3 


*94.1 


*92.5 


Caroline 


86.5 


92.5 


92.0 


t92.1 


Talbot 


85.8 


92.1 


92.8 


92.0 


Washington 


84.9 


*91.3 


*92.7 


*91.5 


Kent 


86.7 


92.8 


92.4 


91.4 


Queen Anne's 


85.4 


91.0 


90.6 


91.3 


Garrett 


83.9 


92.4 


92.7 


91.1 


Prince George's 


84.9 


t93.0 


t93.5 


t91.1 


Frederick 


83.6 


t91.7 


t93.4 


t90.9 


Dorchester 


81.2 


91.4 


90.1 


t90.7 


Anne Arundel 


84.5 


91.8 


92.4 


90.7 


Wicomico... 


86.5 


91.8 


92.4 


90.6 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

Somerset 83.3 92.0 90.6 90.4 

St. Mary's 74.5 92.5 91,4 90.2 

Baltimore 84.0 t90.6 t91.3 t89.8 

Cecil 84.8 91.4 91.7 89.6 

Carroll 79.4 89.8 91.6 89.5 

Charles 79.5 90.6 89.9 88.9 

Montgomery 81.9 *91.1 *91.8 *88.7 

Howard 84.0 90.4 90.9 88.6 

Harford 84.5 90.3 91.8 88.5 

Worcester 83.5 89.5 90.7 88.2 

Calvert 79.9 88.0 88.6 80.9 

Baltimore City 89.8 91.2 91.1 89.7 

Entire State 86.7 91.3 91.7 90.1 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, Grade 7. 

On the average the per cent of attendance was lowest in one- 
teacher schools and highest in graded schools. In Talbot and Anne 
Arundel, however, attendance was lowest in graded schools; in 
Frederick and Worcester, it was lowest in two-teacher schools; 
in Kent, Caroline, St. Mary's and Charles, attendance was lowest 
in per cent in the two-teacher schools and highest in the one-teacher 
schools. (See Table 12.) 



Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools 



19 



TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1933 and 1934, 
By Types of White Elementary Schools 





Schools Having 




Schools Having 








One Teacher 




Two Teachers 




Graded Schools 


County 


1924 1933tl934 


County 


1924 1933tl934 


County 


1924 1933tl934 



County Aver 83.9 91.9 89.8 County Aver 88.3 *92.5 *90.8 





80.9 


90.4 


88.8 


Talbot 


87.2 


94.2 


94.7 


Anne Arundel.. 


.77.6 


94.8 


93.8 


Kent 


84.8 


92.4 


93.3 


Caroline 


88.3 


91.9 


93.0 


St. Mary's 


.79.3 


91.4 


92.2 


Charles 


77.3 


94.0 


90.5 


Frederick 


79.6 


93.7 


89.9 


Garrett 


81.2 


91.4 


89.9 


Prince George's 


83.3 


91.5 


89.7 


Somerset 


81.7 


90.4 


89.6 


Carroll 


78.2 


89.9 


89.0 


Baltimore 


82.3 


89.1 


88.4 


Cecil 


81.7 


89.8 


88.4 


Queen Anne's .. 


82.9 


88.1 


88.3 


Wicomico 


.83.9 


91.1 


88.3 


Allegany 


82.9 


89.9 


88.1 


"Washington 


80.1 


90.2 


87.8 


Dorchester 


81.3 


87.2 


87.6 


Howard 


82.5 


88.4 


86.4 


Harford 


82.7 


90.4 


86.4 


Worcester 


77.0 


86.8 


86.2 


Montgomery 


78.1 


89.5 


84.5 


Calvert 


77.2 


88.5 


79.5 



Talbot 86.7 

Anne Arundel .81.8 

Allegany 88.9 

Garrett 87.7 

Cecil ...86.5 

Queen Anne's.. ..86. 5 

Somerset 83.3 

Caroline 87.9 

Wicomico 86.3 

Prince George's 85.8 

Dorchester 86.7 

Washington 80.6 

Carroll 81.4 

Kent 85.8 

St. Mary's 81.4 

Frederick 80.3 

Howard 81.9 

Baltimore 82.5 

Montgomery 80.5 

Harford 85.6 



95.1 
93.9 
95.4 
94.2 
93.8 

90.1 
92.4 
92.1 
93.5 
92.7 

87.7 
91.8 
91.2 
92.2 
91.5 

91.6 
91.1 
90.4 
91.0 
91.6 



94.8 
93.8 
93.5 
92.9 
91.0 

90.8 
90.8 
90.6 
90.5 
90.2 

90.0 
90.0 
89.8 
89.8 
89.3 

89.1 
88.9 
88.7 
88.4 
87.8 



Caroline 89.9 92.0 +92.9 

Allegany 92.4 *94.1 *92.6 

Washington 88.8 *93.1 *92.1 

Garrett 89.9 93.7 92.0 

Queen Anne's 88.3 91.2 91.8 

Talbot 88.5 92.5 91.6 

Dorchester 89.5 91.4 {91, 5 

Prince George's 89.0 t93.8 t91.3 

Frederick 86.4 J93.6 {91.2 

Wicomico ...89.3 92.6 91.1 

Kent 88.3 92.4 91.0 

Somerset 86.7 90.3 90.5 

Anne Arundel 87.9 92.3 90.4 

St. Mary's 91.0 90.0 

Baltimore 86.2 {91.4 {89.9 



Cecil 87.3 

Carroll 84.3 

Charles 88.4 

Howard 85.8 

Worcester 89.3 



91.8 
91.9 
89.9 
92.1 
91.8 



89.7 
89.5 
89.5 
89.4 
89.3 



Charles 84.3 89.4 85.0 

Calvert 81.7 92.5 83.8 

Worcester 82.6 85.8 80.0 



Harford 88.9 92.2 89.2 

Montgomery 86.3 *92.1 *89.0 

Calvert 87.0 79.8 



* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. { Includes Junior High School, Grade 7. 

t For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 291. 

Attendance by Months 
TABLE 13 

Number Belonging and Per Cent ot Attendance in Maryland County White 
Schools by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1934 



MONTH 



September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Average for Year 



average NUMBER 
BELONGING 


PER CENT OF 
ATTENDANCE 


All 
Elementary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All 
Elementary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


105,933 
108,171 
108,211 
107,961 
107,559 


9,925 
10,276 
10,233 
10,180 
10,146 


11,141 
11,463 
11,495 
11,473 
11,530 


84,867 
86,432 
86,483 
86,308 
85,883 


96.1 
94.1 
91.9 
89.9 
89.7 




94.7 
92.0 
89.7 
89.2 
87.4 


95.5 
93.7 
91.5 
90.1 
88.8 


96.3 
94.4 
92.2 
89.9 
90.1 


107,354 
106,779 
106,177 
105,634 
*97,451 


10,039 
9,894 
9,839 
9,770 

*8,607 


11,582 
11,529 
11,434 
11,414 
*10,454 


85,733 
. 85,356 
84,904 
84,450 
*78,390 


82.8 
88.3 
89.9 
90.1 
93.7 




78.8 
86.3 
90.0 
89.0 
92.4 


80.9 
87.4 
89.9 
89.9 
92.8 


83.5 
88.6 
89.9 
90.3 
93.9 


106,994 


9,985 


11,384 


85,625 


90.5 




88.8 


89.8 


90.8 



* Three counties in which the schools close May 31, report no pupils enrolled in June. 



20 1934 Refort of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average number of pupils belonging in county white ele- 
mentary and graded schools was largest in the month of November 
and thereafter there was a gradual loss of pupils each month. In 
one-teacher schools the peak enrollment occurred in October and in 
two-teacher schools in February. (See Ta ble 13.) 

The per cent of attendance was highest in September and de- 
creased gradually each month until February when it reached its 
lowest point due to the snow storms which made many of the roads 
impassable; thereafter there was an increase in attendance each 
month until the last. In one-teacher schools in May the per cent of 
attendance did not show an increase over April and in graded schools 
in January the per cent of attendance was slightly higher than it was 
in December. (See Table 13.) 

More Pupils Present Under 100 and 143 Days 

The trend showing a steady decrease in the number and per cent 
of pupils present fewer than 100 and 140 days evident since 1924 
was changed in 1934. There was a slight increase over the preceding 
year in the number and per cent of white elementary pupils present 
fewer than 100 days; but for children present fewer than 140 days 

TABLE 14 

County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days, for School 
Years Ending in June from 1924 to 1934 





present under 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


YEAR 




















All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 



NUMBER 



1924 


15,110 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


30,913 


1925 


12,343 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


26,497 


1926 


11,533 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


25,327 


1927 


10,382 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


22,513 


1928 


8,479 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


18,712 


1929 


8,692 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


19.985 


1930 


6,888 


1,566 


S96 


4,326 


15,871 


1931 _. 


5,825 


1,155 


717 


3,953 


13,631 


1932 


5,707 


874 


684 


4,149 


13,180 


1933 


5,045 


685 


550 


3,810 


11,933 


1934 


5,297 


626 


569 


4,102 


13,837 



12,684 
10,502 
9,359 
7,749 
5,989 
5,539 
3,883 
2,733 
2,126 
1,681 
1,717 



5,704 
4,776 
4,196 
3,579 
2,656 
3,121 
2,329 
1,717 
1,613 
1,393 
1,602 



12,525 
11,219 
11,772 
11,185 
10,067 
11,325 
9,659 
9,181 
9,441 
8,859 
10.518 



PER CENT 



1924 


15.0 


23.4 


15.6 


10.7 


30.7 


45.4 


1925 


12.2 


19.6 


13.2 


8.5 


26.1 


39.7 


1926 


11.3 


17.8 


11.9 


8.6 


24.9 


38.1 


1927 


10.1 


16.1 


10.9 


7.8 


21.9 


33.7 


1928 


8.2 


13.3 


8.7 


6.6 


18.2 


28.3 


1929 


8.4 


13.3 


9.6 


6.8 


19.3 


29.4 


1930 


6.6 


9.3 


7.4 


5.8 


15.2 


23.2 


1931 


5.5 


7.7 


5.8 


5.0 


12.9 


18.3 


1932 


5.3 


6.8 


5.7 


5.0 


12.3 


16.6 


1933 


4.6 


6.4 


4.8 


4.4 


11.0 


15.7 


1934 


4.9 


6.2 


5.0 


4.7 


12.8 


17.1 



33.5 


22.5 


29.0 


19.2 


26.9 


19.1 


24.8 


17.1 


19.7 


14.7 


22.5 


16.0 


17.2 


13 1 


13.8 


11.7 


13.4 


11.4 


12.0 


10.3 


14.0 


12.2 



Monthly Attendance; Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days 



21 



the per cent for 1934 increased so that it was close to that for the 
year 1931. {See Table U.) 

The one-teacher schools showed the highest per cent of pupils 
present under 100 and 140 days, while the graded schools showed the 
lowest per cent. (See Table 14.) 

Among the counties there was great variation in proportion of 
white elementary children who attended school fewer than 100 
days. In Queen Anne's, Kent, Garrett, Frederick and Caroline 
less than 3 per cent of the children had less than five months of 
schooling, while in Calvert this was true of nearly 16 per cent of the 
pupils. In Queen Anne's, CaroHne and Kent less than 10 per cent of 
the pupils were present fewer than 140 days while at the opposite 
extreme Calvert had over 31 per cent out two months or more. 
(See Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days 
for School Year Ending July 31. 1934 



per cent of pupils attending 



COUNTY 


All Elementary 
Schools 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


TotalNumber 


5,297 


13,837 


626 


1,717 


569 


1,602 


4,102 


10,518 


County Aver. 


4.9 


12.8 


6.2 


17.1 


5.0 


14.0 


4.7 


12.2 


Queen Anne's 
Caroline 


.4 


8.8 


4.4 


17.0 




8.5 




7.8 


2.8 


9.6 


.5 


5.2 


5.0 


15.2 


2.6 


8.9 


Kent 


2.3 


9.7 


1.3 


5.5 


4.0 


20.0 


2.2 


8.9 


Allegany 


4.5 


10.0 


8.8 


21.4 


3.0 


6.4 


4.4 


9.7 


Pr. George's 


3.1 


10.3 


2.8 


15.3 


2.8 


11.5 


3.2 


9.8 


Garrett 


2.4 


10.3 


2.8 


13.4 


1.1 


7.8 


2.5 


7.8 


Frederick 


2.5 


10.4 


3.2 


9.3 


1.9 


13.5 


2.5 


10.1 


Baltimore 


4.7 


11.0 


3.8 


7.7 


4.7 


11.9 


4.7 


11.0 


Dorchester .... 


4.1 


11.7 


3.9 


16.4 


3.6 


11.2 


4.2 


10.8 


Washington .. 


5.6 


12.6 


11.1 


21.1 


8.4 


15.5 


4.6 


11.1 


Talbot 


5.1 


12.9 


3.9 


10.1 


2.4 


2.4 


5.3 


13.5 


Carroll 


4.0 


13.2 


6.0 


16.2 


5.8 


15.2 


3.6 


12.5 


Cecil 


5.8 


14.2 


9.6 


21.5 


2.8 


7.6 


5.3 


13.3 


Harford 


4.3 


14.6 


6.4 


19.0 


5.0 


17.8 


3.6 


12.8 


Somerset 


6.3 


15.2 


9.7 


16.6 


5.6 


15.0 


5.6 


14.8 


Anne Arundel 


7.2 


15.5 


13.6 


13.6 


4.4 


7.4 


7.3 


16.0 


St. Mary's 


3.6 


15.5 


2.5 


10.5 


4.1 


17.5 


3.9 


16.9 


Charles 


6.0 


16.2 


9.4 


12.5 


7.0 


16.0 


5.8 


16.4 


Wicomico 


6.9 


16.9 


6.9 


21.4 


5.4 


15.5 


7.0 


16.0 


Howard 


6.7 


17.4 


7.1 


20.3 


7.3 


18.9 


6.3 


15.5 


Montgomery 


8.1 


18.1 


11.8 


26.8 


8.5 


18.7 


7.8 


17.5 


Worcester 


6.7 


19.0 


6.9 


28.0 


17.8 


42.6 


5.4 


15.4 


Calvert 


15.7 


31.5 


14.7 


41.2 


9.5 


27.0 


18.2 


32.7 



An analysis of the causes of long absence as reported by teachers 
indicates that there was an increase from 1933 to 1934 in the per 
cent of pupils out because of illness, physical and mental defects, 
also in the per cent out for poverty, indifference and neglect and for 
bad weather and impassable roads. (See Table 16.) 



22 



1934 Report of ^Iaryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 16 

Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence, for School 
Year Ending June 30, 1934 











All White Ele- 




One- 


Two- 




mentary Schools 


Cause of Absence 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 








Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1934 


1933 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 












Mental Defects 


6.0 


5.3 


5.4 


5.4 


3.0 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect 


3.2 


3.9 


2.9 


3.0 


2.7 


Bad Weather and Roads 


2.0 


.8 


.3 


.6 


.3 


Illegally Employed 


.8 


.6 


.2 


.3 


.4 


Other Causes 


.2 


.2 


.1 


.1 


.1 


Total 


12.2 


10.8 


8.9 


9.4 


6.5 


Number Absent 40 Days or 












More _ , 


1,292 


1,283 


7,973 


10,548 


7,324 



FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

The number and per cent of late entrants after the first month of 
school decreased, the number, 2,123, representing 1.8 per cent of 
the enrollment. This continues the consistent and steady decline 
since 1924 when over five and one-half times as many children en- 
tered school after the first month than was the case ten years later 
in 1934. (See Table 17.) 

In one-teacher schools a smaller proportion of pupils than for 
previous years entered late because of employment, negligence or 
indifference, but a larger per cent than for several previous years 
were late entrants because of illness and quarantine. For two-teacher 
schools a larger per cent than for two previous years were late 
entrants because of negligence or indifference, and there was an in- 
crease over the previous year in the per cent late because of just 
moving to the place. Late entrants because of negligence or in- 
difference showed a reduction in graded schools under previous years. 
(See Table 17.) 

Late entrants for negligence, indifference and employment in- 
cluded less than one per cent of the enrollment in fifteen counties, 
while over 3 per cent of the Calvert County enrollment were late 
entrants for these reasons. Many of the counties have reduced the 
number of late entrants by checking from records for previous years 
the families who have neglected to see that their children entered 
school as soon as it opened. The attendance officer has made a special 
campaign by letter and visits to see that these families are notified 
in advance of the date of opening of school of the necessity and ad- 
vantage of having children enrolled at the beginning. (See Table 18.) 



FupiLS Absent 40 Days or More; Late Entrants 23 
TABLE 17 

Causes of Late Entrance in Whice Elementary Schools for School Years Ending 

in June 1924-1934 



YEAR 


ENTERING AFTER 
FIRST MONTH EX- , 
CLUSIVE OF ' 
TRANSFERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
1 PUPILS ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE 
: FIRST MONTH BECAUSE OF 

i 




Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- , 
gence or 

Indif- 
ference 


Just 
Moving 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Illness 
or 

Quaran- 
tine 


Under 

School 
Age and 
Other 
Causes 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



1924 


11,792 


10.4 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


.2 


1925 


9,297 


8.2 


2.8 


2.1 


1.6 


.8 


.7 


.2 


1926 


8,646 


7.6 


2.7 


1.6 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.5 


1927 


7,330 


6.4 


2.2 


1.4 


1.1 


.5 


.7 


.5 


1928 


5,534 


4.8 


1.7 


1.1 


.8 


.4 


.5 


.3 


1929 


6,227 


5.4 


1.6 


1.0 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930 


4,240 


3.6 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1931 


3,020 


2.6 


.8 




.5 


.1 


.3 


.2 


1932. 


2,832 


2.4 


*.4 


!6 


.6 


t.2 


.5 


.1 


1933 


2,236 


1.9 


*.3 


.6 


.4 


t.l 


.4 


.1 


1934 


2,123 


1.8 


*.3 


.5 




t.l 


.4 


.1 



ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



1924 


5,644 


17.5 


7.4 


3.5 


1.9 


3.0 


1.4 


.3 


1925 


4,349 


14.3 


6.1 


3.1 


1.9 


2.0 


.9 


.3 


1926 


3,854 


13.7 


6.2 


2.5 


1.5 


1.9 


.9 


.7 


1927 


3,058 


11.6 


5.0 


2.3 


1.2 


1.3 


.9 


.9 


1928 


2,178 


8.9 


4.2 


1.7 


.9 


.9 


.6 


.6 


1929. 


2,160 


9.9 


4.3 


1.5 


1.1 


.8 


.9 


1.3 


1930 


1,334 


6.9 


3.2 


1.4 




.6 




.3 


1981 


8f5 


4.7 


1.9 


1.1 


.'8 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1932 


586 


4.0 


*1.1 


.9 


n 


T.5 


.6 


.2 


1933 


367 


3.0 


*.6 


.8 


.5 


t.5 


.4 


.2 


1934 


304 


2.6 


*.5 


.6 


.4 


t.3 


.7 


.1 



TWO-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



1924 


2,183 


11.5 


3.9 


2.6 


1.8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 


1925 


1,725 


9.4 


3.2 


2.6 


1.7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926 


1,494 


8.6 


3.5 


1.6 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927 


1,228 


7.6 


3.1 


1.6 


.9 


.6 




.7 


1928 


896 


6.0 


2.1 


1.6 


.9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1929 


926 


6.0 


2.1 


1.1 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930 


710 


4.7 


1.8 


1.1 


■ .8 


.3 


.4 


.3 


1931 


454 


3.3 


1.1 


.8 


.6 


.3 


.3 


.2 


19J2 


373 


2.8 


*.5 


.6 


.7 


t.4 


.4 


.2 


193? 


278 


2.2 


* 4 


.6 


.4 


t.2 


.5 


.1 


1934 


308 


2.4 


*.4 


.7 


.6 


t.2 


.4 


.1 



GRADED SCHOOLS 



1924 


3,965 


6.4 


1.4 


1.8 


1.7 


.5 


.8 


.2 


1925 


3,223 


5.0 


1.0 


1.6 


1.4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926 


3,298 


4.8 


1.0 


1.4 


1.2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927 


3,044 


4.2 


1.0 


1.0 


1.1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928 


2,460 


3.2 


.8 


.8 


.8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1929 


3,141 


4.0 


.8 


.9 


.9 


.2 


.6 


.6 


1930 


2,196 


2.7 




.7 


.5 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1931 


1,761 


2.0 


.*5 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.3 


.1 


1932 


1,873 


2.1 


*.3 


.6 


.6 


t.l 


.4 


.1 


1933 


1,591 


1.7 


*.2 


.6 


-\ 


t.l 


.3 


.1 


1934.. 


1,511 


1.6 


*.2 


.5 




t.l 


.3 


.1 



* Fourteen years or more, employed, 
t Under 14 years, illegally employed. 



24 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 18 



Number and Per Ceni of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indiflference, or Neglect, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1934 





Number and Per Cent Entering School After 


Rank in Per Cent 


Entering 




First Month for Following Reaso 




Alter f irst iviontn tor 
Following Reasons: 


COUNTY 
























XT 

Negli- 




Under 


Negli- 




XT 

Under 




Total 


Total 


gence 


14 Years 


14 Years 


gence 


14 Years 


14 Years, 




Number 


Per Cent 


or Indif- 


or More, 


Illegally 


or Indif- 


or More, 


illegally 








ference 


Employed 


Employed 


ference 


Employed 


Employed 


County Aver... 
Wicomico 


1,008 


.9 


.5 


.3 


.1 








14 


.3 


.2 


.1 




3 


6 


1 


Pr. George's... 


35 


.4 


.3 


.1 




6 


4 


1 


Kent 


8 


.5 


.1 


.2 


.2 


1 


8 


19 


Allegany 


68 


.5 


.4 


.1 




12 


3 


7 


St. Mary's. 


7 


.6 


.1 


.3 


o 


2 


13 


20 


Charles 


10 


.6 


.4 


.2 




13 


9 


1 


Garrett 


29 


.7 


.4 


.3 




7 


15 


8 


Cecil 


24 


.7 


.3 


.2 


.2 


4 


7 


17 


Baltimore.- 


126 


.7 


.6 




.1 


17 


2 


10 


Talbot. 


14 


.7 


.4 


.3 




9 


16 


1 


Harford.. 


38 


.8 


.5 


.2 


.1 


15 


11 


9 


Frederick 


65 


.8 


.4 


.4 




8 


18 


6 


Montgomery.... 


70 


.8 


.6 


.2 




18 


10 


5 


Somerset 


22 


.9 


.4 


.4 


.1 


10 


19 


11 


Anne Arundel 


63 


.9 


.6 


.1 


.2 


20 


5 


16 


Dorchester 


32 


1.0 


.3 


.6 




5 


21 


13 


Worcester.. 


25 


1.0 


.5 


.2 


'.3 


14 


12 


21 


Caroline. 


25 


1.1 


.4 


.6 


.1 


11 


22 


15 


Washington .... 


157 


1.3 


.7 


.4 


.2 


19 


17 


18 


Howard 


31 


1.4 


1.0 


.3 


.1 


22 


14 


12 


Queen Anne's 


26 


1.5 


.6 


.8 


.1 


16 


23 


14 


Carroll 


92 


1.7 


.8 


.5 


.4 


21 


20 


23 


Calvert 


27 


3.3 


2.9 




.4 


23 


1 


22 



















FEWER WITHDRAWALS FROM WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 19 

Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools, for School Year 

Ending in June, 1934 





Number Leaving 


Per Cent Leaving 


Causes of Withdrawal 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded ^ 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Removal, Transfer, 
Death, Commitment 
to Institutions. 


11,447 


1,489 


1,276 


8,682 


9.6 


12.9 


10.0 


9.1 


Total Other Causes.... 


2,897 


297 


250 


2,350 


2.4 


2.6 


2.0 


2.5 


Mental and Physical 
Incapacity...- 


1,185 
910 


83 


83 


1,019 


1.0 




.7 


1.1 




119 


92 


699 


.8 


I'.O 


.7 


.7 


Under 7 or Over 16.... 


437 
221 


62 
22 


44 
22 


331 
177 


.3 
.2 


.6 
.2 


.3 
.2 


.4 
.2 


Other Causes 


144 


11 


9 


124 


.1 


.1 


.1 


.1 





















There were fewer children in 1934 than in 1933 withdrawn from 
white elementary schools for moving away, transfer to another school, 
commitment to institutions, and death, the per cent being slightly 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, White Elementary Schools 



25 



less than ten. The highest per cent of withdrawals for this cause 
occurred in one-teacher schools and the lowest in graded schools. 
(See Table 19.) 

For ''other" causes, mental and physical incapacity, employment? 
being under or over ages for compulsory school attendance, poverty^ 
etc., the number of withdrawals from white elementary schools v/ere 
slightly fewer than for the year preceding, but the per cent with- 
drawn was the same. The per cent withdrawn was highest in one- 
teacher and lowest in two-teacher schools. Withdrawals for mental 
and physical incapacity showed a slight increase, while those due to 
employment and poverty were slightly under those for the preceding 
year. The graded schools reported a higher percentage withdrawn 
for mental and physical incapacity than either the one or two-teacher 
schools and than these schools reported for the preceding year. 
Withdrawal for employment was lower in all types of schools than 
for the preceding year. It was the chief cause of withdrawal in 1933 
and dropped to second place in 1934. This was probably the result 
of the N. R. A. and of the scarcity of work obtainable. (See Table 
19.) 

TABLE 20 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending June 30, 1934 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Queen Anne's 

Howard 

Cecil 

Harford 

Baltimore.. 

Kent 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Garrett.. 

Carroll 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Caroline..._ 

Charles 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Washington , 

Allegany 

Worcester 
Calvert 



Withdrawals 
for Removal, 
Transfer, 
Death or 
Commitment 





Per 


No. 


Cent 


11,447 


9.6 


203 


11.9 


261 


11.8 


355 


10.0 


578 


12.2 


1,683 


9.3 


167 


10.6 


1,037 


11.7 


149 


7.9 


443 


10.0 


535 


9.8 


869 


10.5 


682 


10.0 


254 


7.7 


716 


8.8 


110 


9.6 


217 


9.4 


84 


5.4 


147 


6.1 


504 


12.3 


1,174 


9.5 


1,026 


7.7 


224 


9.3 


29 


3.6 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 







PER 


CENT WITHDRAWING 


FOR 


Total 


Total 






Over or 






Num- 


Per 




Mental 


Under 






ber 


Cent 


Em- 


and 


Compul- 


Pov- 


Other 






ploy- 


Physical 


sory At- 


erty 


Causes 






ment 


Inca- 


tendance 












pacity 


Age 






2,897 


2.4 


.8 


1.0 


.3 


.2 


.1 


12 


.7 


.4 


.2 
.8 


.1 






31 


1.4 


.3 


.3 
.3 






52 


1.5 


.7 


.5 






80 


1.7 


.7 


.5 


.2 


.1 


.2 


338 


1.9 


.6 


.7 


.4 


.1 


.1 


30 


1.9 


.5 


.9 


.1 


.4 




183 


2.1 


.3 


1.2 


.6 






39 


2.1 


.5 


.5 


.7 


.1 


.3 


94 


2.1 


.4 


1.0 


.6 


.1 




116 


2.2 


1.0 


.9 


.2 




.1 


192 


2.3 


.5 


1.3 


.2 


.2 


.1 


161 


2.4 


.8 


1.1 


.4 


.1 




82 


2.5 


.7 


.8 


.6 




.4 


205 


2.5 


.9 


1.4 


,1 


.1 




29 


2.5 


1.1 


.6 


,7 


.1 




60 


2.6 


1.2 


.5 


.6 


.2 


.1 


41 


2.6 


.9 


1.1 




.4 


.2 


71 


2.9 


1.0 


1.2 


.2 


.4 


.1 


122 


3.0 


.9 


1.6 


.2 


.2 


.1 


380 


3.1 


1.0 


1.0 


.6 


.4 


.1 


426 


3.2 


1.0 


1.1 


.4 


.3 


.4 


114 


4.7 


1.5 


1.9 


.4 


.8 


.1 


39 


4.8 


1.3 


1.5 


.4 


1.2 


.4 



26 1934 Report of Mar\xand State Department of Education 

There was least moving about among the white elementary pupils 
of Calvert, Charles, Somerset, Dorchester, Talbot and Allegany, 
while at the opposite extreme Wicomico, Harford, Queen Anne's, 
Howard and Prince George's showed the highest percentage of 
withdrawals for removal and transfer. (See Table 20.) 

Withdrawals because of mental and physical incapacity, employ- 
ment, poverty, etc., varied among the counties from .7 of 1 per cent 
in Queen Anne's to nearly 5 per cent in Worcester and Calvert. 
(See Table 20.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 
In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance thus 
far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and with- 
drawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been arranged 
in order according to their average rank in these three items for 
public white elementary schools. That county is considered highest 



TABLE 21 

An Index of School Attendance in County Whi»e Elementary Schools for School 
Year Ending June 30, 1934 



COUNTY 


FER CENT 


OF 


RANK IN PER c::Nr 

OF 


Attend- 
ance 


*Late 
Entrants 


t With- 
drawals 


Attend- 
ance 


*Late 
'Entrants 


tWith- 
drawals 


County and Average ... 


90.5 


.8 


2.4 








Kent 


91.4 


.5 


1.9 


5 


3 


6 


Prince George's 


91.1 


.4 


2.1 


8 


2 


7 


Talbot 


92.0 


.7 


2.1 


3 


10 


8 


Garrett 


91.1 


.7 


2.1 


7 


7 


9 


Allegany 


92.5 


.5 


3.2 


1 


4 


21 


Cecil. 


89.6 


.7 


1.5 


16 


8 


3 


Queen Anne's 


91.3 


1.5 


.7 


6 


21 


1 


Baltimore 


89.8 


.7 


1.9 


15 


9 


5 


Wicomico 


90.6 


.3 


3.0 


12 


1 


19 


St. Mary's 


90.2 


.6 


2.5 


14 


5 


15 


Frederick 


90.9 


.8 


2.5 


9 


12 


14 


Caroline 


92.1 


1.1 


2.6 


2 


18 


16 


Harford 


88.5 


.8 


1.7 


21 


11 


4 


Anne Arundel 


90.7 


.9 


2.4 


11 


15 


12 


Dorchester. 


90.7 


1.0 


2.5 


10 


16 


13 


Charles 


88.9 


.6 


2.6 


18 


6 


17 


Howard 


88.6 


1.4 


1.4 


20 


20 


2 


Montgomery 


88.7 


.8 


2.3 


19 


13 


11 


Washington 


91.5 


1.3 


3.1 


4 


19 


20 


Somerset 


90.4 


.9 


2.9 


13 


14 


18 


Carroll 


89.5 


1.7 


2.2 


17 


22 


10 


Worcester... 


88.2 


1.0 


4.7 


22 


17 


22 


Calvert 


80.9 


3.3 


4.8 


23 


23 


23 



* For employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the 3mallest percentage of 
late entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. The county 
having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Withdrawals; School Attendance Index; Grade Enrollment 27 



which has a high percentage of attendance accompanying a low 
percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. A county which makes 
no effort to get its children in school when they open and permits 
them to withdraw before the close of the year may keep them in 
regular attendance while they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly 
helping all of its pupils to secure an education less well than a county 
which brings all of its children into school at the beginning of the 
year, discourages withdrawals, and still keeps a high percentage of 
attendance. (See Table 21.) 

ExNROLLMENT BY GRADES 
CHART 1 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLED* BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY lEITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1954 



Grade 


Total 


Kgn. 


440 


1 


16,950 


2 


15,347 


5 


14,862 


4 


15,632 


5 


14,495 


6 


14,026 


7 

8 


13,100 
3,081 


I 


10,629 


II 


8,016 


III 


6,381 


IV 


♦5,495 



I 



Boys 



I 1 Girls 



254 
206 




t Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, and commitment to institutions, and of 
29 boys and 15 girls in special classes. 

* Includes 28 boys and 48 girls, post graduates. 



28 



1934 Report of State Department of Education 



The counties at the top of the Hst in school attendance index are 
Kent, Prince George's, Talbot, Garrett, Allegany, Cecil, Queen 
Anne's, and Baltimore. (See Table 21.) 

The number of white county pupils for the year 1933-34 was high- 
est in the first grade, 16,950, and decreased in each succeeding grade, 
except in grade 4, which had the second highest enrollment among 
the grades. Enrollment in the fourth year of high school was 5,495, 
about one third of the first grade enrollment. (See Chart 1.) 

Compared with the year preceding, the enrollment in grades 1, 3, 5, 
6, 8, the third year of high school, and the kindergarten showed de- 
creases, while enrollment in the other grades was larger than the 
year before. The tables showing declining birth rates and increase 
in parochial school enrollment will partially explain the decreases. 
(See Chart 1 and Tables 5, 6 and 7, pages 14 to 16.) 

The boys (solid black bars) exceed the girls (white bars) in the 
enrollment in the kindergarten and first seven elementary grades. 
Thereafter there are more girls in each grade than boys. (See Chart 
1.) 

The number and per cent of white pupils in each of the elementary 
grades for one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools indicate a 
more even distribution of pupils among the grades in the graded than 
in the one- and the two-teacher schools. The pupils in the upper 
grades of the rural schools in several counties are transported to 
graded schools which partially accounts for the falling off of the 
sixth and seventh grade enrollment in the one and two-teacher 
schools, i^ee Table 22.) 

TABLE 22 

Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools i^By Types) Year Ending June 33, 1934 



GRADE 


*Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent in Each Grade 




One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Kindergarten 






440 






.5 


1 


1,883 
1,508 
1,519 
1,655 
1,365 
1,184 
856 


1,974 
1,664 
1,655 
1,790 
1,612 
1,539 
1,117 
121 


13,093 
12,175 
11,688 
12,187 
11,518 
11,303 
11,127 


18.8 


17.2 


15.2 


2 


15.0 


14.5 


14.1 


3 


15.1 


14.4 


13.5 


4 


16.5 


15.6 


14.1 


5 


13.6 


14.1 


13.3 


6... 


11.8 


13.4 


13.1 


7 


8.5 


9.7 


12.9 


8 


65 


2,895 


.7 


1.1 


3.3 










T-tal 


10,035 


11,472 


t86,470 

















* Exclusive of pupils who withdrew for removal, transfer, commitment to institutions or death 
t Includes 29 boys and 15 girls in special classes. 



White Enrollment Distributed by Grades 



i9 



f 

1 

II 
1 



11 



1 



i 



I iililiilplffiwps ill 



I IN i i 



5 iiissgpsiii'Siipssiis 



11 



Plil 



I ii|=ii?iiiiisBgii=is|i5 



pi 



^ eg' ,-r t-Tt-' 



I |spsili5|iisiiii=iipl || 



1 




! 

i 

II 
ill 

:Eh o 

I 

111 
1 
i 

m 
Ii 



30 



1934 Report of State Department of Education 



The first grade enrollment in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, 
Carroll, Charles, Frederick, Garrett, Kent, Prince George's and 
Wicomico was larger in 1934 than in 1933. There are six counties, 
Caroline, Carroll, Howard, St. Mary's, Somerset and Worcester, in 
which there is a grade above the first with an enrollment in excess 
of that in the first grade. These counties probably show most def- 
initely the influence of declining birth rates, or increased parochial 
school enrollment, or both. (See Table 23.) 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 

The number of white boys graduated from elementary schools in 
1934 was larger than ever before, but for the two years preceding 
there were more girl graduates than in 1934. The boy graduates in- 
cluded 9.3 per cent of the white elementary school enrollment as 
against 10.8 for the girls. The increase over 1923 is very marked. 
The fact that more girls than boys graduate each year is evident from 
Table 24, although the excess of girls over boys graduated is less 
marked than it was in earlier years. (See Table 24.) 

TABLE 24 

County White Elementary School Graduates 







Number 






Per Cent 




Year 


B-ys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923. 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


*10.1 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


no.5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


*10.2 


*9.4 


1932. 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


no.i 


1933 


*5,121 


*5,653 


*10,774 


*9.1 


*10.9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


no.8 


no.o 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 

The per cent of boys enrolled in white elementary schools who 
graduated was as low as 7 in Washington County and as high as 12.6 
in Cecil. Washington, Allegany, and Montgomery Counties have 
the 6-3-3 plan of school organization, but, in calculating the per cent 
graduated for comparative purposes, it is assumed that the 8-4 plan 
exists in these counties in contrast with the 7-4 plan in the other 
twenty counties. The per cent of elementary graduates with an 8-4 
plan would not normally be as high as with a 7-4 plan of organization 
because at the maximum the graduates would be one-eighth of the 
total in one case as against one seventh in the other. (See Chart 2.) 

For girls the graduates included 8.5 per cent of the enrollment 
in Washington County, counted as an eight-grade county, in contrast 
with 15.1 per cent of the enrollment in Calvert County, a seven- 
grade county. (See Chart 2.) 



Graduates from White Elementary Schools 
CHART 2 



31 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN 1934 COUNTY VMTE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENTt 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys 



Total and 5 
Co. Average 


,227 


5,618 


Calvert 


45 


60 


Talbot 


113 


114 


Cecil 




210 


Kent 


76 


88 


Somerset 


133 


124 


Queen Anne's 


81 


88 


Charles 




75 


Montgomer;,-* 


402 


419 


Harford 


232 


229 


Frederick 


412 


403 


Howard 


110 


105 


Garrett 




217 


Worcester 


107 


128 


St. Mar-y's 


58 


54 


Carroll 


258 


265 


Wicomico 


173 


206 


Anne Arundel 


281 


567 


Caroline 


110 


108 


Pr. George's 


377 


417 


Dorchester 


155 


149 


Baltimore 


704 


765 




507 


563 


Washington"' 


597 


459 



Per Cent Girls 




t Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, and commitment to institutions. 
* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 



82 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Promotions in the first or second year of junior high school as 
well as from grade 7 or 8 are included as graduates. 

In every county except Charles the per cent of graduates in the 
total white elementary enrollment is higher for girls than for boys. 
(See Chart 2.) 

In general the number and per cent of graduates in the total white 
elementary enrollment is lowest in one-teacher schools and highest 
in graded schools. Among the individual counties there are excep- 
tions, but in the counties where the rural schools appear to graduate 
a larger proportion than the graded schools, the numbers involved 
in the rural schools are in almost every case exceedingly small. 
(See Table 25.) 



TABLE 25 

County White Elementary School Graduates in 1934 by Types of Schools 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


COUNTY 


One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 






Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls ^ 


Total and Average 


368 


367 


465 


507 


4,394 


4,744 


6.9 


7.7 


7.8 


9.2 


9.8 


11.4 


Calvert.. _ 




1 


13 


16 


32 


43 




7.1 


11.5 


16.3 


12.6 


15.0 


Talbot 


6 


1 


5 


107 


108 


6.5 


1.2 


22.7 


13.3 


15.3 


Cecil..... 


35 


36 


30 


36 


144 


138 


10.5 


10.3 


11.5 


14.8 


13.6 


14.1 


Kent 


19 


13 


8 


15 


49 


60 


10.3 


10.4 


8.3 


14.4 


9.9 


14.5 


Somerset... 


13 


20 


15 


19 


105 


85 


6.0 


11.6 


9.8 


14.2 


12.4 


11.5 


Queen Anne's 


9 


6 


11 


12 


61 


70 


12.2 


9.8 


8.9 


9.8 


10.7 


12.7 


Charles 


3 


5 


12 


10 


76 


60 


20.0 


29.4 


12.0 


11.5 


11.3 


10.2 


Montgomery 


6 


4 


20 


14 


*376 


*401 


3.0 


2.2 


5.0 


4.1 


*11.7 


*13.1 


Harford 


24 


32 


30 


40 


178 


157 


6.6 


10.0 


8.3 


12.7 


12.1 


11.8 


Frederick.. 


10 


18 


40 


38 


362 


347 


6.9 


13.3 


10.0 


11.1 


10.9 


11.3 


Howard.. 


22 


16 


19 


21 


69 


68 


9.0 


7.2 


9.8 


10.3 


11.9 


12.6 


Garrett 


102 


93 


27 


30 


84 


94 


10.8 


10.7 


S.9 


10.7 


10.0 


12.2 


Worcester 


3 


2 


2 


2 


102 


124 


3.3 


2.0 


2.0 


2.1 


10.6 


14.9 


St. Mary's 


12 


15 


36 


30 


10 


9 


7.3 


13.5 


11.3 


11.1 


9.8 


11.8 


Carroll 


3 


5 


27 


11 


228 


249 


1.0 


2.2 


11.9 


5.9 


11.2 


13.1 


Wicomico... 


33 


34 


20 


21 


125 


151 


9.9 


12.2 


13.9 


15.7 


9.1 


11.4 


Anne Arundel 


2 


3 


10 


13 


269 


351 


9.1 


8.1 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


13.0 








16 


15 


94 


93 






8.9 


9.3 


11.4 


12.7 


Prince George's 


20 


19 


44 


41 


313 


357 


9.5 


8.9 


10.6 


10.3 


9.1 


11.4 




17 


16 


13 


23 


103 


110 


6.7 


7.0 


6.2 


11.1 


9.2 


10.8 


Baltimore 


1 


1 


29 


36 


674 


728 


.8 


1.1 


4.4 


6.2 


8.7 


10.1 


Allegany 


13 


11 


11 


9 


*483 


*548 


4.5 


4.1 


2.4 


2.1 


*8.6 


*10.3 


Washington 


15 


16 


32 


50 


*350 


*393 


2.6 


2.9 


5.4 


8.7 


*7.7 


*9.1 



* Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in iunior high schools. 



NON-PROMOTIONS INCREASE 

The number of county white elementary boys and girls who failed 
to be promoted is larger than at any time since 1924. Nearly one 
fifth of the boys and 13 per cent of the girls were not considered ready 
for work of the grade above the one in which they were enrolled in 
1933-34. (See Table 26.) 



Graduates and Non-Promotions, White Elementary Schools 33 

TABLE 26 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Schools 







Number 






Per Cent 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926..... 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 
8,962 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 



Among the counties non-promotions ranged from 11.1% of the boys 
in Montgomery to 29.2 in Washington County. For girls the range 
was not quite so great — from 6.8 per cent in Howard to 20 per cent 
in Washington County. Without exception in every county the 
number and per cent of boys not promoted were higher than the 
corresponding figures for girls. (See Chart 3.) 

Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Calvert, Allegany, Carroll, Queen 
Anne's, and Howard all decreased the number and per cent of non- 
promotions of boys and girls under those reported for 1933; Mont- 
gomery and Charles reduced failures of boys only, while Caroline, 
Worcester, Somerset and Cecil decreased them for girls only. (See 
Chart 3.) 

For the counties as a group there was little difference in the per 
cent of non-promotions for the boys and for the girls in one-teacher, 
two-teacher and graded schools. However, variations in non-pro- 
motions among individual counties were very great. For boys in 
one-teacher schools less than ten per cent were not promoted in 
Frederick and Talbot, while over one-fourth did work too poor to 
warrant promotion in Washington, Anne Arundel, Worcester, Dor- 
chester and Allegany. Less than 5 per cent of the Frederick, Talbot, 
and Queen Anne's girls in one-teacher schools. failed to be promoted; 
on the other hand over one fifth of the girls in Anne Arundel, Cal- 
vert, and Washington failed. (See Table 27.) 

In two-teacher schools nearly half of the Worcester County boys 
were not promoted and between one-third and one-fourth of the 
Washington, Anne Arundel, Caroline and Dorchester boys were not 
promoted. In contrast, Talbot, Queen Anne's, Cecil and Garrett 
failed less than 14 per cent of the boys in two-teacher schools. In 
Talbot, Somerset and Howard less than 8 per cent of the girls were 
not promoted as against 21 per cent or more in Worcester, Wash- 
ington and Kent, (^ee Table 27.) 



34 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 3 



County 



rrj?ffiER AIJD PER CEfJT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED . 1934 

Number 



Total £Jid 
Co. Average 

Montgomerj- 

Howard 

Cecil 

Cueen Anne's 

Karford 

Tslbot 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Kent 

St. Mar>-'s 

Allegany 

Charles 

Pr. George's 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Dorciiester 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Tiashington 



Boys Girls 
11.057 



426 
134 
224 
118 
342 
168 
535 
214 
463 
647 
142 
93 
1,176 
150 
770 
374 



295 
1,775 
392 
280 
766 
1,665 



132 
69 
190 
59 
214 
109 
239 

436 
67 
62 
719 
86 
510 
223 
54 
114 
1,305 
189 
133- 
478 
1,084 



Per Cent Boys EZZZ3 Per Cent Girls 






W///////A 






84 




9.4 




9.6 






7.2 


Y////////A 


11.2 


'V/////////////////A 


1 0.4 i^ili!j^/MiJ^/iJ 


10.3 




12 3 


y////////////////////A 










Y///////////////////////A 














12.9 


y//////////////////////A 




13.6 


y///////////////////////A 


11.1 


y)))))))))))))))))x 


lfi.5 




13.0 


//////////////////////A 


13.5 


V/////////////////////A 


16.4- 


V////////////////////////////A 





In graded schools one-tenth of the boys in Howard and Mont- 
gomery failed while in Washington and Caroline over one-fourth were 
not promoted. Only five per cent of the girls in Howard's graded 
schools were not promoted as against over 26 per cent of the St. 
Mary's girls in graded schools. (See Ta bLe 27.) 

Non-Promotions by Grades 

Excluding the kindergarten from consideration the only grade 
which showed fewer non-promotions in 1934 than in 1933 was the 
eighth for girls. All other grades showed a larger number and per 



Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 



35 



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36 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



cent not promoted than in previous years. Non-promotions in- 
cluded 28.5 per cent of the boys in the first grade and over one-fifth 
of the boys in grades 7 and 8. In the intervening grades non-pro- 
motions of boys ranged between 16 and 19 per cent. (See Chart 4.) 

CHART 4 



NON PROMOTIONS BY GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELIMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE. 1954 



Number 
Grade Boys Girls 



I Per Gent Boys 



EZZaPer Cent Girls 



Kgn. 


3 


2 


1 


2,569 


1,542. 


2 


1,535 


821' 


3 


1,272 


742 


4 


1,430 


975 


5 


1,259 


905 


6 


1,250 


822 


7 


1,377 


812 


8 


327 


177- 



1 , 542 . m^V//////////7^^///////// //////////A 




975 113.1 V////// /////////////A 



812 liz.5 '///////////////////A 



177. 111.5 -/////////////////A 



For girls the maximum per cent not promoted was in grade 1 and 
in other grades the non-promotions ranged between 10.5 and 13 
per cent. (See Chart 4.) 

TABLE 28 

Number and Per Cent of White County Elementary School Boys and Girls Not 
Promoted, by Grades, YeRr Ending July 31, 1934 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 




One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 






GRADE 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Kindergarten 










3 


2 










1.3 


1.0 


1 


295 


193 


320 


192 


1,954 


1,157 


29.5 


21.8 


30.7 


20.6 


28.1 


18.9 


2 


141 


54 


139 


87 


1,255 


680 


17.4 


7.7 


15.6 


11.2 


19.3 


12.0 


3 


140 


69 


120 


68 


1,012 


605 


17.0 


9.9 


13.7 


8.8 


16.6 


10.8 


4 


172 


119 


209 


106 


1,049 


750 


19.6 


15.3 


21.5 


13.0 


16.5 


12.9 


5 


100 


68 


150 


97 


1,009 


740 


14.5 


10.1 


19.2 


11.7 


17.1 


13.2 


6 


109 


58 


133 


75 


1,008 


689 


18.2 


9.9 


16.8 


10.1 


17.6 


12.4 


7 


72 


29 


85 


48 


1,220 


735 


16.1 


7.1 


15.2 


8.6 


21.7 


13.3 


8 


7 


3 


10 


9 


310 


165 


20.0 


10.0 


18.9 


13.2 


21.4 


11.4 


Total 


1,036 


593 


1,166 


682 


8,820 


5,523 


19.6 


12.5 


19.5 


12.4 


19.7 


13.3 



Non-Fromotions in White Elementary Schools 37 

Similar figures for one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools 
are given in Table 28. For individual counties, see Table IX, page 
293. 

Causes of Non-Promotion 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest continue to 
be the chief causes reported by teachers for non-promotion. Nearly 
six per cent of the county white elementary pupils were failures for 
these reasons. 

TABLE 29 



Causes of Non-Promoiions for White Elementary School Pupils Not Promoted 
for Year EnHing Julv 31, 1934 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 

Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Elementary 
Schools 










1934 


1933 



NUMBFR 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 












Lack of Interest 


530 


639 


5,059 


6,228 


6,251 


Mental Incapacity 


337 


431 


2,803 


3,571 


3,316 


Personal Illness 


230 


221 


2,097 


2,548 


1,617 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


176 


197 


1,210 


1,583 


1,376 


Transfer from Other Schools 


87 


117 


752 


956 


871 


Fourteen Years or Over, Employed.... 


107 


62 


529 


698 


773 


Late Entrance 


37 


25 


138 


200 


201 


Other Causes _ 


125 


156 


1,781 


2,062 


2,342 


Total 


1,629 


1,848 


14,369 


17,846 


16,747 



PER CENT 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 












Lack of Interest 


5.3 


5.6 


5.8 


5.8 


5.8 


Mental Incapacity 


3.3 


3.8 


3.2 


3.3 


3.0 


Personal Illness 


2.3 


1.9 


2.4 


2.3 


1.5 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


1.7 


1.7 


1.4 


1.5 


1.3 


Transfer from Other Schools 


.9 


1.0 


.9 


.9 


.8 


Fourteen Years or Over, Employed.... 


1.1 


.5 


.6 


.6 


.7 


Late Entrance 


.4 


.2 


.2 


.2 


.2 


Other Causes 


1.2 


1.4 


2.1 


1.9 


2.1 


Total.. 


16.2 


16.1 


16.6 


16.5 


15.4 



Mental incapacity and personal illness respectively come next in 
importance in bringing about non-promotions and show greater in- 
creases over 1933 than any other causes for failure reported by 
teachers. Nearly five per cent of the pupils failed for these reasons. 



38 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Non-Fromotions; State-Wide Testing White Elementary Schools 39 



Irregular attendance not due to sickness affected the non-promotion 
of 1.5 per cent of the county white elementary pupils. There were 
75 pupils fewer who failed because of employment in 1934 than in 
1933. (See Table 29.) 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest caused non- 
promotion of less than 4 per cent of the children in Talbot, Howard, 
Carroll, Allegany, Cecil, and Montgomery, while over 8 per cent of 
the Caroline and"^ Washington County pupils were reported as failures 
for these reasons. Less than one per cent of the Baltimore, Harford, 
St. Mary's, Queen Anne's and Montgomery County children were 
reported as failures for mental incapacity; on the other hand, 5 or 
more per cent of the children in Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Carroll 
and Washington were not promoted for this reason. Personal illness 
as a cause for non-promotion was most important in Calvert and 
Talbot, but it was least important in Queen Anne's and Cecil. (See 
Table 

Irregular attendance not due to sickness seriously affected the non- 
promotion of over 5 per cent of the pupils in Calvert. Employment as 
a factor in causing non-promotions was most evident in Talbot, 
Dorchester and Worcester. Other causes not listed had a significant 
bearing on failures in Baltimore, Caroline and Queen Anne's Coun- 
ties, {^ee Table ZO.) 

STATE-WIDE TESTING OF COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The IMetropolitan Achievement Tests in Reading, Arithmetic 
Fundamentals, and Reasoning were given in grades 2 (3) to 7 (8) of 
all the counties in October, 1933, at the expense of the State. The 
per cent of pupils who were at standard or above in the various grades 
in all elementary, one-teacher, two-teacher and graded schools is 
shown in columns 2, 4, 6 and 8 in comparison with similar figures in 
columns 1, 3, 5 and 7 for Monroe's Silent Reading Test Revised 
which was given in most of the counties during the school years 1921 
and 1922. (See Tables 31 and 32.) 

In the later testing 59 per cent of all the pupils tested in the 
Metropolitan Achievement Reading Test were at standard or above, 
with a variation among the grades from 47 per cent in grade 6 to 74 
per cent in grade 4. Although the earlier test given is not entirely 
comparable with the later test, it is significant that only 26 per cent 
of the pupils tested in 1921 and 1922 reached the median score made 
by the pupils from whom were derived the norms or standards set 
by the authors of the test. In the Monroe test only 22 per cent of 
the pupils in grade 4 reached or exceeded the median; in grade 7 
nearly 33 per cent of the pupils reached the scores made by 50 per 
cent of the control group from whom the norms were secured. (See 
Table 31.) 

Grade 6 was the only one in which fewer than 50 per cent of the 
pupils in graded schools reached the standard median for the Metro- 
politan Achievement Test in Reading. In rural schools grades 5, 6 



40 



1984 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



and 8 and in one-teacher schools also grade 3 had fewer than 50 
per cent of its pupils reach or exceed the median standard score in 
October, 1933. (See Table SI.) 

TABLE 31 

Comparison of Per Cent of Maryland County White Pupils at Standard or Above 
Who Were Tested in Reading Comprehension in 1921-22a and in October 1933b 
by Grades and Types of School 
(If 50 or more are at standard or above, the figures are shown in bold face) 



GRADE 


All Schools 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


1921- Oct. 
22a 1933b 


1921- Oct. 
22a 1933b 


1921- Oct. 
22a 1933b 


1921- Oct. 
22a 1933b 


Per Cent at Standard or Above 


2 


56.8 


.. 50.5 


56.6 


57.7 


3 


25.7 54.1 
21.9 74.1 

24.6 55.4 

28.7 47.3 
32.6 66.9 
29.6 50.7 


20.8 43.2 
16.2 64.1 

16.8 41.3 

21.9 33.3 
25.4 51.6 
29.4 32.1 


20.1 51.4 
20.9 66.7 
21.4 49.1 
25.0 40.0 
28.9 61.2 
35.3 35.9 


29.2 55.8 
24.5 76.6 

28.3 57.9 
31.7 49.7 
35.5 68.6 
29.1 51.6 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Total 


26.4 59.1 


19.7 47.6 


22.9 53.7 


29.5 61.0 


Number Tested 


2 


7,692 


901 


758 


6,033 


3 


8,609 13,788 
8,317 14,412 
7,665 13,352 
6,454 12,930 
5,742 11,969 
1,231 2,824 


2,206 1,375 
2,039 1,475 
1,794 1,238 
1,394 1,073 
1,115 762 
85 53 


1,232 1,474 
1,256 1,564 
1,079 1,374 
817 1,305 
757 925 
102 92 


5,171 10,939 
5,022 11,373 
4,792 10,740 
4,243 10,552 
3,870 10,282 
1,044 2,679 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 _ 


Total 


38,018 76,967 


8,633 6,877 


5,243 7,492 


24,142 62,598 



a Monroe's Silent Reading Test Revised. 

b Metropolitan Achievement Test 2 for Primary Grades and Test 1 for Intermediate and Ad- 
vanced Grades, 



It will be noted that nearly twice as many pupils were given the 
Metropolitan Achievement Test as took the Monroe tests. In many 
cases it was too difficult for the examiners to reach the rural schools 
in the earlier days when many of the roads were not improved as they 
are today. For example, the earlier testing in Kent and Washington 
Counties was confined to the large graded schools in the county seat. 
However, the number tested in one-teacher schools at the later date 
is smaller than the number tested during the earlier period. This is 
explained by the progress of consolidation of schools possible with 
the development of transportation in the intervening years. (See 
Table 32.) 

Without exception it will be noted that at the later testing the 
per cent of pupils at or above standard is considerably higher than 
for the earlier testing. While the tests are not entirely comparable, 
yet it is fair to attribute a large part of the differences noted to better 
teaching resulting from better trained and supervised teachers. 
(See Table 32.) 



Results of Tests in Reading; Handicapped Children 41 
TABLE 32 

Comparison of Per Cent of White Elementary Pupils in Individual Maryland 
Counties at Standard or Above Who Were Tested in Reading Comprehension 
in 1921-22a, and in October 1933b 

(If 50% or more are at standard or above, the figures are shown in bold face) 



COUNTY 



Total Counties.. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wasihington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



All Schools 



1921- 
22a 



26.4 



Oct. 
1933b 



59.1 



24.9 55.9 
55.6 

38.6 71.1 

20.4 C70.2 

21.3 55.1 

37.5 53.8 

36.5 45.7 
18.1 62.2 
17.9 63.0 

34.4 52.8 

25.7 53.5 

20.1 65.8 

23.2 62.9 

50.3 58.5 

67.9 

17.9 d74.0 
66.6 

14.4 46.8 
15.0 51.9 
25.9 59.2 
20.2 47.6 
62.0 

14.6 55.3 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



1921- 
22a 



Oct. 
1933b 



19.7 47.6 

12.8 40.6 

61.0 

32.4 70.8 

20.2 C50.0 

15.6 46.8 

37.3 54.5 
42.0 

14.4 70.0 
8.8 54.6 

26.3 43.2 

19.7 49.6 
15.2 55.4 
21.2 51.5 

49.0 

55.8 

10.6 

44.9 

13.7 42.0 
8.1 47.3 

16.4 57.1 

29.4 

50.0 

10.7 54.2 



Two-Teacher 
Schools 



1921- 
22a 



Oct. 
1933b 



22.9 53.7 

19.5 49.4 

41.5 

37.8 64.3 

21.5 c77.8 

19.4 47.9 

47.4 

54 . 2 

16.5 56.1 
12.4 62.1 

22.4 51.8 
52.0 

20.5 56.0 

62.1 

57.5 

67.3 

16.1 

57.0 

16.1 50.6 

7.7 47.2 

18.8 51.7 

36.9 

74 . 6 

46.2 



Graded 
Schools 



1921- 
22a 



29.5 



Oct. 
1933b 



61.0 



26.8 57.1 
56.5 

39.8 71.7 
c67.9 

25.2 57.5 
37.6 54.4 

36.5 44.8 

32.6 62.9 

22.9 64.9 
41.5 53.4 

28.3 57.7 

24.2 70.5 

25.7 67.7 

50.3 62.0 
68.8 

20.2 d74.0 

71.2 

42.8 

24.3 53.8 

30.4 59.7 
20.2 50.9 

63.6 

17.4 56.4 



a Monroe's Silent Reading Test Revised. 

b Metropolitan Achievement Test — Test 2 for Primary Grades and Test 1 for Intermediate and 
Advanced Grades. 

c Test given previously in October 1932 to all grades except 4. 
d Test given previously in February 1933 to all grades except 4. 

Fifteen or more counties gave another form of the Metre politan 
Achievement Tests in the spring of 1934. In some counties all 
pupils were tested, but in others only those classes were tested in 
which the median pupil did not reach the national median. Results 
in grades 5 and 6 particularly were not quite so satisfactory as in the 
fall testing. 

SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN* 
Handicapped Children in the Counties 

During the school year 1933-34, special education provisions were 
made by the State Department of Education for 88 physically handi- 
capped children in the counties of Maryland and 7 children in Balti- 
more City. The entire State appropriation of $10,000 was spent on 
these 95 cases, which made the per pupil cost of the program $105.26. 
Children receiving special education were classified as follows: 24 
in two special classes (in Cumberland and Hagerstown), 41 received 
instruction at home, 13 were given transportation to regular schools 
(7 of these were in Baltimore City), 13 received physiotherapy only 
and 4 were provided with special orthopedic desks. Ten of the 

* Prepared by R. C. Thompson, Supervisor of Special Education. 



42 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

special class children were given physiotherapy also. Three full-tine 
teachers, one full-time physiotherapist and 26 part-time teachers were 
employed to give instruction to the children in the two special classes 
and the 41 who were taught in their homes. (See Ta hie 33.) 

TABLE 33 



Services Rendered Physically Handicapped Children by Maryland Dept. of Ed. 



Service 


Physically Handicapped 
Children Receivin'^ 
Special Services 


Members of County 
Stafs 

Giving Special Services 




1933-34 


Fall 1934 


1933-34 


Fall 1934 


Special Classes 


24 


22 


2 


2 


Instruction at Home 


41 


39 


*27 


*25 


Special Transportation 


13 


19 


Physiotherapy Center, 

Equipment, etc 


°17 


"15 


1 


1 


Total 


95 


95 


30 


28 







° In addition to 14 children in special class who also receive physiotherapy. 

* Regular and substitute teachers who give each pupil two hours home instruction each week. 



In the fall of 1934, special educational provisions had been made 
for 95 children — the same number who receivea this service last year. 
This would indicate that the maximum number who can be aided 
on the present appropriation has been reached. (See Table 34.) 

During the year a motion picture illustrating the different phases 
of the program of special education for crippled children in the coun- 
ties was prepared by the Department and exhibited in most of the 
counties of the State, to over 1,500 persons who were members of 37 
civic groups. 

Mentally Handicapped 
Four counties had a total of 16 classes for retarded children dur'ng 
the year 1933-34 — all of these programs were financed entirely by 
the counties themselves, but supervisory assistance was provided by 
the Special Education service of the State Department of Education. 
In the fall of 1934, this number had increased to eight participating 
counties having a total of 22 opportunity classes. The eight counties 
are Allegany, Carroll, Frederick, Kent, Montgomery, Prince 
George's, TallDot and Washington. This is a decided growth and 
indications are that most of the counties will eventually organize 
programs to care for their retarded children. 

Teacher Training 

Courses in Special Education were again offered at the University 
of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University in the summer of 1934. 
Thirty teachers from the different counties in Maryland were en- 
rolled in these courses. 



Special Provision for Handicapped Children 



43 



TABLE 34 

Special Provision for Physically Handicapped Children by Maryland 
Department of Education— Fall of 1934 



County 


Number of Pupils 


Number 
of 

Teachers 


jn 

Special 
Classes 


At 
Home 


Trans- 
ported 


^Jtner oervice 
\ r nysioinerapy, 
Equipment, etc.) 


Total Counties 

Allegany 


99 

1 


39 

2 
6 
8 


1 n 


i o 
i o 


**t28 

1 


Anne Arundel 


1 
1 

1 

1 


Baltimore 






Calvert 






Caroline 




2 




2 


Carroll. 




1 




Cecil 




3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
3 
4 




3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

9 

1 

1 

*4 
2 


Dorchester 








Frederick 




2 
2 




Garrett 






Kent 






Montgomery 








Prince George's 








Queen Anne's 








Talbot 








Washington 


7 


2 




Wicomico 




Baltimore City 




9 














State. 


22 


39 


19 


°15 


**t28 


f95) 



* Includes one full-time teacher of special' class. 

I" Includes one full-time physiotherapist. 

° In addition to 15 special class pupils in Cumberland. 



The practice of having all the special class teachers from the 
counties spend one day in visiting special schools in Baltimore was 
continued in the fall of 1934. On October 25th, 23 county teachers, 
two elementary supervisors, and two attendance officers spent an 
entire day in observing some of the work being done for mentally 
handicapped children in Baltimore. 

Clinical Study of Children 
The chnical study of problem children in rural schools which was 
begun several years ago was continued and improved during the year 
1933-34. Through the cooperation of the Mental Hygiene Society 
of Maryland, psychological clinics were held in 21 of the 23 counties. 
A number of prominent psychiatrists and psychologists who gave 
their services gratis and followed a definite itinerary, provided at 
least two clinics for each county during the period from September 1, 
1933 to August 30, 1934. Hundreds of children were examined and a 



44 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



definite recommendation as to how the school could meet the prob- 
lems of these children was made in each case. 

In addition to the county clinics for the mentally handicapped, 
cooperation was secured through the Maryland League for Crippled 
Children and the two hospitals for crippled children in Baltimore in 
having a number of orthopedic cases cared for. The Division of 
Special Education in Baltimore schools assisted in diagnosing and 
prescribing methods of treatment for several speech defective and 
hard of hearing children from the counties. 

An outstanding piece of work in the clinical study of children is 
being conducted by the Montgomery County School Board, which 
has added to its staff a psychologist and a nurse specially trained 
in dealing with handicapped children. The Montgomery County 
schools with the help of the Mental Hygiene Society of Maryland, 
have gone far toward establishing better services for children whose 
special needs are not met by the ordinary school facilities. 

More Handicapped Children in Baltimore City Provided for 

The opening of the new beautifully equipped William S. Baer 
School for White Handicapped Children and School 176 for Colored 

TABLE 25 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1934 



Kind o«=' 
Class 


No. of 

Classes 


Total 
Admitted 


Returned 
to 

Regular 
Classes 


Average 
Net 
Roll 


Per Cent 
of 

Attendance 


Promoted[Once or 
Twice or# (Making 
Satisfactory Im- 
provement 
No. tPerCent 


Physically Handicapped.. 


39 


White Pupils 
1,019 39 


830 


88.7 


672 


81.5 


Sight Conservation. 
Hearing Conservation.. 
Deaf 


17 
11 
4 
2 
2 
3 


492 
320 
70 
36 
35 
66 


27 
9 
3 


402 
244 
65 
31 
27 
61 


88.8 
89.7 
85.8 
87.0 
89.0 
88.0 


328 
191 
53 
22 
23 
55 


81.0 
81.2 
79.1 
68.8 
88.5 
91.7 




1 
2 


32 
45 


4 
12 


18 

34 


77.0 
91.2 


23 
19 


100.0 
59.4 


Mentally Handicapped ... 


123 


3.380 


19 


2,867 


84.3 


2,310 


81.0 


Opportunity... 

Special Center 

Shop Center 


95 
10 
18 


2,670 
189 
521 


18 

"i 


2,271 
167 
429 


86.3 
81.6 
74.6 


1,900 
115 
295 


82.0 
70.1 
80.1 


Physically Handicapped.. 


10 


Colored Pupils 
200 1 


190 


82.1 


133 


70.0 


Sight Conservation 


3 
1 
5 
1 


79 
23 
85 
13 


"i 


73 
23 
81 
13 


84.0 
78.0 
81.4 
85.0 


46 
20 
59 
8 


61.3 
90.9 
72.8 
66.7 


Mentally Handicapped.... 


35 


1,105 


23 


870 


77.6 


589 


69.3 


Special Center 


18 
5 
12 


526 
172 
407 


21 
2 


464 
109 
297 


81.1 
81.7 
70.7 


334 
72 
183 


72.6 
64.3 
65.8 



t Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or withdrawn in other 
ways. 



Handicapped Children; Teacher Certification 



45 



Handicapped Children opened up numerous possibilities for helping 
handicapped children in Baltimore City. For the second semester 
of the school year 1933-34, Baltimore City had 39 classes for 1,019 
physically handicapped white pupils and 123 classes for 3,380 mental- 
ly handicapped white pupils. There was an increase over 1933 of 
124 pupils in the two additional classes for the white physically 
handicapped. For the additional 443 white rnentally handicapped 
pupils, 11 new opportunity classes were organized and 2 more shop 
centers. (See Table 35.) 

Approximately 81 per cent of the white physically and mentally 
handicapped children not returned to the regular grades or with- 
drawn in other ways were promoted or made satisfactory improve- 
ment. (See r^^/^ 35.) 

In the 10 classes for colored physically handicapped children, 200 
pupils were enrolled, an increase of 3 classes and 44 pupils over 1933. 
The 35 classes for the 1,105 colored mentally handicapped provided 
for 241 more pupils in 8 more classes than were in existence the 
preceding year. The largest increase was found in the opportunity 
classes for the mentally handicapped. (See Table 35.) 

Approximately 70 per cent of the colored physically and mentally 
handicapped children who were not withdrawn were promoted or 
made satisfactory improvement. (See Table 35.) 

The City sent teachers into the homes of 102 white and 24 colored 
children too handicapped physically to attend school. 

CERTIFICATE STATUS OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

Of the 2,741 principals and teachers in county white elementary 
schools who were in service in October, 1934, 205 held elementary 
principals' certificates, 410 held advanced first grade certificates, 
and 2,071 regular first grade certificates, these groups including 98 
per cent of the total.* There was an increase over October, 1933, of 
229 holding advanced first grade certificates. There were 41 teacliers 
holding second grade and 14 holding third grade certificates, a re- 
duction under the preceding year of 4 and 5 respectively in the two 
latter groups. (See Chart 5, Table 36, and T^^/d XI, page 295.) 

The one and two-teacher schools have a slightly larger proportion 
of teachers holding second and third grade certificates than do the 
graded schools. (See Table 36, and for details by counties Table XII, 
page 296.) 



* Elementary principal's certificate — completion of two-year normal school course plus from 2 to 4 

summer terms in addition, plus summer school attendance for renewal. 
Advanced first grade certificate — completion of three-year normal school course or two-year course 

plus four summer terms, plus summer school attendance for renewal. 
First grade certificate — completion of two-year normal school course plus summer school attendance 

required for renewal. 

Second grade certificate — completion of one-year of normal school work beyond high school gradua- 
tion plus summer school attendance for renewal. 

Third grade certificate — completion of twelve weeks of summer school beyond high school graduation 
plus summer school attendance for renewal. 



46 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
CHART 5 



TRAINING OF hhmLAl^lD COUNTY \VHITE ELET/EflTARY TEACHERS 



Number 





Reg- 


Provi- 


OCT. 


ular 


sional 


1921 


1228 


31 1 


1922 


1351 


52 1 


1925 


1633 


32 1 


1924 


1956 


58 1 


1925 


2212 


27 1 


1926 


2414 


24 1 


1927 


2597 


21 1 


1928 


2756 


55 1 


1929 


2814 


16 1 


1930 


2851 


14 1 


1931 


2870 


*15 1 


1932 


2704t 




1933 


2691+ 


° 2 1 


1934 


268 3 1 


° 3 1 



warn % Regular CZZI % Provisional 

EL. PRINCIPALS', ADVANCED, AND FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 




SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATES 



1921 


953 


189 






1922 


894 


175 






1923 


820 


97 






1924 


590 


125 






1925 


517 


55 






1926 


405 


21 






1927 


287 


21 






1928 


184 


8 






1929 


142 








1950 


118 


1 


El 




1931 


75 




B 




1932 


61 




B 




1933 


45 









1934 


41 




D 





THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATES 



1921 


563 


291 




1922 


565 


201 




1923 


520 


124 




1924 


229 


101 




1925 


182 


65 




1926 


161 


46 




1927 


87 


24 




1928 


60 


4 


B 


1929 


41 


5 


a 


1930 


52 







1951 


25 







1952 


19 







1955 


19 







1954 


14 








* Includes 4 suLs.i. tes. 

t Excludes teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior and junior-senior high schools. 
° Cannot hold a certificate. 

For 1934 data by counties, see Table XI, page 295. 



Certification of White Elementary Teachers 47 
TABLE 36 

Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elememary Teachers in Various Types 
of Schools, October, 1934 



GRADE OF 

certificate 


Number in 


Per Cent in 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Elementary 

Principal's 

Advanced First 

First 

Second 

Third 

Total 


205 
t410 
*2,071 
41 
14 


68 
281 
9 
7 


6 
50 
273 
11 
3 


199 
292 
1,517 
21 
4 


98.0 

1.5 
.5 


95.6 

2.5 
1.9 


95.9 

3.2 
.9 


98.8 

1.0 
.2 


2,741 


365 


343 


2,033 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



t Includes 22 holding high school certificates and 1 holding a high school provisional certificate. 
* Includes 1 whose certificate is pending, and 3 who cannot hold a certificate. 



Six counties — Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Garrett, Kent and 
Queen Anne's — have no teachers holding certificates of lower grade 
than first, and Allegany, Prince George's, and Talbot each have only- 
one teacher who holds a second or third grade certificate. (See Table 
37 and Table XI, page 295.) 

TABLE 37 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers, Exclusive of Those in 
Grades 7 (8) in Junior High Schools, Holding Elementary Principals', Advanced 
First and Regular First Grade Certificates in October, 1934, with Comparisons of 
Per Cent for 1933 and 1921. 



CouHty 



Total & Average 

Baltimore 

♦Calvert 

* Caroline... 

♦Garrett 

*Kent 

*Queen Anne's.... 

Allegany 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

*Anne Arundel ... 



1934 



Num- 
ber 

t2,741 

350 
20 
56 
111 
44 
43 
265 
210 
195 
185 
160 



Per 
Cent 

98 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
99 
99 
99 



Increase 
in 1934 
Per Cent 
Over 



1933 



1921 



County 



Talbot. 

♦Dorchester... 
♦Wicomico 

Harford 

Washington 

Howard. . ... 

♦Carroll 

♦Charles 

♦St. Mary's . 

Cecil 

♦Worcester... 
♦Somerset 



1934 



Num- 
ber 

50 
85 
93 
125 
269 
57 
136 
40 
35 
90 
5^ 
65 



Increase 
in 1934 
Per Cent 
Over 



Per 
Cent 

98 
98 
97 
97 
97 
97 
96 
95 
94 
93 
93 
89 



1933 



1921 



41 
80 
76 
59 
70 
72 
69 
80 
78 
66 
76 
67 



t Excludes teachers in grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior high schools 

* Received Equalization Fund in 1933-34. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XI, page 295. 

^ Decrease. 



48 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE BY ELEMENTARY 
TEACHERS INCREASES 

There were 806 county white elementary teachers, 29.4 per cent of 
the staff in service October 1934 who attended summer school in 
1934. This was an increase of 210 over the number attending the 
preceding year and is probably accounted for by the interest of teach- 
ers in higher certification standards which are reached by those who 
complete the equivalent of the three- or four-year normal school 
course. Among the counties the per cent of summer school attend- 
ants ranged from 10 to 50. Only seven counties had fewer than 25 
per cent of their staff attending summer school — Wicomico, Caroline, 
Prince George's, Harford, Anne Arundel, Montgomery and Howard. 
Over 35 per cent of the teachers in Charles, Calvert, Garrett, Somer- 
set, Cecil, Allegany and St. Mary's attended summer school in 1934. 
(See Table 38.) 

TABLE 38 

County White Elementary Teachers in Service in October, 1934, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1934 



County 



Total 

Charles 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Allegany 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Washington 

Carroll 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Queen Anne's.... 

Worcester 

Howard 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel ... 

Harford 

Prince George's 

Caroline...„ 

Wicomico 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1934, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1934 



Number 



ab806 

20 
9 
48 
b27 
*37 
102 
13 
120 
*17 
*82 
41 
13 
25 
57 
12 
15 
t*14 
42 
t31 
24 
**38 
10 
9 



Per Cent 



29.4 

50.0 
45.0 
43.2 



41.5 
41.1 
38.5 
37.1 
34.3 
34.0 
30.5 
30.1 
29.5 
29.4 
29.2 
27.9 
26.3 
24.6 
22.7 
19.4 
19.2 
18.1 
17.9 
9.7 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland 

University of Delaware 

Columbia 

Duke University 

Harrisonburg State "Teachers' 

College 

University of Virginia 

Shepherd State Teachers' College 

George Washington University 

Penn State University 

Catholic University 

University of Wisconsin 

University of Michigan 

Temple University 

Fredericksburg State Teachers* 

College 

University of Akron 

Transylvania College, 

Lexington, Ken 

All Others 

Travel 



Number 
of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



a806 

tt***349H 
*260 
63 
24 
**22 
15 

11 

lOH 
5 
5 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
2 

2 
15 
3 



* Each asterisk represents a supervisor e.xcluded. 

t Each dagger represents one attendance officer excluded. 

a Excludes 6 supervisors and 2 attendance officers. 

b Includes 3 who travelled. 



The University of Maryland attracted 350 of the summer school 
attendants, over 43 per cent of the group. Johns Hopkins drew 260 
or 32 per cent of those who were reported as summer school 
attendants. There were 63 or 7.8 per cent who attended Western 
Maryland College. The University of Delaware, Columbia and Duke 



Summer School, Attendance; Resignations White Elementary Teachers 49 



Universities, Harrisonburg State Teachers College and the Univer- 
sity of Virginia were the out of State schools and colleges which 
attracted the largest number of Marylanders. (See Table 38.) 

Superintendents reported the summer school attendance of 6 
supervisors and 2 attendance officers. (See Table 38.) 

FEWER RESIGNATIONS FROM WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Resignations from October, 1932, to October, 1933, reached their 
lowest point for white elementary teachers with a total of 158 com- 
pared with 399 six years earlier and 201 the year before. Over 51 
per cent of the resignations in 1932-33 were due to marriage, while 
nearly 18 per cent were because of retirement. (See Table 39.) 



TABLE 39 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools* Between October of One Year and October 

of the Following Year 























1.1 




o e T3 


s 










year 


Marriage 


Retirement 


Inefficiency 


Prov. Cert, or Failu 
to Attend Summer 
School 


Illness 


Moved Away 


Death 


Position 
Abolished 


Rejected by 
Medical Board 


Teaching in Anothe 
State or in Private 
School 


Work Other than 
Teaching 


Teaching in Baltim( 
City, in State Norn 
School or Acting as 
Supervisor or Atten 
ance Officer 


Other and Unknow 


Total 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Another 
County 


Transfer to Other 
Types of School 
within County 



1927-28 


148 


14 


31 


37 


24 


10 


10 




1928-29 


164 


27 


27 


12 


14 


8 


8 




1929-30 


136 


27 


23 


15 


15 


8 


7 




1930-31 


122 


19 


37 


12 


9 


14 


6 




1931-32 


83 


24 


23 


9 


9 


9 


7 




1932-33 


81 


28 


12 


1 


4 


1 


7 





25 


43 


30 


27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


48 


35 


23 


18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


34 


36 


9 


20 


330 


23 


47 


12 
34 


15 


10 


11 


21 


276 


22 


19 


2 


2 


1 


24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


2 


3 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 



PER CENT 



1927- 28 

1928- 29 

1929- 30 

1930- 31 

1931- 32 

1932- 33 



37.1 
42.7 
41.2 
44.2 
41.3 
51.3 



3.5 
7.0 
8.2 
6.9 
11.9 
17.7 



7.8 
7.0 
7.0 
13.4 
11.4 
7.6 



3.1 



4.3 
4.5 



6.0 
3.7 
4.5 
3.3 
4.5 
2.6 



2.5 
2.1 
2.4 
5.1 
4.5 
.6 



2.5 
2.1 
2.1 
2.2 
3.5 
4.4 



















2.5 
4.4 


1.5 



6 


3 


10.8 


7 


5 


6.7 


100 


12 


5 


9.1 


6 





4.7 


100 


10 


3 


10.9 


2 


7 


6.1 


100 


5 


4 


3.6 


4 





7.6 


100 


1 





1.0 




5 


11.9 


100 


1 


3 


1.9 






7.6 


100 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high schools are 
excluded from this table. They are included in Table 89, page 112. 



The number of teachers on leave of absence and transferring from 
one county to another is smaller than for any previous year shown as 
is the number transferring from one county to another. There were 
16 teachers who were assigned work in junior or regular high schools 
in the same county. (See Table 39.) 



50 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TURNOVER SHOWS INCREASE 

The number of teachers new to the county white elementary 
schools in 1933-34 was 174, an increase of 25 over the year preceding. 
The per cent of turnover was 6.2 as compared with the very low 
turnover the year preceding, 5.3 per cent. The reduction in the 
number of teaching positions in county white elementary schools 
between October, 1932, and the following October was 29, less than 
for the two years preceding. (See Table 40.) 

TABLE 40 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the 
Elementary Schools of Each Individual County 
During the School Year 1933-1934 





New to 
County 




Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 








Change in 
Number 




Experienced 




C^ounty 


IN O. 


t er 
<^ent 


of 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1932 
to 

Oct., 1933 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


in 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 

Before 


but 
New 

to 
State 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 

or 
Regular 

High 
School 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


*County Total and Average: 
1930-31 


t343 


11.8 


—24 


238 


56 


29 


44 


5 


15 




t275 


9.5 


— 61 


210 


32 


17 


19 


5 


11 


1932-33 


tl49 


5.3 


—81 


102 


29 


2 


10 


6 


10 


1933-34 


tl74 


6.2 


—29 


115 


30 


12 


3 


5 


12 


Caroline 




—1 






Somerset 


1 


1.5 


—3 


1 












Carroll. 


3 


2.2 


—2 


2 


1 










Queen Anne's 


1 


2.3 


—3 


1 












Charles 


1 


2.5 
















Wicomico 


3 


3.3 


—1 


3 












Talbot - 


2 


4.0 




2 












Harford 


5 


4.0 




2 


3 










Garrett 


5 


4.1 


—9 


4 


1 










Kent 


2 


4.4 


—1 




2 










Dorchester 


4 


4.5 


— 2 


3 


1 










Allegany 


13 


4.9 


—4 


11 


1 






1 




Baltimore 


19 


5.4 


— 17 


17 










2 


Anne Arundel 


11 


6.6 




5 


3 


1 


1 




1 


Washington 


19 


6.9 




13 


5 








1 


Cecil 


7 


7.7 
8.6 


+ 1 


5 


1 


1 










17 


+2 


12 


1 


1 




1 


2 


Howard 


6 


9.8 


+ 1 


6 












Calvert 


2 


10.0 


2 












Montgomery 


20 


10.4 


+ 4 


9 


6 


4 




1 




Prince George's 


24 


11.2 


+ 8 


9 


2 


4 


1 


2 


6 


Worcester 


7 


11.9 


—3 


4 


2 




1 






St. Mary's 


5 


13.5 


+ 1 


4 


1 










Baltimore City 


82 


°5.6 


—49 


59 


°18 


1 


4 























* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools are excluded from this table. 
They are included in Table 90, page 113. 

t Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 
° Includes one from a private school. 



The 174 teachers new to the white elementary schools of the 
counties included 115 inexperienced teachers, 30 experienced but 
out-of-service the year preceding, 12 experienced but new to the 



Turnover and Experience of White Elementary Teachers 51 

State, 12 substitutes, and 5 returning to teach in elementary schools 
after having taught in high schools. (See Ta hie 40.) 

The number of inexperienced white elementary teachers ap- 
pointed in the counties reached 115 after having been down to a 
minimum of 102 the year before. (See Ta ble 40.) 

Among the individual counties the number of teachers new to 
white elementary schools ranged between none in Caroline and 24 
in Prince George's, and the per cent of turnover varied from in 
Carohne to 13.5 per cent in St. Mary's. (See Table 40.) 

The largest numbers of inexperienced teachers were appointed in 
Baltimore, Washington, Frederick and Allegany Counties. Mont- 
gomery and Washington employed 6 and 5 experienced county 
teachers who were out of service. Montgomery and Prince George's 
each employed 4 experienced teachers who had not previously taught 
in the counties. (See Table 40.) 

The turnover for Baltimore City white elementary schools in 
1933-34 totalling 82 was 25 higher than for the year preceding. 
There was a decrease of 49 in the number of teaching positions. Of 
those appointed 59 w^ere inexperienced, 17 were experienced, but 
out of service in Baltimore City the year before, and 4 were from the 
counties. (See Table 41.) 



TABLE 41 

Turnover of White Elemeniary Teachers in Baltimore City 



Year 


Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 

White 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 


Inex- 
per- 
ienced 


Who Were Exoerienced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing Year 


In 
County 

Pre- 
ceding 

Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Balto. 
City 

School 


Other 


1929-30 


157 


+9 


137 


6 


9 


3 


1 


1 


1930-31 


176 


+36 


155 


2 


5 


7 


5 


2 


1931-32 


110 


— 75 


67 


17 


9 


4 


12 


1 


1932-33 


57 


—216 


10 


6 






40 


1 


1933-34 


82 


—49 


59 


1 


17 


4 




1 



TEACHING EXPERIENCE LONGER 

The experience of the median teacher in service in county white 
elementary schools in October, 1934, was 8.9 years, an increase of 
.6 over the corresponding figure the year before. In no county was 
the experience of the median teacher under 7 years and in one 
county it was as high as 14.9 years. The experience of the median 
county white elementary teacher was higher in October, 1934, than 
in 1933 in every county except Kent. (See Table 42.) 

There were 135 teachers with no experience, 105 with one year of 
experience, and 75 with two years of experience. The largest group 



52 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Experience; Size of Class per White Elementary Teacher 53 



with 5 years of experience included 206 teachers, which indicates 
how the number of new appointments has dropped off in the past 
few years. (See Table ^2.) 

In one-teacher schools the median experience of 6.5 years is .5 
more than for the year preceding. The median experience in individ- 
ual counties ranged from 1.8 years in Allegany to 14 years in Prince 
George's. Every county, except Allegany, Baltimore, Harford, 
Kent, Queen Anne's and Washington, showed an increase over 
October, 1983, in the experience of the median teacher in these 
schools. The inexperienced group containing 45 had the largest 
number for any one year of experience. (See Table 42.) 

SIZE OF CLASS 

The average number of pupils per teacher and principal in county 
white elementary schools, 36.1, was smaller by .1 than for 1933. All 
of the counties, except Baltimore, Worcester, Charles, Washington, 
Queen Anne's, Garrett, Somerset and Kent, had fewer pupils per 
teacher and principal in 1934 than in 1933. This is probably a result 

TABLE ^3 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1934 





Schools 




Schools 




Schools 




Having 




Having 




Having 




One 




Two 




Three or 


County 


Teacher 


County 


Teachers 


County 


More 
Teachers 



County Average 26.5 

Baltimore 33.9 

Calvert 33.1 

Charles 32.5 

Wicomico 31.2 

Anne Arundel 28.9 

Garrett 28.1 

Cecil 27.8 

Caroline 27.4 

Howard 27.1 

Frederick 26.5 

Prince George's 26.5 

Washington 26.0 

Harford 25.9 

Somerset 25.9 

Carroll 25.6 

St. Mary's 25.6 

Allegany 25.5 

Dorchester 25.0 

Kent 23.6 

Worcester 23.6 

Montgomery 22.9 

Talbot 22.4 

Queen Anne's. 22.1 



County Average 31.4 

Garrett 40.4 

Baltimore 38.5 

Calvert 34.8 

Washington 33.9 

Frederick 33.8 

Allegany 33.4 

Kent 32.4 

Charles 32.2 

Queen Anne's 31.5 

Cecil. 31.4 

Worcester 31.1 

Prince George's.. 30.8 

Carroll 29.5 

Anne Arundel 29.4 

Howard 29.1 

St. Mary's 28.9 

Somerset 28.3 

Caroline 28.2 

Harford 27.6 

Wicomico 27.6 

Dorchester 26.6 

Montgomery 26.4 

Talbot 20.4 



County Average 38.5 

St. Mary's 43.8 

Garrett. 43.5 

Baltimore 42.5 

Wicomico 40.9 

Cecil 40.2 

Calvert. 40.1 

Worcester 39.9 

Queen Anne's 38.7 

Washington 38.5 

Somerset 38.5 

Dorchester 38.4 

Frederick 38.2 

Carroll 38.1 

Anne Arundel 38.1 

Prince George's 38.1 

Charles 37.7 

Harford 37.3 

Howard 37.2 

Caroline 37.1 

Allegany 36.9 

Talbot 36.7 

Kent 36.0 

Montgomery 34.2 



54 



1934 Report of Maryland Stats Department of Education 



of the decreased enrollment in elementary schools. The range in 
pupils belonging per teacher was from 29.5 in St. Mary's to 42 in 
Baltimore County. (See Chart 6 and Table XVI, page 300.) 

CHART 6 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARI SCHOOLS 



County 


1932 


1953 


Co. Average 


54.9 


56.2 


Baltimore 


40.9 


41.7 


Calvert 


32.2 


40.5 


Wicomico 


35.8 


36.8 


Anne Arundel 


37.5 


57.9 


Frederick 


37.3 


58.1 


Worcester 


34.2 


56.2 


Charles 


56.6 


36.4 


Pr. George's 


54.8 


56.5 


Washington 


55.1 


56.1 


Allegany 


55.5 


36.4 


Carroll 


53.4 


35.9 


Cecil 


55.6 


55.5 


Queen Anne ' s 


55.0 


54.2 


Garrett 


29.7 


51.5 


Caroline 


55.2 


34.4 


Somerset 


32.4 


33.8 


Talbot 


35.4 


55.4 


Dorchester 


52.9 


54.0 


Harford 


52.7 


33.1 


Howard 


50.5 


32.7 


Montgomery 


50.9 


53.5 


Kent 


50.0 


51.5 


St. Maiy's 


27.7 


29.8 


Balto. City 


52.7 


54. 5t 


State 


54.1 


55.5 




t First term 32.8; second term 36.2. 



In Baltimore City the increase in number of pupils per teacher 
and principal brought the average to 35.6 from 34.5 the year pre- 
ceding. This was, however, a decrease from the average of the 



Size of Class, Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 55 



second term for the preceding year, 36.2. All the counties, except 
Montgomery, had a larger number of pupils per teacher and principal 
in graded schools than Baltimore City. (See Cfiart 6 and Table 43.) 

In county one-teacher schools the average number of pupils per 
teacher was 26.5, in two-teacher schools 31.4, and in graded schools 
38.5 pupils per teacher and principal. The range in average number 
of pupils per teacher in one-teacher schools was from 22 to 34 pupils, 
in two-teacher schools from 20 to 40, and in graded schools from 34 
to 44 pupils. (Seer^^/e43.) 

With the exception of Charles, Wicomico and Talbot, in which 
two-teacher schools had the smallest enrollment per teacl.er, the 
average number of pupils per teacher was smallest in one-teacher 
schools and largest in graded schools. (See Table 43.) 

TEACHERS' SALARIES DECREASE 

The average salary per white elementary school teacher and prin- 
cipal which had increased gradually with the additional training 
and experience of the staff, showed its first serious reduction in 
1934. The average salary, $1,122, fell below that paid in the school 
year 1926-27. The temporary reduction of 10 to 11 per cent in the 
minimum State salary schedule resulting from 1933 legislation 
showed its first effects in the figures for 1933-34, which were $107 
below those for 1932-33. (See Table 44.) 

TABLE 44 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher 
and Principal, 1917-1934 

Average Average 

Salary Salary 

Y^ar White Year White 

Endine Elementary Ending Elementary 

June 30 School June 30 School 

Teachers Teachers 

1917._ $491 1926 $1,'03 

1918 542 1927 1,126 

1919 521 1928 1,155 

1920 631 1929 1,184 

1921 - 881 1930 1,199 

1922 937 1931 1,217 

1923 990 1932 1,230 

1924 1,030 1933 1,231 

1925 1,057 1934 1,122 



In the individual counties salaries ranged from $982 in St. Mary's 
to $1,399 in Baltimore County. In six counties — St. Mary's, Dor- 
chester, Caroline, Carroll, Worcester and Howard, all pay ng only 
the minimum — the average salary per principal and teacher was less 
than $1,000. In only six counties at the opposite extreme did the 
average exceed $1,100. All of these counties pay salaries above the 



56 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



minimum schedule required by State law. They include Baltimore, 
Montgomery, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Cecil and Prince George's. 
(See Chart 7 and Table XVII, page 301. 

CHART 7 



County 



AVERAGE SALAKI PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

1931 1932 1933 1934 



Co. Average $1217 $1230 |1231 




Balto. City 1812 1788 1701 
State 1448 1443 1405 B 



* Since the county changed from a twelve-month to a ten-month basis of salary payments at the 
end of the school year 1932-33, the average salary shown includes one-twelfth more than was actually 
earned during the year. 

The average salary in county one-teacher schools was $1,040, in 
two-teacher schools $1,085, and in graded schools $1,142. In the 
various counties average salaries in one-teacher schools varied be- 



Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 



57 



tween $949 in Carroll and $1,345 in Baltimore County, six counties 
having average salaries under $1,000. In two-teacher schools the 
lowest average salary, $938, was paid in Charles County, and the 
highest, $1,410, in Baltimore County. Seven counties had average 
salaries under $1,000 in two-teacher schools. In the graded schools 
the range was from $960 in St. Mary's to $1,399 in Baltimore County. 
In the graded schools of four counties the average salary was below 
$1,000. (See r^/*/^ 45.) 

TABLE 45 

Average Salary Per Principal and Teacher in County White Elementary Schools 
for Year Ending July, 1934 



Schools 
Having 
County One 
Teacher 



County- 



Schools 
Having 
Two 
Teachers 



County 



Schools 
Having 
Three 
or More 
Teachers 



County Average....$l,040 



Baltimore. 1,345 

Montgomery.-. 1,213 

Anne Arundel. 1,207 

Prince George's .... 1,133 

Charles 1,122 

Cecil...... 1,084 

Allegany 1,063 

Kent 1,046 

Washington 1,046 

Calvert 1,038 

Garrett 1,036 

Wicomico 1,022 

Harford 1,019 

Queen Anne's 1,017 

Frederick 1,014 

Somerset 1,006 

Worcester 1,002 

Howard.. 984 

St. Mary's 981 

Talbot 974 

Caroline 974 

Dorchester 964 

Carroll 949 



County Average. ...$1,085 



Baltimore 1,410 

Allegany 1,180 

Montgomery 1,142 

Cecil 1,139 

Anne Arandel.. 1,113 

Prince George's 1,111 

Kent 1,082 

Garrett. 1,074 

Harford 1,061 

Queen Anne's. 1,049 

Wicomico. 1,036 

Calvert. 1,029 

Frederick 1,026 

Washington.. 1,021 

Worcester 1,013 

Talbot 1,003 

St. Mary's 987 

Dorchester 983 

Howard. 983 

Caroline 972 

Somerset 953 

Carroll. 950 

Charles... 938 



County Average. ...$1,142 

Baltimore 1,399 

Montgomery 1,233 

Allegany. 1,183 

Anne Arundel 1,167 

Cecil 1,158 

Prince George's 1,099 

Harford 1,070 

Q leen Anne's 1,0S8 

Washington 1,062 

Kent 1,044 

Frederick 1,030 

Wicomico 1,028 

Somerset 1,020 

Talbot 1,011 

Garrett. 1,007 

Charles. 1,007 

Calvert... 1,006 

Carroll 1,004 

Howard 1,002 

Dorchester 999 

Caroline 998 

Worcester.^ 987 

St. Mary's 960 



In one-teacher schools average salaries were lowest in 10 counties 
and highest in 4 counties. The two-teacher schools had lowest 
salaries in 7 counties and highest in 6 counties. The graded schools 
had lowest salaries in 6 counties and highest in 13. The policy of 
the county in appointing the least experienced teachers in one-teacher 
schools and the most experienced in graded schools probably ac- 
counts for the fact that thirteen counties pay the highest salaries in 
graded schools despite the extra $90 paid to teachers in charge of 
one- and two-teacher schools. The higher salaries of principals of 
large graded schools tend also to raise the average salary for the 
graded schools. (See Table 45.) 



58 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The distribution of salaries paid teachers in county white ele- 
mentary schools in October, 1934, shows a median salary of $1,000 
in one-teacher and graded schools, a reduction of $50 under figures 
for the year preceding. In two-teacher schools the median continues 
at $1,050. The median salary of 202 principals is $1,350, a reduction 
of $50 under the preceding year. The replacement of older teachers 
and principals receiving the higher salaries who retire or resign by 
younger inexperienced teachers accounts for the reduction in median 
salaries. The salary schedule as of October 1933 and 1934, has been 
practically the same. (See Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary Schools Teachers and Principals 
in Service in Maryland Counties, October, 1934. 



teachers in white elementary 

SCHOOLS* 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



2 
1 
2 
6 
1 
8 

114 
18 
47 
40 
66 
17 
23 
3 
1 
1 
6 



365 
$1,000 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



1 

2 
4 
34 
45 
20 
56 
22 
76 
16 
27 
1 
5 
6 
6 
2 
9 
1 
9 



343 
$1,050 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



2 
1 
16 
8 
4 

155 
169 
210 
356 
126 
284 
150 
46 
35 
37 
47 
163 
3 

12 
4 



1,831 
$1,000 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



5 
2 
19 
16 
9 

197 
328 
248 
459 
188 
426 
183 
P6 
39 
43 
54 
175 
5 
30 
5 
9 
1 
1 

1 



2,539 
$1,000 



SALARY 



$1,100 or less 

1,150 

1,200 

1,250 

1,300 

1,350 

1,400 

1,450 

1,500 

1,550 

1,600 

1,650 

1,700 

1,750 

1,800 

1,850 

1,900 

1,950 

2,000..... 

2,050 

2,100 

2,150 

2,200 

2,250 



Total. 



Median. 



* Teachers in Junior High Schools will be found in Table 100, page 125. 



Salaries and Sex of White Elementary Teachers 



59 



MEN TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There was an increase of two men teachers in white elementary 
schools bringing the total for the school year 1933-34 to 211 or 7.5 
per cent of the staff. The proportion of men teachers was larger only 
for the school years ending in 1923, 1924 and 1925. (See Table 47.) 

TABLE 47 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County White Elementary Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923.. 287 9.4 

1924 253 8.3 

1925 2S3 T.6 

1926 224 7.3 

1927 218 7.1 

1928 204 6.6 



Year Number Per Cent 

1929 208 6.8 

1930 195 6.4 

1931 206 6.7 

1932 217 7.2 

1933 219 7.4 

1934 221 7.5 



Allegany, Frederick and Prince George's were the counties which 
added men to their staffs. In Baltimore, Garrett, Washington and 
Carroll Counties there was a decrease in the number of men working 
in the elementary schools. Five counties had no men on their ele- 
mentary school staffs. Washington and Baltimore Counties employed 
40 and 45 men respectively. Over 10 per cent of the staff were men 
in Baltimore, Garrett, Washington, Frederick and Carroll Counties. 
(See Tabte 48 and Table X, page 294.) 



TABLE 48 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


220.6 


7.5 


Harford 


4 
2 
2 
9 
10 

26.6 
7.3 
45.1 
14 
40 

28.3 
20 


3.2 
3.3 
3.4 
4.0 
6.1 
8.0 
8.1 
11.8 
12.2 
13.1 
14.3 
14.6 


Calvert... 


Caroline 

Worcester 


Kent 






Montgomery 


Queen Anne's 






Anne Arundel 


St. Mary's 






Allegany 


Wicomico 






Dorchester 


Howard 


1 

2 
5 
1 

1.3 
2 


1.7 
2.2 
2.3 
2.5 
2.6 
3.1 


Baltimore 


Cecil 


Garrett 


Prince George's 

Charles 


Washington 


Talbot 


Frederick. 

Carroll 


Somerset 





DECREASE IN PER PUPIL COST IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average current expense cost, excluding general control, per 
day pupil belonging in county white elementary schools decreased in 
1934 to $44.36, a reduction of $2.46. The cost per white elementary 
pupil ranged from $37 in Washington County to $58 in Calvert. 
Only five counties spent more than $50 per pupil — Calvert, Kent, 
Montgomery, St. Mary's, and Queen Anne's. (See Chart 8.) 



60 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 8 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEliENTARy SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 
Co. Average 

Calvert 
Kent 

Montgomery 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne' s 

Talbot 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Viorcester 

Cecil 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Somerset 

V/icomico 

Prince George' 

Washington 



1932 1933 1934 
$ 49 $ 47 

59 
59 
61 
59 
58 
50 
53 
52 

50 
48 
48 
49 
48 
47 
48 
50 
52 
50 
44 
47 
44 
48 
43 



Baltimore City 73 
State 58 




* Excludes $73 for junior high and $127 for vocational schools. 

The average current expense cost per pupil of $44.36 was made up 
of $31.07 which was used to pay the salaries of teachers and prin- 
cipals, $1.06 for salaries and expenses of supervisors, $1.41 for books 
and materials of instruction, $3.41 for heating and cleaning build- 
ings, $1.54 for repairing buildings and equipment, and $5.87 for 
auxiliary agencies. The items showing increases over 1933 were books 
and materials, maintenance and auxihary agencies. (See Table 49.) 



CosR PER White Elementary School Pupil 



61 



T-H 1— t r-t T— I »-H y—i y—iOJ ^ CO C<1 >— t r-i 



sasuadxg { 



05 00 U5T-H«DOO(:Ot-Oait-'<:r'--tC<ICOC<10'rtiOtDCOi-iC<J 
tH 1— li— trH »-HrHi-H»-HT— t CO CO COCOrH 



0500T-H0500t-COCO(Mi-(i-l-^CO«OCOCO-^'«t-COOOlC 

T-Hl-ICO i-t rH T-H ,-1 CO T-H T-H CO '-I CO i— I 



O^CO-^UOCOCOiOcOOOt— lt^-COCDT-^T^^OC^la5'-^OOOCO^- 
T-H I 1— I CO i-H 1— I '-'CO CO CO 



Tt';Du:)t-coooa50oo'X)cot--i-tcoT-i-rj<iocoi— iccocooi 

tH 1— I T— I tH r-( CO '-H T— ( 1-H CO CO CO ' 



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JO SC^S03 



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COC^lrHi-H •--( rH,-H,-l^ CO'-^'-t'-' CO 



looococot-ocix)'— iiooscot-a:'^'— 'O'-'co'Tfcocooco 

COi— I'— I C^lrHrH^ 1— IT-H T-l.— t^C^lCO 



uoisiAjadng 



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T-l,-HCO l-tCOCO ^T-H ^,-1 rH C>4 ^ 



IB^JldBO 



CD O <X> 
C^l T-t O 



sasuadxg 



rH 05 t-. C^. ^ CO 00 lO GO OO CO CJ tO CO CO lO tH O tJJ 

U^CDC0*C0C0C0''rl5t>^'rJ<C0C0'c0*'^C0"r^Or-Hi-H,-H^ 

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00 00 00 OJ 



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CO lO CO 



CO 



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^coa5oqt>.cocoT-HrHt-Tto^u^ooo^ou^t^;i-Ht>^-^cooo 
00* co' CO* 00 oi CO t-* o6 CO* CO ai u:5 CO* 1-5 CO* as co' oi 

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to cO'^c^ii— icoOl— icooioooiooocooot-aioooioooo 

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rH ^ 1-1 to rH 



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siioog :ix3j, 



rH co'^O'^oococoi— ii— ioo-»^crsocoL-^oo'^as'^coto-<^co 

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CO 05 CO CO 



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t>; CO CO to 05 O 1-^ to t-^ 00 O O CO CO rH CO CO t~-_ 1-H to O 
CO* 1-3 CO* CO* OO* 00* CO* t— * 05* tr-* 05* CO O CO* t-' O O CO* 05* 05* 05 t>-* 

COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOC^ICOCOC^I 



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to CO o> 



uotstAjadng 



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OOOOOOl— l-^Oi-^COOSCOCOCOOOSOSCOi— tOCOOOCOO 



rH CO rH 



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I— I M <.\» W W Vi/ rJ-< 2Z M ""^ . T . . ^ 1—^ f-l — ' O ""^ 



OJ o 

Jill 



62 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Cost per County White Elementary Pupil for Salaries, Supervision, 
Books and Materials 

Every county through decreases in salary and many also through 
increase in size of classes had a lower per pupil cost for salaries in 
1934 than in 1933. The range in salary cost per white elementary 
pupil was from $27 in Washington County to $37.61 in Montgomery 
County. (See columns 2 and 10 in Table 49.) 

All counties, except Baltimore, Charles and St. Mary's, had a lower 
cost for supervision in 1934 than in 1933. In the three counties men- 
tioned one of the supervisors had received a higher certificate grade. 
In Carroll, Cecil, Frederick and Garrett there was a very great de*- 
crease in supervisory cost per pupil because in the last three men- 
tioned counties one less supervisor was employed and in Carroll two 
less. The supervisory cost per pupil ranged from 48 cents in Carroll 
to $2.86 in Calvert, tl e smallest county. (See columns 1 and 9 of 
Table 4:^.) 

For books and materials of instruction most of the counties spent 
less in 1934 than in 1933, but eight counties, Allegany, Cecil, Charles, 
Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Montgomery and Washington in- 
creased the amount spent per pupil for these purposes. The amount 
spent per pupil ranged from 60 and 64 cents in Baltimore and Anne 
Arundel County to over two dollars per pupil in Cecil and Allegany. 
The State aid for books and materials amounted to 87J/2 cents per 
pupil belonging, exclusive of funds for this purpose available through 
the Equalization Fund. Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties 
therefore spent less for these purposes for white elementary school 
pupils than was available from State funds. (See columns 3 and 11, 
Table 49.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance 

For cleaning and heating buildings the cost of $3.41 per pupil 
belonging was one cent lower than the year before. However, all of 
the counties except 8 spent more for these purposes than they had 
in 1933. Expenditure per pupil ranged from $1.67 and $1.88 in St. 
Mary's and Garrett to $5.47 and $5.63 in Kent and Montgomery 
respectively. (See columns 4 and 12 in Ta ble 49.) 

For maintenance of buildings the expenditure per county white 
elementary school pupil was larger than in 1933 in every county ex- 
cept Allegany, Calvert, Charles, Prince George's and Queen Anne's. 
In most cases these increases are explained by the expenditures made 
by the School Boards for materials used by C. W. A. workers in im- 
proving the condition of school buildings and grounds. A report on 
these projects is included in Ta ble 172 on page 223. Expenditures for 
repairs ranged from less than one dollar per pupil in Caroline, Queen 
Anne's, Somerset, Washington and Talbot to five dollars per white 
elementary pupil in Kent. (See columns 5 and 13 in Table 49.) 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies; 

For auxiliary agencies which cover transportation, libraries and 
health, there were increased costs over 1933 per white elementary 



Analysis of Cost per White Elementary School Pupil 



63 



pupil in all of the counties, except Allegany, Anne Arundel, Caroline, 
Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, St. Mary's and Washington. 
Expenditures per pupil belonging ranged from less than four dollars 
in Washington, Prince George's, Harford and Baltimore Counties 
to over eleven dollars in St. Mary's, Charles, Queen Anne's and 
Calvert, the last named spending nearly $23 per pupil. (See columns 
6 and 14 in Table 49.) 

An analysis of the factors, transportation, libraries, and health, 
which go to make up auxiliary agencies shows the importance of each 
of these elements. (See Table 50.) 

TABLE 50 



Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools— Year Ending July 31, 1934 



rTiTTMTV 

y^yj u IN 1 1 


Transportation 


Libraries 


Health and 
Physical 
Education 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 
per 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
for 
Libraries 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
Health 


Amount 

per 
Pupil 


Number 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total and 




















Average. .. 


29,974 


27.8 


$602,092 


$20.09 


$5,680 


$6.49 


$1.93 


$13,684 


$ .13 


Calvert 


517 


65.9 


17,400 


33.66 


10 


1.43 


.50 


45 


.06 


Queen 


















Anne's 


737 


49.0 


21,690 


29.43 


24 


1.41 


.56 


135 


.09 


Charles 


910 


61.3 


17,486 


19.22 


89 


8.89 


2.22 


225 


.15 


St. Mary's .. 


413 


39.6 


11,869 


28.74 


82 


3.73 


2.35 






Worcester ... 


1,010 


46.4 


20,816 


20.61 


80 


3.81 


1.38 






Kent 


453 


32.0 


13,091 


28.90 


406 


18.46 


9.23 


144 


.10 


Talbot 


615 


35.5 


16,736 


27.21 


55 


3.44 


1.08 






Carroll 


2,327 


47.8 


46,381 


19.93 


129 


2.94 


.94 


81 


.02 


Caroline 


1,032 


49.4 


17,948 


17.39 








35 


.02 


Anne 








Arundel... 


2,902 


47.3 


51.582 


17.77 


40 


1.38 


.25 


1,063 


.17 


Garrett 


970 


24.4 


32,837 


33.85 


496 


6.28 


4.31 




Frederick .. 


2,671 


36.0 


56,743 


21.24 


130 


2.77 


.66 






Dorchester 


1,045 


34.4 


21,252 


20.34 


70 


1.89 


.78 


180 


.06 


Howard 


558 


28.2 


12,474 


22.36 


70 


2.41 


1.17 


150 


.08 


Somerset 


722 


31.9 


13,710 


18.99 












Montgomery 


2,013 


27.2 


38,624 


19.19 


402 


8.37 


1.78 


4,449 


.61 


Cecil 


854 


26.5 


13,659 


15.99 


16 


.40 


.18 




Wicomico . . 


900 


25.1 


13,973 


15.53 


241 


6.69 


2.65 






Allegany 


2,266 


18.4 


44,202 


19.51 


502 


7.50 


1.50 


2,794 


.28 


Baltimore.. 


3,898 


23.8 


59,936 


15.38 


1,930 


31.64 


5.04 


1,055 


.07 


Harford 


655 


15.7 


13,106 


20.01 


201 


3.95 


1.62 




Prince 






George's .. 


1,253 


16.0 


21,521 


17.18 


380 


6.91 


1.78 


1,612 


.21 


Washington 


1,253 


11.3 


25.056 


20.00 


327 


3 . 63 


1.07 


1,716 


.16 



Transporting Pupils Chief Factor in Auxiliary Agencies Cost 

Cost of transporting pupils to school at public expense accounts for 
97 per cent of the amount expended for auxiliary agencies in county 
white elementary schools. The number of county white elementary 
pupils transported, 29,974, was an increase of 1,224 over the number 
transported in 1933. The per cent of all white elementary pupils who 



64 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



were transported at public expense, 27.8, was 1.3 higher than the 
corresponding percentage the year before. The cost to the State and 
counties of transporting white elementary pupils was $602,092, 
which was $8,356 more than was spent the previous year. The 
average cost per county pupil transported was $20.09, fifty-six cents 
less than for 1933. {^ee Table m.) 

There were five counties, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Frederick, Dor- 
chester and Washington, which transported fewer white elementary 
pupils in 1934 than were transported in 1933, but the per cent trans- 
ported increased slightly in Queen Anne's and Dorchester and re- 
mained stationary in Washington. Expenditures for transporting 
white elementary pupils decreased in all of the counties except ten. 
It is note-worthy that in Queen Anne's and Talbot which transported 
fewer children, expenditures for transporting the reduced number 
of children were higher in 1934 than in 1933. In Queen Anne's, the 
cost of new busses was included in calculating per pupil cost. Most 
counties because of the retrenchment in budgets reduced the costs 
of transportation on contracts which expired during the year. (See 
Table 50.) 

In eleven counties the cost per white elementary pupil transported 
was less than $20, being as low as $15.38 in Baltimore County; in 
six counties it was over $20 and less than $25; in six counties it was 
over $25, the highest costs, between $33 and $34, being in Garrett 
and Calvert. In Garrett, because of the isolation of communities in 
the mountains, many small groups of children are carried in private 
cars and in Calvert the motor boat used to transport to Solomon's 
Island is expensive. Costs between $27 and $30 were also found in 
Queen Anne's, Kent, St. Mary's and Talbot. 

The only counties which had increases over 1933 in per pupil cost 
of transportation were Queen Anne's, Kent, Talbot, Frederick, 
Montgomery and Baltimore Counties. There are of course many 
factors which affect the cost of transportation, viz., length of route, 
capacity and crowding of bus, type and equipment of bus used, 
type of roads traversed, period of contract, requirenients regarding 
responsibility of drivers, amount of insurance carried, ownership 
of bus by county or contractor, and others. (See Table 50.) 

Small Amount Spent for Library Books 

All counties, except Caroline and Somerset, made appropriations 
for library books, although the amounts spent would not purchase 
more than one or two books per classroom, with the exception of 
Kent, Baltimore and Garrett Counties. The total expenditures of 
$5,680 made available on the average $6.49 per school and $1.93 per 
teacher. {See Table 50.) 

HELP FROM THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 

In addition to the library facilities of the schools, many teachers 
took advantage of the opportunities for obtaining books from the 
public libraries in the counties and from the Maryland Public 



Cost of Transportation and Libraries per White Elementary Pupil 65 



Library Advisory Commission, now located on the third floor of the 
Enoch Pratt Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

TABLE 51 

Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
Elementary Schools, School Year, 1933-1934 







1 ra 


veling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






(30 to 


35 books i 


n each) 


(1 to 


12 books in 


each) 




Total 














County 


No. of 
Volumes 




Number of 






Number of 






Supplied 




















1 raveling 






IT dUZVclgc: 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


f 1931... 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 


J 1932.... 


9,799 


165 


206 


275 


79 


84 


266 


Total....] 1933... 


16,606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


[ 1934... 


8,609 


96 


128 


225 


91 


107 


210 


Allegany 


afl51 


2 


3 


4 


3 


3 


6 


Anne Arundel 


cbf497 


5 


9 


14 


1 


1 


4 


Baltimore 


ef2,217 


13 


17 


54 


26 


Qn 
oU 


77 


Calvert 


15 






1 


1 


8 


Caroline 


e428 


3 


5 


11 


4 


5 


15 


Carroll 


e564 


13 


13 


16 

9 


2 


2 


7 


Cecil... 


342 


5 


5 


7 


9 


13 


Charles 


cbl55 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


Dorchester 


cef376 


6 


7 


7 


18 


24 


33 


Frederick 


c302 


5 


9 


9 


2 


2 


3 


Garrett 


132 


3 


4 


4 


T 


1 


1 


Harford.. 


cbf658 


7 


10 


14 


3 


3 


4 


Howard 


6327 


8 


9 


10 


2 


2 


2 


Kent 


e210 






6 








Montgomery 


gl,478 


9 


18 


43 


3 


4 


7 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


172 


4 


5 


5 


1 


1 


3 


e45 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


St. Mary's 


97 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


Somerset 


226 


4 


5 


5 


8 


10 


17 


Talbot 


d 














Washington 


dl05 




1 


3 








Wicomico.. 


c44 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


Worcester 


68 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 



a Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. In 
addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of the Cumberland schools and 
supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given schools by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no out- 
side help. 

e Other teachers supplied with books loaned the County Supervisors, 
f Teachers also supplied through school librarian or principal. 

g Silver Springs Public Library supplies the nearby schools from its own collections also. 

The number of volumes loaned by the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission to the white elementary schools decreased 
from 16,606 in 1932-33 to 8,609 in 1933-34, a total loss of 7,997, the 
result of two things: First, the book appropriation was cut 90 per 
cent; second, the State appropriation for transportation was so re- 
duced that borrowers are now required to pay all carrying charges. 
The counties showing an increase in number of volumes borrowed 
were Harfcrd, Kent and Montgomery. One county, Talbot, borrowed 



66 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

no books; however, it has a county library which serves the schools 
and when necessary secures books from the Commission to supple- 
ment its collection. (See Table 51.) 

Six elementary school supervisors borrowed package libraries or 
traveling libraries on special subjects and in most cases circulated 
them among the teachers of their counties. 

Traveling school libraries are collections of books loaned for a 
period of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, 
but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transporting 
the books must be taken care of by the school benefiting and guaran- 
tee of reimbursement for lost and damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned to any- 
one living in Maryland who is without access to a public library. 
These are mailed at the expense of the borrower. 

Fourteen Counties Use Funds for Health and Physical Education 

Although the total expenditures by the counties for health and 
physical education, $13,684, were slightly below those in 1933, four- 
teen counties spent something for these purposes. Carroll and 
Howard with expenditures of $81 and $150 in 1934 were not repre- 
sented in 1933. All of the counties which made expenditures, except 
Caroline, Dorchester, Baltimore and Washington, spent more in 
1934 for these purposes than in 1933. Montgomery with an expendi- 
ture of $4,449 spent on the average 61 cents per pupil, Allegany 
with $2,794 used 23 cents per pupil, while Prince George's, Anne 
Arundel, Washington and St. Mary's, all invested at least 15 cents 
per pupil. Baltimore County reduced funds used for physical educa- 
tion under the auspices of the P. A. L. to $1,055 or seven cents per 
pupil. (See Table 50.) 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH* 

Twenty-two counties had full-time health service at the beginning 
of the school year, 1933-34. The goal toward which the State De- 
partment of Health has striven since 1922 — full-time service in every 
county in the State — was reached in January, 1934, when Caroline 
County went on a full-time basis. The personnel of the twenty-three 
county health departments on September 30, 1934, included 22 full- 
time county health officers, an assistant health officer in Baltimore 
County, 51 public health nurses and 26 clerks. (See Table 52.) 

The health budgets of the twenty-three counties totaled $286,613, 
a decrease of $31,202, under the total for the year which ended 
September 30, 1933. State aid varied from 18.3 per cent in Baltimore 
County to 88.3 per cent in Charles; and inversely county support 

* Report available through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director, State Department of 
Health, and Miss Gertrude Knipp. 



Library and Health Service to the Schools 



67 



from 11.7 in Charles to 73.7 per cent in Baltimore County. Nine 
counties received no aid from sources other than the county and 
State. Howard, with 55.9 per cent of its income derived from private 
sources, Montgomery with 22.3 per cent, Anne Arundel with 20.8 
per cent, and Prince George's with 19.2 per cent had the highest 
percentages of their budgets derived from private agencies. (See 
Table 52.) 

TABLE 52 

Staff and Budget of Maryland Counties Having Full Time Health Service for 
Year Ending Sept. 30th, 1934 



COUNTY 



Total 



Allegany* 

Montgomery* 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Frederick* 

Pr. George's... 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Washington* . 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Dorchester* ... 
Queen Anne's. 

Howard 

Charles 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Carol i net 



Year 
Full- 
Time 
Service 
Started 



1922 
1923 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1927 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1929 
1930 
1930 
1930 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1932 
1932 
1932 
1933 
1934 



Number of 



Nurses 



Clerks 



Total 
Budget 



$286,613 

39,355 
25,894 
25,751 
5,811 
9,335 
8,216 
8,427 
6,922 
9,108 
9,717 
10,944 
22,057 
11,634 
20,256 
8,173 
6,930 
16,273 
7,185 
7,156 
8,516 
7.783 
6,069 
t5.101 



Source of Receipts 



Amount 



County 



$120,826 

28,500 
12,131 
18,984 
2,100 
3,600 
4,190 
1,800 
2,000 
5,020 
4,126 
5,660 
4,500 
4,270 
7,800 
2,000 
2,500 
2,200 
2,400 
1,000 
1,000 
1,500 
2,684 
t861 



State 



$140,770 

10,855 
7,988 
4,726 
3,711 
5,735 
4,026 
5,007 
4,922 
3,068 
5,183 
5,284 

12,966 
5,932 

10,956 
5,630 
4,430 

12,473 
4,485 
2,156 
7,516 
6,283 
3,358 

t4,080 



other 
Agen- 
cies 



$25,017 



5,775 
2,041 



1.620 




1,600 
300 
4,000 



27 
tl60 



Per Cent 



Coun- 
ty 



42.2 

72.4 
46.9 
73.7 
36.1 
38.6 
51.0 
21.4 
28.9 
55.1 
42.4 
51.7 
20.4 
36.7 
38.5 
24.4 
36.1 
13.5 
33.4 
14.0 
11.7 
19.3 
44.2 
15.7 



State 



49.1 

27.6 
30.8 
18.3 
63.9 
61.4 
49.0 
59.4 
71.1 
33.7 
53.3 
48.3 
58.8 
51.0 
54.1 
69.0 
63.9 
76.7 
62.4 
30.1 
88.3 
80.7 
55.3 
81.4 



other 
Agen- 
cies 



8.7 



22.3 
8.0 



19.2 



11.2 
4.3 



20.8 
12.3 
7.4 
6.6 



9.8 
4.2 
55.9 



.5 
2.9 



* Includes cost of branch bacteriological laboratories in counties indicated, 
t January — September, 1934. 

Medical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

Medical examinations and inspections of school children, on the 
invitation of the school authorities, and the control of communicable 
diseases in the schools, constitute an activity of major importance in 
the full-time county health service. 

Complete medical examinations were limited in 1934, as a rule, 
to the children in the lower grades. Children in the upper grades 
were examined at the request of the teachers, or were re-examined to 
check up on the correction of defects. The medical examinations 
were made by the county health officers and were supplemented by 
inspections by the county nurses. 

Examinations and inspections totaled 101,061. Baltimore County 
led with 23,293; Allegany came next with 14,044 and Howard was 
third with 11,657. (See Table 53.) 



68 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 53 

Examinations of School and Pre-School Children by State and County Health 

Officers, 1934 



COUNTY 


No. of 

Visits 

to 
Schools 

by 
Nurses 

in 


No. of 
Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 

or 

In- 


Preschool Children 
Examined During 1934 


Per Cent o'=' Preschool 
Children Examined 


Number 


Per Cent 


Requiring 
Vaccination 
vs. Smallpox 


Not Im- 
munized 
vs. Diptheria 




1934 


spected* 


































White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Wh 


te 


Colored 


Total 

► -i 


8,606 


101,061 


4,583 


961 


31 


.6 


28 





51 


.1 


55 


7 


69 


.6 


51.2 


Allegany 


1,060 


14,044 


800 


9 


44 


.9 


32 


1 


23 


.6 


88 


9 


98 


.3 


88.9 


Anne Arundel 


661 


3,818 


238 


74 


29 


.9 


19 


2 


27 


.7 


64 


9 


58 


.8 


29.7 


Baltimore 


1 394 


23,293 


989 


147 


41 


8 


58 


3 


58 


.4 


46 


3 


66 


.0 


56.5 


Calvert 


110 


1,526 


27 


26 


22 





17 


9 




.4 


3 


8 


22 


.2 






117 


2,461 


71 


7 


26 
3 


1 


7 


4 


46 


.5 




52 


.1 




Carroll 


161 


8,330 


20 




.3 






95 







100 


.0 




Cecil 


66 


1,739 


61 


36 


13 


5 


66 


7 


80 


3 


86 


1 


55 


.7 


83.3 


Charles 


147 


968 


33 


42 


18 





20 


5 


66 


7 


83 


3 


69 


.7 


69.0 


Dorchester 


145 


1,838 


25 


2 


7 


3 


1 


2 


84 





100 





88 


.0 


100.0 


Frederick 


563 


2,433 


405 


13 


42 


5 


12 


7 


78 


5 


15 


4 


67 


.9 


15.4 


Garrett 


491 


4,258 


274 




51 


7 






20 


4 






51 


.1 




Harford 


245 


2,135 


252 


45 


44 


2 


44 


1 


62 


3 


57 


8 


69 


.4 


64.4 


Howard 


482 


11,657 


46 


8 


16 


7 


9 


3 


19 


6 


37. 


5 


19 


.6 


37.5 


Kent 


351 


2,522 


67 


120 


33 


7 


100 





16 


4 


62 


5 


47 


.8 


70.0 


Montgomery .. 
Pr. George's ... 


344 


2,754 


198 


42 


21 


7 


18 


7 


24 


7 


2. 


4 


31 


.3 


7.1 


421 


3,748 


233 


102 


20 





25 


4 


81 


1 


84 


3 


70 


.8 


86.3 


Queen Anne's.. 


213 


3,054 


24 


51 


10 


7 


38 


6 


58 


3 


62 


7 


50 


.0 


56.9 


St. Mary's 


308 


2,277 




4 






2 


2 






100 









100.0 


Somerset 

Talbot 


94 
359 
361 
184 
329 


384 
2,504 
1,609 
3,293 

416 


80 


59 
47 


26.1 


31.1 
37.3 


55 





67. 
91. 


8 
5 


68 


.7 


66.1 
12.8 


Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


569 
171 


45.8 
37.6 


87 
10 


9 
5 


84.9 
36.3 


127 


72.2 


23.6 


24.4 



* Includes measuring and weighing. 

The findings in the medical examination of 9,706 children in the 
pubhc and parochial schools in Baltimore County during the school 
year may be regarded as characteristic of those in other counties. 
The Baltimore County figures indicate steadily increasing interest 
and cooperation on the part of the parents in the correction of con- 
ditions discovered. Records kept during the last three years show 
that the percentage of corrections made during the school year of 
1933-34, was 32.9 per cent in comparison with 22 per cent in 1932-33, 
and with 12 per cent in 1931-32. All of the examinations were made 
by the Assistant County Health Officer. 

Children who were ten per cent or more underweight or who gave 
other evidence of malnutrition, comprised 16.9 per cent of the total 
number examined in 1933-34, in comparison with 14.6 per cent in 
1932-33 and 16.2 per cent in 1931-32. As in previous years, the low- 
est percentage of malnutrition was observed among the younger 
children and the highest in the children in the upper grades. 

Examination of Pre-School Children 

Children approaching school age were examined in preparation for 
admission to school at the child health conferences held regularly 
throughout the counties under the joint direction of the Bureau of 
Child Hygiene and the County Departments of Health. Special 
efforts were made during the spring and summer to reach children 



Work of Health Dept'swith Children of School and Pre-School Age 69 



who would enter school in the fall, so that necessary corrections 
could be made before the children started to school. Through the 
cooperation of the County Superintendents, many of the pre-school 
examinations took place in the school buildings. As a result of the 
activities of the public health nurses and the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions, State-wide interest in these examinations has been aroused. 

Additional opportunity to have children examined was afforded 
the parents in the smaller communities by the visits of the Health- 
mobile of the Bureau of Child Hygiene to counties in Southern 
Maryland and on the Eastern Shore during the summer. The staff 
of the motorized health conference included a physician, a dentist, 
and a public health nurse. Arrangements for the visits of the Health- 
mobile were made in each county by the County Health Officer. 

The total number of children examined in preparation for ad- 
mission to school was 5,544, of whom 4,583 were white and 961 were 
colored. Of the total, 1,119 — 20 per cent — were ten per cent or more 
under weight or gave other evidence of malnutrition; and 3,088 — 
56 per cent — needed dental attention. Unfavorable conditions of the 
throat were observed in 2,273 — 41 per cent — and adenoids in 648 
— 12 per cent. Fifty-two per cent of the total — 2,879 children — had 
not been vaccinated against smallpox, and 67 per cent — 3,683 — had 
not been immunized against diphtheria. Parents were urged to have 
all necessary corrections made before the children were enrolled in 
school, in order that they might be free from avoidable physical 
handicaps. Their attention was also directed to the State law which 
will not permit a child who has not been vaccinated against smallpox 
to be enrolled in any public school in the State. They were also ad- 
vised to have their children immunized against diphtheria. (See 
Table 53.) 

Immunizition Against Diphtheria 

CHnics for the immunization of children against diphtheria were 
held in all of the counties. The total number of children protected 
against the disease during 1934 was 26,204. Washington County led 
with 6,104, St. Mary's was next with 3,481, and Anne Arundel was 
third, with 2,680. 

Dental Clinics 

Dental clinics have become a part of the school health service in 
17 counties. Over 16,700 children were examined and 55 per cent of 
the total — 9,182 — were treated at the clinics held under the joint 
direction of the Division of Oral Hygiene of the State Department 
of Health and the State Department of Education, during the school 
year, which closed July 31, 1934. (See Table 54.) The number of 
children examined ranged from 130 in Talbot to 2,156 in Allegany 
County; the number treated from 111 in Talbot to 1,548 in Frederick. 
There was a decrease of 433 in the number treated as compared to the 
total in 1933, for which two factors were responsible — a lessened need 
for service in counties which have had dental clinics for a number of 
years, and a reduction in State and county appropriations. 



70 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 54 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of Maryland 
State Department of Health, August 1, 1933 to July 31, 1934 



County 



Total Counties f 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel._ 

Baltimore 

Calvert°. 

Charles°...„ 

Frederick.... 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent° 

Prince George's^ 

Queen Anne's° 

Somerset" 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Healthmobile*" 



Time Given 
to Service* 



Full 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

o 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Part 

Full, 3 mos, 



Number of 
Children 



Exam- 
ined 
by 
Den- 
tists 



16,777 

2,156 

1,880 
676 
181 
552 

1,553 
210 
376 
700 
473 

1,437 
611 

o 

130 
332 
1,687 
2,140 
1,683 



Treated 



9,182 

1,314 
868 
499 
146 
169 

1,548 
210 
260 
353 
266 

1,090 
248 

111 

332 
754 
118 
896 



Number of 



r illings 

In- 
serted 


Teeth 

JCjX- 

tracted 


Clean- 
ings 


1 reat- 
ments 


Total 

Opera- 

tibns 


15,678 


14,361 


4,443 


1,979 


36,461 


2,498 


3,414 


407 


301 


6,620 


1,782 


1,213 
983 


282 


155 


3,432 


1,259 


174 


119 


2,535 


161 


126 


10 


2 


299 


748 


251 


147 


56 


1,202 


2,691 


2,127 


1,489 
66 




6,307 


364 


361 


17 


808 


604 


352 


277 


66 


1,299 


561 


766 


274 




1,601 


534 


270 


236 


259 


1,299 


944 


1,260 


445 


253 


2,902 


404 


464 


165 


379 


1,412 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


226 


96 


40 


59 


421 


136 


706 


59 


94 


995 


897 


741 


208 


1 


1,847 


1,112 


191 


113 


110 


1,526 


757 


1,040 


51 


108 


1,956 



* The scope of service varies from full and half-time service to one-day clinics conducted once per 
month. Part-time means one or more one-day clinics monthly. 

° See also healthmobile at bottom which operated full-time for three months in Calvert, Charles, 
Kent, Queen Anne's, and Somerset Counties. 

t Excluding duplicates. 

Twelve lectures on oral hygiene were given at the State Normal 
School at Towson, under the supervision of the Chief of the Division 
of Oral Hygiene of the State Department of Health, as a part of the 
course in hygiene. Instruction was given on the physiology of the 
mouth and teeth, diet as related to dentition, dental pathology, and 
mouth hygiene. 

School Sanitation 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department of 
Health made 240 sanitary inspections of public schools during the 
year. 

Inspections were made of sanitary facilities at 34 schools in Charles 
County and 28 schools in St. Mary's County, preparatory to submitting 
applications to the Civil Works Administration for funds to provide for 
necessary improvements to unsatisfactory water supply and sewerage 
facilities. 

A new settling tank and outfall sewer was installed at Huyett. 
An iron removal plant was installed at Van Bibber. 

The regular school inspections are now carried on by the Deputy 
State Health Officers and the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering is 
called on only in matters of a strictly engineering nature. 

During the latter part of 1933, the Civil Works Administration 
was authorized to provide both materials and labor for the improve- 



Dental Clinics; Sanitation; Cost per Pupil by Type of School 71 



ment of water supplies and methods of sewage disposal on school 
premises. Twenty of the twenty-three counties in Maryland accepted 
this opportunity and immediately submitted the necessary projects 
to the State Civil Works Administrator. These projects were ap- 
proved and work began during the latter part of December, 1933, 
supervised by County Sanitary Supervisors representing the State 
Department of Health, and continued until the Civil Works Ad- 
ministration terminated on March 31, 1934. At this time there were 
approximately 717 sanitary school privies partly completed, or 
materials already provided for, which could not be completed by 
C. W. A. labor. A few county superintendents provided this neces- 
sary labor, while in other counties the Maryland Emergency Relief 
Administration consented to complete the projects. Garrett County 
provided the necessary materials after C. W. A. terminated and it 
was learned that all projects of this nature pending would not be 
approved. (See Table 172, page 223.) 

During the year which ended July 31, 1934, there were installed 
at schools in 21 of the 23 counties, 885 sanitary earth pit privies, 2 
septic tanks, and the water supply of 5 schools was improved. Work 
was also either under way or materials were provided for 344 sanitary 
earth pit privies to be completed later. 

Cost Per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 
TABLE 55 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded 

Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1934, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 



One- 
Teacher 
County Schools 

County Average $47.15 

Anne Arundel. 75.90 

Montgomery.. 68.23 

Kent 58.53 

Queen Anne's 53.68 

Talbot 52.47 

Cecil 49.69 

Prince George's . .. 49.58 

Allegany 49.55 

Garrett... 46.58 

Harford 46.45 

Dorchester 46.05 

Baltimore 46.05 

Worcester 45.90 

Washington 44.51 

Frederick.. 44.49 

St. Mary's 43.43 

Carroll 43.22 

Somerset 43.00 

Howard 42.88 

Caroline 42.47 

Charles 41.07 

Wicomico 39.76 

Calvert 34.04 



Two- 
Teacher 

County Schools 

County Average. ...$45. 09 

Montgomery 59.52 

Talbot 56.94 

Worcester 55.70 

Queen Anne's 52.64 

Anne Arundel 52.44 

Caroline 50.18 

Wicomico 50.16 

Dorchester 49.94 

Kent 49.20 

Harford 47.55 

Howard 47.43 

St. Mary's 47.37 

Calvert 46.69 

Cecil 45.78 

Baltimore.. 44.98 

Prince George's 44.20 

Allegany.^ 41.05 

Carroll 40.37 

Frederick 39.74 

Somerset _ 39.65 

Garrett.. 37.54 

Washington 36.45 

Charles 34.44 



Graded 

County Schools 

County Average. ...$42. 61 

St. Mary's 66.25 

Calvert . 60.41 

Kent 54.29 

Montgomery 51.75 

Queen Anne's . 48.85 

Charles. 47.99 

Anne Arundel 45.14 

Talbot.. 44.91 

Allegany 44.09 

Carroll... 43.25 

Baltimore. 42.77 

Howard 42.49 

Frederick 41.93 

Worcester 41.77 

Dorchester 41.21 

Caroline 40.65 

Cecil 40.48 

Harford 40.29 

Somerset 39.74 

Garrett 39.06 

Prince George's 38.83 

Wicomico 38.48 

Washington. 35.26 



72 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average current expense cost per pupil, exclusive of general 
control, supervision, and fixed charges was highest in one-teacher 
and lowest in graded schools for the counties as a group and in Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, Cecil, Montgomery, Prince George's, Queen 
Anne's and Washington. Although in these counties the graded 
schools have considerable expense for transportation, their larger 
classes more than offset the additional cost per pupil resulting from 
smaller classes in the one-and two-teacher schools. The average cost 
per pupil was $47.15 in one-teacher schools, $45.09 in two-teacher 
schools, and $42.61 in graded schools (See Table 55.) 

Among the counties the cost per pupil ranged fl'om $34 in Calvert 
to $76 in Anne Arundel one-teacher schools, from $34 in Charles to 
$60 in Montgomery two-teacher schools, and from $35 in Washington 
to $66 in St. Mary's graded schools (See Table 55.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Over one-half the capital outlay of $295,294 in 1933-34 was made 
in Montgomery County with an outlay of $153,603. Anne Arundel, 
Prince George's, Baltimore, Wicomico and Frederick Counties were 
the only ones having a capital outlay for white elementary schools 
in excess of $11,000. There was no capital outlay for white element- 
ary schools in Dorchester, Kent, St. Mary's, Somerset and Worces- 
ter, and less than $1,000 was used for this purpose in Calvert, Queen 
Anne's and Talbot. In Baltimore City nearly a million dollars was 
invested in white elementary schools (See next to last column in 
Table 56.) 

Funds made available by the PubHc Works Administration were 
used in Montgomery, Prince George's, Baltimore County and Balti- 
more City to supplement county funds allocated to construction of 
school buildings. 

For 1934 capital outlay per pupil in white elementary schools, 
Montgomery stands out with $21, Anne Arundel with over $8, 
Wicomico with $4, and Prince George's with over $3 per pupil. 
(See columns 8 and 16 in Table 49, page 61.) 

The total capital outlay in the counties from 1920 to 1934 inclusive 
aggregates slightly over eleven million dollars. In these years over 
three million dollars has been invested in Baltimore County, 
$1,755,000 in Montgomery, $1,210,000 in Allegany, $1,069,000 in 
Washington County, $940,000 in Prince George's, $882,000 in Anne 
Arundel, $599,000 in Frederick, and $246,000 in Harford. (See last 
column in Ta ble 56.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 879 county white elementary schools in existence at 
some time during the school year 1933-34, a decrease of 32 under the 
number the preceding year. Of the 879 schools, 379 had one teacher 
or less, 30 fewer than existed during the school year before. There 



Cost per Pupil by School Type; Capital Outlay 



-n* 'S'ajwcr. »ccooooo-^ast-i»oeoc^ooow^'^o 

05 t- CO 05 rt" Oi t~ t> ■TJ> O C- OS «0 O O «30 O •>* 00 O O 

cj ooioiomo«o?ooocoiO'^c^o«Di-it-o "p.'^'^.^'O,® 

Ooct~Ti'e»3i-ioocJCiOiW7"'feo»o-v-*u5'-«i"'£»oco 
O w OC .-H ^ i-i 04 t-_^0» >-• »-• o_i-i ^ 

'-<' ^ eo" ^ 



ii< Oi CO 05 »0 ;d 00 o 

Oi t> « 05 --r ey> t- t> -^i" 
N oo^u5 ift^in o^cD <D_o^ 
«5 -^toTt-^ ^^"c^f^'' 



CO 

00 T- 00 N 



00 -^r — < 
■^ooo 

■«l"O00 



t>»ot- ;eoeo :o 



05 

O CO 



CO looocorMeo :N^cooiotococ~t-oocQ'-'05 05i-icO'-< eo 
•-H cocoos i-<ioco ^-HOsio M cc-i <c 

00 »-( 



'Ocooocoeoosoocc-^'-i'^oeot-ust-coec 
cot-co tocoi-HTfeo 
eg 1-1 




o u 



74 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

were 116 schools with seven teachers or more, an increase of 5 over 
the number in 1932-33. (See Table 57.) 

TABLE 57 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of Teachers, 

School Year 1933-1934 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil._ 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery .... 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. .. 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



879 

ab66 
29 
c62 
7 

d21 
44 
40 
10 
37 

e48 
79 
51 

f29 
22 
8h50 

.157 
17 
22 
26 
16 

89 
36 
21 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



379 

*22 
2 
5 
1 
7 
21 
25 
1 

*20 
11 
64 
27 

fl8 
13 
16 
16 
6 
11 
15 



52 



40 





t> 


00 




o 




! 




1 


1 




1 


00 

1 


05 


o 


o 


lO 


1 


7.1- 


1-1 

00 


9.1- 






















1 Ove 


25 


22 


30 


17 


14 


12 


8 


7 


3 


2 


9 


2 


1 


2 


2 


7 


4 
1 


4 


4 

3 


1 
1 


4 


2 
2 

3 


3 


1 
1 






1 
1 




1 






b2 
1 


3 
1 


4 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 






1 






2 


1 




1 


1 


2 




























3 




4 


2 


2 


























3 






1 








1 
















1 


1 


























1 


1 


2 


1 
























1 


1 


2 


2 




1 




1 


1 


1 
















1 




















1 


1 


2 


















1 












3 




1 






























1 


























g2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


hi 




1 


3 












1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


1 






1 
















1 






















































1 




1 
















1 


































1 










4 




2 


1 




1 




2 


hi 




m 
1 








1 


2 


1 


1 


1 








1 
















1 



























































a Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Bruce Junior-Senior High School. 

b Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Green St. Junior High School. 

c Includes the seventh grade of Kenwood Junior-Senior High School. 

d Includes a two-teacher school in which each teacher has only one or two grades. 

e Includes the seventh grade of Brunswick Junior-Senior High School. 

f Includes a one-teacher school with a two-teacher organization. 

g Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Takoma Silver Springs Junior-Senior High School. 

h Includes the seven and eighth grades of Bethesda Junior-Senior High School. 

j Includes the seventh grades of Bladensburg and Md. Park Junior-Senior High Schools. 

k Includes the seventh and eighth grades of South Potomac Junior High School. 

m Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Woodland Way Junior High School. 

* One closed during year. 



Calvert had the smallest number of white elementary schools, 7, 
while Washington County had the largest number, 89. The greatest 
change in number of schools from 1932-33 to 1933-34 occurred in 
Garrett which reduced the number by 8, bringing the total number of 
schools in that county to 79. Queen Anne's had 4 fewer schools, de- 
creasing the total number to 17. Baltimore County had 3 fewer 
schools bringing the number down to 62. Harford, Kent, Montgom- 
ery and Worcester each reduced their number of schools by 2, 
and Anne Arundel, Carroll, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Howard, 
Prince George's, Somerset and Washington each had one school 
less than in the preceding year. (See Ta hie 57.) 



Size of White Elemextary Schools; One Teacher Schools 



75 



Fewer One-Teacher Schools in Counties 

By the fall of 1934 there were 365 schools for white pupils having 
a one-teacher organization. The reduction from 377 for the school 
year 1933-34 was not as great as usual, but the downward trend is 
continued. This means that only one-eighth of the white elementary 
teachers are now in charge of schools having most of the grades from 
1 to 6, 7 or 8. (SeeT^/'/dSS.) 

TABLE 58 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1929-19^4 





County White Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


^er Cent 


1920 


2,9^-2 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


3^037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 - 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16.2 


1933 


2,954 


407 


13.8 


1934 


2,947 


377 


12.8 


Fall, 1934 


2,927 


365 


12.5 



When comparison is made with conditions in 1920 with nearly 40 
per cent of the white elementary teachers in 1,171 one-teacher schools, 
the steady progress of school consolidation will be understood. (See 
Table 58.) 

During the school year 1933-34 the number of teachers in schools 
having most of the grades from 1 to 7 varied between 1 and 64 and the 
per cent of white elementary teachers working with this type of 
organization ranged from 1 to 56 per cent, Garrett having the largest 
number and per cent. For the first time the number of white ele- 
mentary pupils receiving instruction in the one-teacher type of school 
organization was less than 10,000 and included 9.4 per cent of the 
pupils. The number of pupils in one-teacher types of schools was less 
than 100 in Charles, Calvert and Anne Arundel. It was only in 
Washington and Garrett that mote than 1,000 pupils were in this 
type of school. (See Table 59.) 



76 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 59 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Teachers in Pupils in 

One-Teacher One-Teacher 

Schools Schools 

County 

Num- Per Num- Per 

ber Cent ber Cent 

Total and Average 377 12.8 9,985 9.4 

Anne Arundel 2 1.2 58 1.0 

Baltimore 6 1.6 207 1.3 

Charles 1 2.5 33 2.2 

Calvert 1 5.0 33 4.3 

Frederick 11 5.5 291 4.0 

Allegany. 21 6.3 541 4.5 

Montgomery.. 16 7.1 366 5.0 

Prince George's 16 7.5 423 5.5 

Caroline 7 11.6 192 9.3 

Worcester 8 13.8 188 8.8 

Queen Anne's 6 14.0 133 8.8 



Teachers in Pupils in 

One-Teacher One-Teacher 

Schools Schools 

County 

Num- Per Num- Per 

ber Cent ber Cent 

Washington 43 14.1 1,118 10,1 

Carroll 21 15.0 525 10.8 

Talbot 8 15.7 179 10.4 

Wicomico 19 20.9 592 17.4 

Dorchester 19 21.4 480 16.0 

Harford 27 21.7 699 17.0 

Somerset 15 22.9 388 17.4 

Cecil 25 27.4 695 21.6 

Howard 17 28.5 461 23.7 

Kent 13 29.5 307 21.9 

St. Mary's 11 31.4 281 27,2 

Garrett 64 55.7 1,795 45.2 



TABLE 60 

Number of Schools and Pupils in White One-and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Oct. 1934, Compared with No. of Schools, 1920 



COUNTY 



Total. 



Calvert 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's. 

Worcester 

Catoline 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Howard 

It. George's... 

Carroll' 

Wicomico ! 

Montgomery ..I 
Dorchester . 

Allegany 

Harford.. 

Cecil 

Washington 
Garrett 



One-Teacher Schools 



Number 



1920 

1,171 

32 
44 
41 
40 
33 
33 
38 
25 

111 
24 
48 
28 
30 
42 
97 
43 
39 
57 
51 
51 
57 
81 

126 



Oct., 
1934 



365 

1 
1 
2 
6 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
11 
11 
14 
15 
15 
16 
19 
20 
21 
22 
26 
27 
43 
59 



Pupils, 
Oct., 1934 



No. 



9,702 

32 
28 
47 
199 
136 
154 
204 
178 
243 
241 
263 
345 
383 
384 
382 
555 
483 
604 
593 
631 
752 
1,134 
1,731 



Per 
Cent 



9.0 

4.2 
1.9 
.8 
1.2 
9.0 
7.1 
9.8 
10.6 
3.3 
17.1 
25.8 
15.8 
19.3 
4.8 
8.0 
15.9 
6.4 
20.1 
4.8 
15.3 
23.5 
10.2 
43.5 



Two-Teacher Schools 



Number 



1920 



255 

2 
7 
11 
43 



4 
10 
16 

5 

5 
11 

7 
15 
12 

8 
12 

9 
18 
12 

5 
16 
11 



Oct., 
1934 



343 

6 
6 
10 
30 



10 
2 
24 
8 
20 
10 
13 
26 
16 
10 
18 
10 
24 
24 
12 
34 
14 



Pupils, 
Oct., 1934 



No. 



11,151 

222 
179 
307 

1,215 
250 
267 
277 
41 
804 
258 
565 
269 
428 
805 
488 
267 
528 
283 
833 
683 
412 

1,200 
570 



Per 
Cent 



10.4 

29.0 
12.2 
5.1 
7.3 
16.5 
12.4 
13.4 
2.4 
10.9 
18.3 
55.4 
12.4 
21.6 
10.1 
10.2 
7.6 
7.0 
9.4 
6.8 
16.6 
12.9 
10.8 
14.3 



One Teacher Schooi^; Supervision of White Elementary Schools 77 

The number of one-teacher schools in the counties in October 1934 
varied from 1 in Calvert and Charles and 2 in Anne Arundel to 43 in 
Washington and 59 in Garrett. The greatest reduction in one-teacher 
schools since 1920 is found in Frederick, which has 9 now in contrast 
with 111 in 1920. Carroll, with a decrease from 97 in 1920 to 16 in 
the fall of 1934 has 81 fewer one-teacher schools, while Garrett has 
dropped from 126 to 67 one-teacher schools in the fourteen year 
period. (See first two columns in Table 60.) 

In October, 1934, the number of pupils in one-teacher schools, 
9,702, represents 9 per cent of the white elementary school enroll- 
ment. Less than one hundred pupils in Charles, Calvert and Anne 
Arundel are in one-teacher schools, while Washington has 1,134 and 
Garrett 1,731 pupils enrolled in this type of school. (See third and 
fourth columns of Table 60.) 

The change in number of two-teacher schools from 1920 to Octo- 
ber, 1934, and the pupils enrolled in October, 1934, are shown in the 
last four columns of Table 60. 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1933-34 there were 45 supervising and 
helping teachers employed in the 23 counties for the purpose of im- 
proving instruction in the white elementary schools. This was a 
decrease of 5 from the number employed the preceding year. The 
legislation of 1933 making the employment of more than one super- 
visor in a county optional with the county Board of Education and 
the county commissioners for the years 1933-34 and 1934-35 affected 
the number employed in Carroll. Only one of the three supervisors 
employed in 1932-33 in Carroll was continued in service in 1933-34. 

TABLE 61 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties for Varying 
Numbers of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1934 



Number of 



No. of White Supervisors Number of 
Elementary Allowed Counties Names of Counties 

Teachers By Law 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, Kent, Queen 

Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset. Talbot, Worcester 
80 to 119 2 4 Cecil (1), Dorchester, Garrett, Wicomico 

120 to 185 3 3 Anne Arundel (2), Carroll (2), Harford {2), Mont- 

gomery 

186 to 235 4 3 Frederick (3), Prince George's (3) 

236 to 285 5 1 Washington (4), Allegany (4) 

286 to 335 6 1 

336 to 385 7 1 Baltimore (6) 



( ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed in October, 1934, is shown 
in parentheses for counties which employed fewer than the minimum number required by the law as 
in effect prior to September, 1933. For the two-year period from September, 1933, to August, 1935, 
the employment of more than one supervisor in a county is optional with the County Board of Educa- 
tion and is conditional upon the provision of funds for their employment by the County Commis- 
sioners. 

In the fall of 1934, Mrs. Mary Norris LjTich, who had formerly 
been a helping teacher in Carroll County, was added to its super- 



Supervision of County White Elementary Schools 



79 



visory staff. Mrs. Martha Sibley, who had formerly taught on the 
staff of the Towson Normal School, became a supervising teacher in 
Wicomico County to take the place of Miss M. Jewell Swain, who 
resigned. Unfortunately, Mrs. Sibley was offered a position near her 
home and resigned in December, 1934. Thus far she has not been 
replaced. 

Cecil, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Harford, Frederick, Montgomery, 
Prince George's, Washington, Allegany and Baltimore County 
each employed one fewer supervisor than the number to which they 
were entitled prior to the temporary revision of the law in 1933. (See 
Table 61 and Charts.) 

The Assistant State Superintendent and the State Supervisor of 
Elementary Schools continued their program of visiting teachers 
with the county supervisors, discussing the work of teacher and 
supervisor, participating in and evaluating teachers' meetings held 
by the county supervisors, arranging for supervisors to see and 
evaluate the work of supervisors and teachers in other counties, 
conducting sectional and State-wide conferences of supervisors, and 
preparing bulletins for the use of supervisors and teachers. 

Miss Wiedefeld, State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, acted as 
leader of a group of high school and normal school teachers who pre- 
pared ''Pageant Sources" for the Maryland Tercentenary, ]\Iany of 
the schools used this material in their observance of the celebration. 

At a midwinter conference of school board members, superinten- 
dents, and the State Department of Education held on January 25, 
1934, the problem of pupil classification in Maryland schools, the 
relation of pupil classification to State-wide test results and at- 
tempted solutions of the problem were presented by Miss Stern, Miss 
Wiedefeld and Miss Simpson. On January 26, Dr. Charles H. Judd 
of the University of Chicago discussed ''Problems Concerning Public 
Education in a Depression " and "Science in the Elementary School." 
The supervisors discussed a reprint of Dr. Bagley's article, "The 
Task of Education in a Period of Rapid Social Change, " taking up 
the following points: (See also page 258.) 

a. Does Dr. Bagley state the case fairly? 

b. How prove or disprove that in Maryland we have "over emphasized 
the social studies at the expense of the more exact and exacting 
studies"? 

c. What are some values that are "relatively stable and abiding"? 

d. Have we been unwise in our methods of curriculum making and re- 
revision? 

e. Should teachers take the lead in developing a new social order? 

f. To what "educational cure-alls and nostrums" should we in Maryland 
cultivate "sales resistance"? 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

GROWTH IN ENROLLMENT 

The enrollment in the last four years of county public white high 
schools increased to 31,036, a gain of 258 over last year, the smallest 
increase for the period recorded in Chart 10. Similar figures for Bal- 
timore City indicated an increase of 100, bringing the total enroll- 
ment to 17,807. (See Chart 10 and Tabte 62.) 

CHART 10 



GROWTH IN UHITE HIGH SCHOOL laJROLLMENT 



Counties 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1932 

1932- 1933 
1935-1954 




^■!^-iy//////7///////A 



y////////7Z//////A 



114 549 V////////////////////////A 



Balto. Ciiy 



7707V/////////////////////////////77^ 



y/////A 



The average number belonging in county white high schools was 
29,017, a gain of only 140 over the year preceding. Average attend- 
ance in both county and Baltimore City high schools and average 
number belonging in the city were slightly lower in 1934 than in 
1933. (See Tabte 62.) 

80 



Enrollment and Attendance in White High Schools 



81 



TABLE 62 

White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June 1920 to 1934 



Year 
Ending 
July 31 



1920. 

1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 
1930. 
1931. 
1932. 
1933 
1934 



23 COUNTIES 





Average 




Enroll- 


Number 


Average 


ment 


Belonging 


-\tten dance 


9,392 


* 


7,798 

ft Oft /< 

y,zy4 


10,900 




12,815 


* 


11,188 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


16,026 


14,842 


13,696 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 
21,890 


24,760 


23,186 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


30,778 


28,877 
29,017 


27,302 


31,036 


27,292 



BALTIMORE CITY 



fEnroll- 
ment 


fAverage 
Number 
Belonging 


fAverage 
Attendance 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


C Oftft 

6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


17,807 


17,018 


15,823 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 
t Includes estimate of ninth grade in junior high schools. 



The county white public high school enrollment of 31,036 was con- 
siderably larger than that in the City, 17,807. The white enroll- 
ment in Catholic parochial and private secondary schools in Balti- 
more City, 3,699, was larger than that in the counties, 1,376, but 
white private school enrollment in the City, 684, was smaller than 
the total for the counties, 1,423. (See Tables III-V, pages 286 to 
289.) 

Over one-half of the counties increased in high school enrollment 
from 1933 to 1934. Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, 
Montgomery, and Talbot had sufficient increase in enrollment to 
justify the employment of additional teachers. On the other hand, 
seven of the counties decreased in enrollment sufficiently so that there 
is a possibility of employing fewer teachers if the decreases are not 
scattered over a large number of schools. (See Table 63.) 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The average attendance in county white public high schools was 
94.1 per cent, .4 lower than for the year preceding. The range in per 
cent of attendance in the counties was from 91 to 95.8. All counties, 
except Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline and St. Mary's, 
had a lower per cent of attendance in 1934 than they had in 1933. 
(See Table 64.) 



82 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 63 

White High School Enrollment in Individual Counties, 1934, arranged according 
to Increase Over or Decrease Under 1933 



COUNTY 



Baltimore 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Howard 

Queen Anne's.... 

St. Mary's . 

Kent 

Charles 



1934 
White 
High 
School 
Enrollment 



4,607 
1,885 
2,207 
1,713 
760 
865 
1,393 
528 
558 
353 
551 
527 



Increase 
Over 
1933 



200 
127 
127 
95 
32 
24 
23 
23 
19 
18 
3 
1 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Washington 
Frederick . .. 
Worcester... 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Wicomico.... 

Cecil .. 

Caroline 



1934 
White 
High 
School 
Enrollment 



3,353 
2,397 
1,984 

790 
1,565 

226 

688 
1,002 
1,273 
1,169 

828 



TABLE 64 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1932, 1933 and 1934 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

County Average 91.9 94.1 94.5 94.1 

Frederick 91.5 95.8 96.3 95.8 

Wicomico .92.3 95.7 96.4 95.7 

Washington 93.1 94.8 95.8 95.5 

AU-gany .....94.8 95.1 95.7 95.2 

Dorchester 92.4 94.4 S4.2 94.7 

Somerset 91.4 94.0 94.7 94.5 

Prince George's 91.8 93.9 94.5 94.4 

Queen Anne's 91.9 93.9 94.2 94.3 

Anne Arundel 92.1 95.0 94.7 94.0 

Worcester 91.7 93.3 93.7 93.9 

Howard 89.9 93.5 94.5 93.8 

Baltimore 91.3 94.3 94.3 93.8 



County 1923 1932 1933 1914 

Charles 88.7 93.2 94 1 93.7 

Talbot .93.2 93.5 92.9 93.5 

Carroll 88.7 92.8 93.9 93.5 

Caroline 91.2 93.1 92.9 93.2 

St. Mary's 86.8 93.1 93.0 93.1 

Harford 91.2 92.5 93.5 92.9 

Garrett 90.2 92.4 93.7 92.7 

Montgomery 88.9 93.6 93.5 92.7 

Calvert. 93.5 93.3 93.7 91.7 

Cecil 92.0 92.1 92.9 91.5 

Kent 90.2 93.7 93.2 91.0 

Baltimore City 91.5 93.2 93.0 93.0 

State Average 91.6 93.8 94.0 93.7 



For attendance in 1934 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 291. 

The average number belonging in county public high schools was 
highest in October after which there was a decrease each succeeding 
month. Average attendance decreased each month from September 
to June, except that because of the unusually bad snow storms, 
February attendance was lower than that of any month following, 
except June. 

Per cent of attendance was highest in September the first month 
of school, 96.8. Thereafter it decreased each month until it was 
lowest during the bad weather of February reaching 89.8. Attendance 
in January was higher than that of December or any succeeding 
month except June. (See Table 65.) 



E>niOLLMENT, Attendance and Importance of White High Schools 



83 



TABLE 65 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White High 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1934 





Average 


Per Cent 




Average Per Cent 




No. 


of 




No. 


of 


Month Attend- Belong- 


Attend- 


Month 


Attend- Belong- 


Attend- 




ing ing 


ance 




ing ing 


ance 


September 


28,900 29,842 


96.8 


March 


26,651 28,611 


93.2 


October ... 


28,826 30,180 


95.5 


Aoril. 


26,517 28,216 


94.0 


November 


28,326 29,929 


94.6 


May 


26,096 27,759 


94.0 


December 


27,476 29,612 


92.8 


June 


*24,316 *25,115 


96.8 


January... 


27,507 29,200 


94.2 


Average 






February.. 


25,952 28,916 


89.8 


for Year.. 


27,292 29,017 


94.1 



* In three counties the schools close on May 31st and no pupils are enrolled in June. 

IMPORTANCE OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

Of every 100 white pupils attending county public elementary 
and secondary schools 22 attended secondary schools in 1933-34. 
This was an increase of .4 over the corresponding figure of 21.6 for 
1932-33. For Baltimore City the corresponding figure for 1933-34 
was 19.3, a gain of .3 over the year preceding. (See Chart 11.) 

All of the counties which had a decrease of more than one in white 
high school enrollment in Table 63 showed a decrease in ratio of 
number belonging in high school to number belonging in elementary 
and high schools combined. The counties varied in ratio of num- 
ber belonging in high school to total number belonging in all white 
schools from 17 in Washington to 29.5 in Talbot. (See Table 66.) 

TABLE 68 

Ratio of "Number Belonging' ' in White High Schools to "Number Belonging" in 
White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 



1924 1932 1933 1934 



County 



1924 1932 1933 1931- 



County Average 13.3 20.2 21.2 21.3 

Talbot 18.7 26.4 27.6 29.5 

Caroline 18.8 26.5 26.3 27.1 

Kent 15.2 27.3 26.7 26.5 

Queen Anne's 18.3 23.9 24.5 25.8 

Worcester 18.9 25.2 26.2 25.7 

Wicomico 19.9 24.8 25.4 25.3 

Charles 5.5 23.7 25.6 25.3 

Cecil 14.3 24.3 25.4 25.2 

Harford 14.8 22.5 23.5 24.0 

St. Mary's 3.0 21.5 23.4 23.8 

Carroll 13.7 21.8 23.8 23.4 

Anne Arundel 10.2 16.0 21.0 22.4 



Somerset 15.2 22.6 22.5 21.9 

Calvert 15.5 18.6 21.7 21.2 

Dorchester 16.7 21.4 20.4 21.2 

Baltimore 11.0 18.3 19.9 20.8 

Prince George's 11.6 19.8 19.9 20.6 

Allegany 13.5 19.2 21.2 20.3 

Howard 12.7 19.0 19.4 20.2 

Frederick 14.9 19.9 20.4 20 1 

Garrett 8.4 18.4 19.2 18.7 

Montgomery 13.9 18.8 17.0 17.7 

Washington 11.1 17.4 17.7 17.0 

Baltimore City 9.7 17.5 18.6 18.7 

State Average 11.8 19.1 20.2 20.3 



If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four years 
of high school attendance by every elementary school graduate, the 
maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in the four years 
of high school would be 33.3 per cent in counties having the 8-4 or 



84 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 11 



THE NUMBER OF PDPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1934 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1953 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 
1932 

1933 
1934 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City V7^ 




mm. 



•2..^V///////////////////////////A 



1 



'///////////////////////A 



m 



'ۥ3 Y//////yV 777777/77Z7Z^////yV^////77777y 



2*2.0 



6-3-3 plan, and 36.4 per cent in counties organized on the 7-4 plan. 
These percentages assume that there is a uniform number entering 
school each year which, of course, is not the case. Baltimore City 
and Washington, Montgomery and Allegany counties have the 
6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization which explains their position in 
Chart 11 and toward the bottom of the list in Ta ble 66.) 
90 WHITE BOYS IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS FOR EVERY 100 GIRLS 

There was a slight decrease in the ratio of boys to girls in white 
high schools, although seven counties, Worcester, Prince George's, 
Montgomery, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Anne's and Caroline, showed 



Per Cent of White Pupils in High School and Boys Are of Girls 



85 



an increase over the 1933 figures. The range among the counties was 
from 67 boys for every 100 girls in Calvert to 99 in Worcester. 
The average for the counties was 89.8 and for Baltimore City 111.5. 
(See Table 67.) 

TABLE 67 

Number of White Boys in High School for Every 100 White Girls, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1933 and 1934 



COUNTY 


1922 


1924 


1926 


1928 


1930 


1933 


1934 




74.3 


76.2 


78.6 


79.8 


82.7 


91.4 


0«7.0 


Worcester 


63.4 


67.3 


69.6 


80.5 


77.7 


87.5 


99.2 


Prince George's 


74.8 


77.8 


80.2 


81.5 


85.2 


96.3 


98.6 


Baltimore 


79.2 


87.4 


85.2 


84.3 


94.0 


102.3 


97.8 


Allegany 


61.9 


67.7 


75.7 


71.9 


82.5 


97.3 


95.9 


Montgomery 


63.7 


76.7 


90.9 


86.2 


80.6 


91.3 


94.9 


Howard 


56.8 


63.1 


87.0 


89.6 


98.7 


95.4 


94.1 


Cecil . 


85.0 


74.2 


69.4 


76.8 


85.0 


97.2 


94.1 


Frederick- 


85.5 


84.8 


89.9 


84.4 


85.4 


91.9 


90.6 


Washington 


94.6 


87.6 


81.2 


78.0 


84.5 


92.9 


90.0 


Garrett.- 


76.5 


78.5 


75.7 


72.4 


78.2 


100.8 


89.5 


Somerset 


82.1 


86.1 


74.2 


80.5 


84.5 


89.4 


87.0 


Harford 


66.2 


84.8 


72.5 


80.2 


76.7 


87.4 


86.9 


Anne Arundel 


75.5 


60.1 


82.6 


82.7 


82.7 


86.7 


86.4 


Carroll 


72.0 


74.2 


83.8 


84.5 


82.8 


88.1 


84.0 


Dorchester 


78.6 


71.7 


74.7 


80.4 


72.9 


76.1 


81.2 


Kent- - 


68.5 


75.7 


69.4 


76.4 


70.9 


79.2 


80.3 


St. Mary's 




96.6 


68.5 


76.2 


94.5 


85.1 


80.1 


Queen Anne's 


61.8 


68.0 


63.0 


66.9 


66.7 


75.4 


79.5 


Wicomico... 


72.5 


68.6 


66.3 


79.9 


80.9 


83.6 


78.8 


Talbot.- 


79.7 


78.0 


79.5 


86.1 


70.7 


80.7 


77.0 


Charles 


82.8 


69.4 


89.6 


80.5 


88.0 


84.3 


77.0 


Caroline 


68.0 


69.4 


68.2 


72.5 


74.5 


72.8 


73.3 


Calvert- 


77.6 


71.8 


59.1 


62.0 


82.3 


89.9 


67.4 


Baltimore City 


118.7 


96.9 


104.8 


104.9 


101.5 


113.8 


111.5 


State -. 


90.0 


83.6 


87.4 


87.8 


88.9 


99.1 


97.1 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AT PEAK 

There were 5,122 graduates from the county white high schools, 
an increase of 201 over the preceding year. Of the graduates 2,902 
were girls and 2,220 boys. The increase over 1933 for boys was 106 
and for girls 95. (See T^/;/^ 68.) 

The counties varied in number of graduates from 26 in Calvert to 
675 in Baltimore County. All of the counties, except seven, Wash- 
ington, Frederick, Garrett, Worcester, Somerset, Charles and Cal- 
vert, which had fewer graduates, and Dorchester and Howard, which 
had the same number, had more graduates in 1934 than in 1933. 
(See Chart 12.) 



86 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
CHART 12 



NULIBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

1934 



Countj^ 1933 1934 



Baltimore 


598 


675 


Allegany 


544 


557 


Washington 


455 


450 


Frederick 


384 


329 


Pr. George's 


318 


325 


Montgomery 


290 


308 


Carroll 


238 


259 


Harford 


243 


257 


Anne Arundel 


215 


240 


Wicomico 


170 


211 


Cecil 


168 


195 


Garrett 


185 


181 


Caroline 


158 


169 


Talbot 


111 


147 


Dorchester 


145 


145 


Worcester 


135 


129 


Kent 


106 


109 


Queen Anne ' s 


85 


99 


Somerset 


124 


95 


Charles 


98 


91 


Howard 


68 


68 


St. Mary's 


47 


55 


Calvert 


36 


26 


Balto. City 


2371 


2485 



■■Boys X///A Girls 



1 243 y//////////////////////////A 

165- 




^y/////////7Z^ 



In every county, except St. Mary's, the number of scirls graduated 
exceeded the number of boys graduated. (See Chart 12.) 



White High School Graduates and Persistence to Graduation 87 



TABLE 68 

Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1934 





23 COUNTIES 




Year 








Baltimore 




Boys 


Girls 


Total 


City 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 




653 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 - 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1S27..... 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1,528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 


1934 


2,220 


2,902 


5,122 


2,485 



PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

If the number of graduates of 1934 is compared with the first year 
enrollment of 1931, it is possible to obtain a rough estimate of per- 
sistence to high school graduation of those who enter high school. 
Although the first year enrollment includes repeaters of the pre- 
ceding year, these are partially offset by the pupils who have entered 
high school after the first year. (See Ta ble 69.) 



TABLE 69 

Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 





First 


Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 


Year 


Year 




Four Years Later 






Enrollment 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6,772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


55.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42!9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 



The average persistence to high school graduation in 1934, 52.4, 
which included 44.8 for boys and 60.2 for girls, was the next to high- 
est set of figures recorded, those for the preceding year being the 
only ones which were higher. Among the counties the per cent of 
persistence for all pupils ranged from 35.6 in Calvert to 65.9 in Har- 



88 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ford. The counties varied in the persistence of boys to graduation 
from 17.7 in Somereset to 65.2 in St. Mary's. For girls the corre- 
sponding variation was from 42.1 in Calvert to 76.1 in Kent. (See 
Chart 13.) 

CHART 13 



PER CHIT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 
First Year 

Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 
Boys I I Girls 



County Enrollment 

1931 1934 

Total and g^^^ ^2.4 
Co. Average 


Harford 


390 


65.9 


Kent 


169 


64.5 


Caroline 


273 


61.9 


Talbot 


243 


60.5 


Allegany 


• 949 


58.7 


St. Mary's 


96 


57.3 


7/ashington 


787 


57.2 


Charles 


162 


56.2 


Anne Arundel 432 


55.6 


Cecil 


365 


53.4 


Queen Anne' 


s 187 


52.9 


Montgomery 


591 


52.1 


Frederick 


643 


51.2 


Pr. George' 


s 644 


50.5 


Carroll 


514 


50.4 


Garrett 


362 


50.0 


Tforcester 


266 


48.5 


Baltimore 


1397 


43.3 


Wicomico 


462 


46.1 


Dorchester 


355 


43.3 


Hov?ard 


182 


37.4 


Somerset 


255 


37.5 


Calvert 


•73 


35.6 




C7.1 



61. e 



57.1 




Persistence to High School Graduation; Normal School Entrants 



89 



In every county, except St. Mary's, per cent of persistence to 
graduation was higher for girls than for boys. (See Chart 13.) 

In Kent, Talbot, Cecil and Wicomico, the per cent of persistence 
to graduation was higher in 1934 than in 1933 for both boys and girls; 
in Caroline, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's and Prince George's it was 
higher for boys only; and in Harford, Allegany, Anne Arundel and 
Howard, it was higher for girls only. (See Chart 13.) 

Normal School Entrants Show Slight Increase 
CHART 14 



GIRL CBADUATES OF-WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARILAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
THE FALL FOLLOWING GRADUATION 



Covin ty 



Nixmber 



Per Cent 



1952 1933 1934 


1935 


1954 


Co. Av. 


174 


74 


88 


2.6 




Wicomico 


12 


5 


20 


4.6 


14.9 • 


Calvert 




2 


1 


8.5 




Baltimore 


36 


12 


19 


4.1 




Allegany 


0/ 


e 
O 


1 K 

±o 


2.1 




Worcester 


1 


2 


3 


<-.o 




Vi» Anne's 


n 

4, 




o 


0.0 




Harford 


15 


1 


5 


.7 




Howard 


2 


1 


1 


2.9 




Washington 


18 


10 


6 


4.0 




Dorchester 


4 


1 


2 


1.2 




Talbot 


2 


1 


2 


1.4 




A. Arundel 


9 


1 


3 


.8 


IBM 


Garrett 


2 


4 


2 


4.0 




Somerset 


6 


2 


1 


2.-5 


mm 


Frederick 


4 


7 


5 


5.5 




Carroll 


3 


1 


2 


.7 


m 


Montgomery 


3 


5 


1 


2.7 


B 


St. Mary's 


1 






0.0 




Charles 


3 


2 




5.9 




Kent 


1 


2 




5.2 




Caroline 


5 


3 




2.9 




Cecil 


5 


2 




2.1 




Pr. Geo. 


5 


4 




2.2 




Balto.City 


57 


19 


50 


1.5 




State 


231 


95 


138 


2.5 





90 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



After reaching their lowest point in 1933, the number of girl high 
school graduates entering Maryland normal schools showed a slight 
upward swing in both number and per cent in 1934. There were 88 
entrants, representing 3 per cent of the entire group of girl graduates 
compared with 74 and 2.6 per cent the year preceding. (See Chart 14.) 

Girl graduates entering normal schools ranged from none in three 
Southern Maryland and three Eastern Shore counties to 15, 19 and 20 
from Allegany, Baltimore and Wicomico Counties, respectively, in 
each of which a normal school is located. Calvert, Washington, 
Garrett, Somerset, Frederick, Montgomery, Charles, Kent, Caroline, 
Cecil and Prince George's sent fewer girl graduates to normal school 
in 1934 than in 1933. (See Chart 14.) 

Baltimore City which sent only 19 girls to normal school in 1933 
increased to 50 in 1934 as a result of the better outlook for appoint- 
ment of those on the eligible list. Unless there are more normal school 
entrants both from the City and the counties, there is likely to be a 
rather serious shortage of teachers within a few years. (See Chart 14.) 

There were 34 county boys who graduated from white high schools 
in seven counties in 1934 who entered Maryland normal schools in 
the fall after graduation. The largest number and per cent, 16 
representing one fifth of the county graduates, came from Wicomico 
County. The two who came from Worcester represented nearly 
4 per cent of the boys who graduated in 1934, while the 5 from Wash- 
ington and Baltimore Counties and the 4 from Allegany included 
nearly 2 per cent of the boy graduates. (See Table 70.) 



TABLE 70 

Boy Graduates from White Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
Normal Schools, 1934 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 


County 


Number 


Maryland Normal 




White 


Schools 




Boy 








Graduates 










Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County Average 


2,207 


34 


1.5 


Wicomico 


79 


16 


20.3 


Worcester 


54 


2 


3.7 


Washington 


207 


5 


1.9 


Baltimore 


284 


5 


1.8 


Allegany 


242 


4 


1.7 


Garrett 


84 


1 


1.2 


Frederick.. 


149 


1 


.7 


Baltimore City 


1,213 


5 


.4 


Entire State 


3,420 


39 


1.1 



1934 Normal School Entrants; Occupations of 1933 Graduates 91 



OCCUPATIONS OF 1933 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

The smallest number and per cent of high school graduates 
continued education beyond high school graduation in 1933-34 since 
statistics of occupation have been reported by high school principals. 
Only 469 or 22 per cent of the white boys and 701 or 25 per cent of 
the white girls who graduated in 1933 went to colleges, normal or 
professional schools or entered hospitals for training. On the other 
hand, 447 boys or 21 per cent and 1,453 girls or nearly 52 per cent who 
graduated were reported as staying or working at home or married. 
(See Table 71.) 

TABLE 71 

Occupations of 1933 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 

High Schools 





Number 


Per Cent 


OCCUPATION 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Continuing Education 


A CO 


/Ul 


oo o 


OK ft 


Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities 


n A O 


24d 


11. D 


Q Q 
O.O 


i\orm<ii ocnoois 


1 o 

iz 


no 


/? 
.D 


Q Q 
O.O 


ivieuicine, j^entiSLry, x narniacy, i^aw, 










AgricuiLure anu iviinisiry 


27 


5 


1.3 


.2 


Engineering 


22 




1.1 




Art and Music Schools 


6 


13 


.3 


.5 


Army and Navy Academies 


5 




.2 




Physical Education, Home Economics, 










and Kindergarten Training Schools 




4 




.1 


Commercial Schools 


85 


160 


4.0 


5.7 


Post-Graduate High School Courses 


28 


48 


1.3 


1.7 


College Preparatory Schools 


37 


11 


1.8 


.4 


Hospitals for Training 


1 


121 




4.3 


Staying at Home 


227 


844 


10.7 


30.1 


Working in Own or Others' Home 


220 


427 


10.4 


15.2 


Married 




182 




6.5 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and 








Saleswomen, Business 


283 


195 


13.4 


6.9 


Farming, Fishing, Forestry, Nurserymen.. 
Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 


271 




12.8 








Building, Mining 


222 


123 


10.5 


4.4 


Office Work 


69 


138 


3.3 


4.9 


Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 


50 




2.4 




Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 








and Telegraph Operators 


22 


17 


1.1 


.6 


Army, Navy, Aviation 


28 




1.3 




Actor, Musician, Artist 


13 


1 


.6 




Barber Shop or Beauty Parlor 


1 


5 




.2 


Died 


4 


3 


.2 


.1 


Miscellaneous and Unknown 


235 


171 


11.1 


6.1 


Total 


2,114 


2,807 


100.0 


100.0 



In order that the significance of this change may be seen, a com- 
parison of these numbers and percentages for county white high 



92 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school graduates from 1926 to 1933 is given in TabLe 72. It will be 
noted that the number of county boys graduated who continued their 
education the year after graduation has fluctuated between 469 and 
574, but that because of the larger number of graduates, the per 
cent who have gone on for further study has decreased steadily from 
49 per cent for the 1926 graduates to 22 per cent for the 1933 gradu- 
ates. The number of county girls who have continued study in- 
creased from 856 for 1926 graduates to 1,051 for 1929 graduates, but 
decreased each year therafter to a low figure of 701 for 1933 graduates, 
the percentage having gradually decreased from 54 for 1926 graduates 
to 25 per cent for 1933 graduates. (See Table 72.) 

TABLE 72 

Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year Following Graduation 

1926 to 1933 



Graduates 
of 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


NUMBER 


PER CENT 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 _ 


2,114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 



On the other hand, there has been a consistent increase in the num- 
ber and per cent of boys and girls who have graduated and spent the 
year following graduation staying or working in their own or their 
parents' home. The number of boys has increased from 88 or 8.5 
per cent for the 1926 graduates to 495 or 28 per cent for the 1932 
graduates, while for the girls the change has been even more marked, 
from 323 or 20.5 per cent of the 1926 graduates to 1,453 or 51.8 per 
cent of the 1933 graduates, {^qq Table 12.) 

Nothing could prove more conclusively the changing character of 
the high school population, the effect of the economic depression, and 
the need for adapting high school instruction not only to the needs of 
those who will continue their education, but also to the growing 
group, many of whom will remain in the home environment of their 
earlier years. 

The depression affected the number of girls continuing their 
education beyond graduation beginning with the graduates of 1929. 
There was a gradual increase in the number of boys continuing study 
for the graduates of 1927 through 1931 after which there was a sharp 
decline, bringing the number below that for 1927 graduates. (See 
Table 72.) 



Occupations of 1933 High School Graduates 



93 



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94 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Prince George's 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Monteoraerv 


Washington 

Allegany 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 


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Caroline 




Worcester 


3 
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Calvert 


Garrett 





Occupations of 1938 Graduates; Enrollment in Each Subject 95 



It would probably be enlig^htening if each county and school would 
prepare a table similar to Table 72 for its own county graduates of 
1926 through 1934. 

There has been an encouraging increase for the 1933 graduates 
over those for 1932 who were engaged in the various clerical, selling, 
business, building, manufacturing and other occupations. Every 
type of these occupations shows an increase. How much of the in- 
crease was due to the C. W. A. program in effect from November 
1933 through March 1934 it is not possible to ascertain. (See Table 
71.) 

Similar percentages regarding occupations for the 1933 graduates 
in individual counties are given in Table 73. The per cent continuing 
higher education ranged for boys from 13 in Wicomico to 52 in Queen 
Anne's and for girls from 15 in Garrett to 46 per cent in Calvert. 

The per cent at home varied for boys from 7 in Caroline to 49 in 
Garrett and for girls from 31 in Montgomery to 73 in Charles. (See 
Table 73.) 

Data for Baltimore City are included on the last line of Table 73. 

There were reports for 219 white county boys and 183 white county 
girls who graduated in 1933 who attended Maryland Colleges and 
schools of higher education. The University of Maryland attracted 
129, Western Maryland 83, Washington College 40, Johns Hopkins 
31, Blue Ridge 22, St. John's 18, University of Baltimore 17, Hood 
16, Goucher 10, St. Mary's Seminary 9, Loyola and Peabody 
Conservatory of Music, each 6. In the majority of cases the college 
was attended in largest numbers by graduates who lived in the same 
county or in counties adjoining that in which the college was located. 
(See Table 74.) 



SUBJECTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were only slight changes from 1933 to 1934 in the distribu- 
tion of county white high school enrollment by subject. There were 
slight increases in the enrollment taking mathematics and the social 
studies, and slight decreases in the number and per cent taking 
science, French, music and art. (See Table 1^.) 

About 85 per cent of the white county high school pupils were en- 
rolled for the social studies, about 72 per cent for mathematics, and 
about 70 per cent for science, the boys having a larger per cent en- 
rolled for each of these subjects than the girls. 

Approximately 20 per cent of the white county high school pupils 
were enrolled for Latin and 16 per cent for French, the girls having a 
larger number and per cent enrolled for these foreign languages than 
the boys. The schools in which Latin and French were offered en- 
rolled 83 and 89 per cent, respectively, of all high school pupils. ^See 
Table 75.) 



96 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 75 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1934. 















Per Cent of 




Number 






Number 


Total Enroll- 




Enrolled 


Per 


Cent 


of High 


ment Enrolled 


Subject 










Schools 


in Schools 










Offering 


which Offer 












Subject 


Each Subject 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




Total 


14,435 


16,098 






151 




English 


14,328 


15,959 


99.3 


99.1 


151 


100.0 


Mathematics 


11,021 


11,086 


76.3 


68.9 


151 


100.0 


Social Studies 


12,409 


13,536 


86.0 


84.1 


151 


100.0 


Science. 


10,487 


10,741 


72.6 


66.7 


151 


100.0 


Latin 


2,460 


3,746 


17.0 


23.3 


96 


82.6 


French 


1,850 


3,149 


12.8 


19.6 


115 


89.3 


Spanish 


30 


28 


.2 


.2 


1 


2.8 


Industrial Arts 










79 


77.0 


General 


6,536 


2 


45.3 




78 


73.4 


Vocational 


410 




2.8 




11 


18.0 


Home Economics. 








115 


87.1 


General... 




7,908 




49.1 


95 


80.0 


Vocational. 




780 




4.8 


26 


13.5 


Agriculture 


1,278 


8.9 




41 


22.6 


Commercial .... 


2,995 


4,195 


20.7 


26.1 


68 


74.0 


Physical Ed 


4,601 


4,572 


31.9 


28.4 


36 


46.2 


Music 


7,465 


8,865 


51.7 


55.1 


111 


86.2 


Art 


529 


541 


3.7 


3.4 


9 


9.4 



General and vocational courses in industrial arts were available 
in county white high schools enrolling 77 per cent of the county boys, 
and in home economics were offered in schools enrolling 87 per cent 
of the white county girls. Courses in agriculture were given in 41 
schools which enrolled 23 per cent of the county high school boys. 
(See Table 75.) 

Courses in commercial work were given in 68 schools enrolling 74 
per cent of the county high school pupils and were taken by 23.6 per 
cent of all pupils in county high schools. Since the major part of the 
commercial work is offered in the junior and senior years, a much 
larger proportion of juniors and seniors were enrolled for the courses. 
(See Tabte 75.) 

Music was taught in 111 schools enrolling 86 per cent of the county 
white high school pupils and was taken by 53.5 per cent of all white 
county high school pupils. In most schools it is a required subject for 
first and second year pupils and elective in the junior and senior 
years. This means that 86 per cent of all pupils have music at some 
time during their high school course. 

Physical education courses taken for credit were available in only 
36 schools enrolling 46 per cent of all county high school pupils. 



Distribution of White High School Enrollment by Subject 



97 



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98 



1934 Report of Mar\xand State Department of Education 



About 30 per cent of all county high school pupils were enrolled for 
the work in 1933-34. 

Nine schools offered courses in art which were taken by just over 
13 per cent of all county high school pupils. (See Table 75.) 

Enrollment in Individual Counties in Various Branches of the Social Studies 

In the social studies there were enrolled over 90 per cent of the 
pupils in Calvert, Cecil, Charles, St. Mary's and Talbot, while 
under 80 per cent in Queen Anne's, Somerset, Worcester and Balti- 
more Counties took courses in the social studies. (See Table IQ.) 

The enrollment in all courses in the field of the social studies show- 
ed increases, except world, modern and United States history. Civics 
was offered in every county except St. Mary's and Washington. 
Eight counties had pupils enrolled in economics. Every county 

TABLE 77 

Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County White 
High Schools for Year 1933-1934 



NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN 



COUNTY 


Civica 


Economics 


World History 


Ancient History 


EUROPEAN HISTORY 


United States 
1 History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


+J > 




.2-0 £ 

T3 CO 
0) e4 O 


c 

u 

9i 
•V 
O 


Total 


4,175 

466 
393 
42 
43 
185 
75 
359 
118 
268 


450 
229 


3,998 

118 
113 
1,034 

82 
127 

62 
325 

74 
143 
661 


2,726 

337 
486 
287 


910 

88 


582 


919 

90 
316 
197 


3,285 
448 


6,102 

798 
311 
587 

34 
182 
361 
232 

86 
129 
390 
186 
311 
108 
115 
348 
416 
152 

75 
147 
159 
519 
268 
188 


4,108 

471 
187 
305 
26 
168 
231 
182 
122 
115 
256 
188 
231 
80 
115 
166 
209 
81 
55 
88 
107 
377 
226 
122 


Allegany 


Anns Anmde] 




Baltimore 




219 




922 
31 
26 

128 


Calvert 


3 




Caroline 










Carroll 


73 


239 


72 




243 


Cecil 




Charles 


24 


102 
40 








60 


Dorchester 








Frederick 


60 
124 
164 
128 
130 




326 








Garrett 


25 


221 
117 
9 

80 
185 
267 

80 


28 
84 
116 




24 
19 


14 
138 
99 
24 
79 
251 


Harford 




150 


Howard 






Kent 




74 
252 
228 








Montgomery. 


273 
381 
100 


15 
14 








Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


28 


164 




St. Mary's 






127 






101 
102 

99 
446 
227 

90 


Somerset 


162 




37 
112 
78 
35 
38 








Talbot 


159 




102 
323 
28 








Washington 




67 


50 


268 


30 


Wicomico 


355 


Worcester 


190 

























* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, death or commitment to instCtution. 



Enrollment in Branches of Social Studies, Science and Mathematics 



99 




100 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

except St. Mary's had pupils taking World History. Pupils in 
fifteen counties took courses in Ancient History. Early History was 
used as the designation for courses in three counties. Seven counties 
had pupils enrolled for medieval and modern history. All except 
five counties gave work in modern history. U. S. History and prob- 
lems of democracy were given in every county. (See Table 11.) 

Science Enrollment Decreased 

Under 60 per cent of the pupils in Dorchester, Frederick, Talbot 
and Washington took courses in science, while this was the case for 
over 80 per cent of the pupils in Calvert and Cecil. (See Table 76.) 

Every county offered courses in general science and biology and all, 
except Calvert, had courses in chemistry. Caroline, Queen Anne's, 
St. Mary's and Talbot offered no work in physics. Anne Arundel 
offered work in zoology. (See first part Table 78.) 

OfTerings in Mathematics 

Only 51 per cent of the Carroll County high school boys and girls 
were enrolled for mathematics as against 90 per cent or more of the 
high school pupils in Calvert, St. Mary's and Queen Anne's. 

Enrollment in all branches of mathematics, except Algebra II 
and Mathematics Review, increased for 1934 over 1933. Every 
county gave courses in Algebra I, II, and Plane Geometry. General 
Mathematics was taught in all counties, except Caroline, Carroll, 
Charles, Harford, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset and Wicomico. 
Vocational mathematics was taught in five counties which offered 
vocational work in trades and industries. 

Trigonometry was taught in every county, except Charles, Garrett, 
Somerset and Worcester. Sohd Geometry was not taught in Calvert, 
Dorchester, Garrett, Kent, Talbot and Worcester. Either Mathema- 
tics or Arithmetic Review or both was given in every county, except 
Calvert, Wicomico and Worcester. (See latter part of Table 78.) 

The Foreign Languages 

Fewer than 10 per cent of the pupils in Cecil, Carroll, Charles, 
and Garrett took Latin as against over 30 per cent in St. Mary's, 
Kent and Caroline. Less than 10 per cent of the Howard and St. 
Mary's pupils were enrolled for French while this was true of over 30 
per cent of the pupils in Calvert and Queen Anne's. (See Table 76.) 

Industrial Arts, Home Economics, and Agriculture 
No work in industrial arts was offered for boys in Calvert, Garrett, 
Howard and St. Mary's, while over 70 per cent in CaroHne, Carroll, 
Cecil and Kent had opportunities in this field. In seven counties 
work on a vocational basis was offered in part-time and all day in- 
dustrial courses. Agriculture took its place in Howard and Garrett. 

Calvert and St. Mary's were the only counties which offered no 
work in home economics, yet these coimties have a large proportion 



County Enrollment in Science, Math., Languages, Special Subjects 101 



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^•2 



102 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of girls who work or stay at home after graduation. At the opposite 
extreme, over two thirds of the girls in Cecil, Carroll, Kent, Harford 
and Queen Anne's had opportunities for study in this field. 

Fifteen counties offered work in agriculture. The large proportion 
enrolled in agriculture in Garrett and Howard probably explains 
why no industrial arts courses as such are offered in these counties. 
(See Table 76.) 

Olferings in Commercial Work 

Calvert, Queen Anne's and St. Mary's offered no work in com- 
mercial subjects. On the other hand, Carroll, Somerset, Dorchester 
and Washington Counties had a large proportion of boys and girls 
taking the commercial subjects (See Table 76.) 

The number of boys enrolled for junior and senior stenography, 
typing and bookkeeping decreased from 1933 to 1934 as did the girls 
enrolled for bookkeeping. In Cecil, Kent and Wicomico these courses 
were the only commercial work offered. Fourteen counties gave com- 
mercial arithmetic. Junior business training was offered in eleven 
counties, but the total enrollment was below that of a year ago. 
Commercial geography was taught in five counties, commercial law 
in Kent only. Typing II in Carroll and Charles, office practice in 
Allegany, Carroll and Prince George's, and salesmanship in Frederick 
and Montgomery only. The enrollment in typing II, office practice, 
and salesmanship for girls was below that of the year 1933. (See Ta bl e 
79.) 

Physical Education and Music 

Baltimore County offered the most extensive opportunities for 
work in physical education carried on by trained leaders from the 
Playground Athletic League. Only ten other counties offered credit 
for work in physical education. 

Music was offered in the high schools of every county, except 
Cecil, Queen Anne's and Somerset. (See Table 76.) 

ENGLISH ENROLLMENT IN EACH OF THE FOUR YEARS 
TABLE 80 

County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 

English Taken 



Year Number Per Cent 

Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls 

1 10,394 5,185 5,209 33.9 35.6 32.4 

II 8,159 3,911 4,248 26.7 26.8 26.5 

III 6,533 3,021 3,512 21.3 20.7 21.9 

IV 5,553 2,470 3,083 18.1 16.9 19.2 



Total 30,639 14,587 16,052 100.0 100.0 100.0 



Of the 30,639 pupils enrolled in English, over one third were taking 
first year work, over one fourth were taking English II, 21 per cent 
English III, and 18 per cent Enghsh IV. The enrollment in the 
first and third years for the boys and in the third year for the girls 



County Enrollment in the Special Subjects and in English by Years 103 



was lower in 1934 than in 1933. The girls had a smaller proportion 
of their total enrollment than the boys in the first and second years 
and a higher proportion in the third and fourth years. (See Table 
80.) 

Dorchester had nearly 40 per cent of its white high school enroll- 
ment taking first year English in contrast with only 30 per cent in 
Worcester and Kent counties. The enrollment in fourth year English 
ranged between 14 per cent in Anne Arundel and Calvert and 22 per 
cent in Caroline. (See Table 81.) 



TABLE 81 

Per Cent of Enrollment Taking English in Each Year of High School, 1933-34 



COUNTY 


Number 
Enrolled 
in 

English 


Per Cent Enrolled 


in English in Years 


T 
i 


TT 
11 


TTT 
111 


1 V 


Total and Average .... 


30,639 


33.9 


26.7 


21.3 


18.1 


Allegany 


3,334 


33.1 


28.1 


21.5 


17.3 


Anne Arundel 


1,836 


35.0 


33.6 


17.4 


14.0 


Baltimore 


4,493 


36.1 


27.0 


20.6 


16.3 


Calvert 


225 


34.7 


34.2 


16.9 


14.2 


Caroline 


802 


31.4 


24.4 


22.1 


22.1 


Carroll.. 


1,549 


31.9 


28.7 


21.7 


17.7 


Cecil 


1,152 


33.8 


26.8 


22.0 


17.4 


Charles 


513 


31.0 


28.3 


22.2 


18.5 


Dorchester 


845 


39.9 


21.6 


19.9 


18.6 


Frederick. 


1,967 


33.0 


26.1 


21.7 


19.2 


Garrett 


975 


30.6 


26.3 


23.5 


19.6 


Harford 


1,386 


33.2 


26.2 


20.9 


19.7 


Howard 


511 


36.4 


27.6 


21.5 


14.5 


Kent 


538 


30.3 


24.0 


24.5 


21.2 


Montgomery 


1,584 


36.1 


20.6 


22.0 


21.3 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,159 


38.1 


23.7 


21.1 


17.1 


540 


33.5 


24.6 


23.0 


18.9 


St. Mary's., 


352 


34.9 


28.1 


21.6 


15.4 


Somerset 


701 


35.8 


24.1 


24.1 


16.0 


Talbot 


747 


31.2 


27.8 


21.1 


19.9 


Washington 


2,378 


30.8 


27.1 


21.7 


20.4 


Wicomico 


1,275 


32.5 


26.4 


19.8 


21.3 


Worcester 


777 


30.2 


26.6 


25.0 


18.2 



Wicomico and Talbot made the greatest increase from 1933 to 
1934 in the per cent of pupils enrolled for fourth year English. Only- 
six counties had a smaller percentage of pupils enrolled in the 
fourth year in 1934 than in 1933 — Calvert, Somerset, Dorchester, 
Charles, Anne Arundel and Howard. (See Table 81.) 

HIGH SCHOOL NON-PROMOTIONS AND WITHDRAWALS INCREASE 
With few exceptions the number and per cent of non-promotions 
and withdrawals in the academic and commercial subjects in county 
white high schools were larger in 1934 than in 1933. The exceptions 
were non-promotions in French for both boys and girls. The re- 



104 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

duction in girls not promoted in English, in boys not promoted in 
French, and in boys withdrawn from agriculture was counter- 
balanced by a corresponding increase in withdrawals from English 
and French and in non-promotions for agriculture. (See Table 82.) 



TABLE 82 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending July 31, 1934 





Number 




Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 
































c 




Q 




c 






a 






c 




a 








"O 








-a 




& 


















0) 












(« 

u 






S 


0) 


1 


0) 






o 


"5 


O 




o 




T3 




o 




O 




o 






. E 






J3 






Si 






Xi 


_ e 


ji 


^ 6 




Wit 


Not 
r^roi 


Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 

1 


Not 
Proi 




Wit 


1 Not 


1 Proi 


Wit 


Not 
Proi 


Wit 


|£ 


English 


2,948 


2,541 


1,739 


1,844 


1,209 


697 




9.6 


8 


.3 


11.9 


12.6 


7.5 


4.3 


Mathematics 


2,191 


2,646 


1,331 


1,583 


860 


1,063 




9.6 


11 


.6 


11.6 


13.8 


7.6 


9.4 


Social Studies 


2,567 


2,288 


1,523 


1,394 


1,044 


894 




9.5 


8 


.5 


11.8 


10.8 


7.5 


6.4 


Science 


2.244 


1,687 


1,362 


1,045 


882 


642 




10.4 


7 


.9 


12.8 


9.8 


8.1 


5.9 


Latin 


360 


626 


148 


355 


212 


271 




5.8 


10 


.1 


6.0 


14.4 


5.7 


7.2 


French 


314 


365 


173 


245 


141 


120 




6.2 


7 


.2 


9.2 


13.0 


4.4 


3.8 


Commerical 


1,504 


1,292 


762 


672 


742 


620 




11.0 


9 


.4 


14.3 


12.6 


8.9 


7.4 


Agriculture 


168 


61 


168 


61 








13.1 


4 


.8 


13.1 


4.8 





















The combined percentage for white high school boys withdrawn 
and not promoted included nearly 27 per cent in commercial subjects, 
approximately 25 per cent in English and mathematics, between 22 
and 23 per cent in the social studies, science and French, just over 20 
per cent in Latin and nearly 18 per cent in agriculture. For girls, 
mathematics proved the greatest stumbling block, 17 per cent either 
withdrawing from or failing the subject. Commercial subjects were a 
close second, over 16 per cent being lost by withdrawal or failure. 
The loss was approximately 14 per cent from the social studies and 
science, 13 per cent from Latin, and slightly over 8 per cent from 
French. In every case the per cent of withdrawals and failures was 
lower for girls than for boys. (See Ta ble 82.) 

Failures and Withdrawals of County High School Boys 
In all subjects, the percentages of withdrawal and failure were 
high in certain counties, while they were low in other counties. For 
example, in Somerset the combined per cent of withdrawal and non- 
promotion of boys ranged between 31 in commercial subjects and 54 
in agriculture. English, science, and French lost approximately three- 
eighths of the Somerset boys enrolled. At the opposite extreme in 
Washington County, the combined percentage of withdrawal and 
failure of boys in the various high school subjects kept within a 
range of 13 per cent for agriculture and 21 per cent for commercial 
subjects. One feels like raising questions whether boys who entered 
high schools in Somerset were less intelligent or less well prepared 



Withdrawals and Non-Promotions by High School Subject 



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106 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

than the boys who entered Washington County high schools, or 
whether the standards which pupils had to meet were higher in 
Somerset than in Washington County, or whether the instruction 
was less effective in Somerset than in Washington County. (See 
Tabled.) 

Taking the counties in alphabetical order, withdrawals and non- 
promotions of boys in Allegany were unusually low for agriculture 
and high for French, compared with other subjects. In Anne Arundel 
agriculture lost only 12 per cent of the boys by withdrawal or failure, 
while commercial subjects and French lost 36 and 33 per cent, 
respectively. In Baltimore County boys taking agriculture and 
Latin had few withdrawals and failures. On the other hand from 27 
to 29 per cent of boys taking commercial subjects, social studies, and 
mathematics dropped the subject or were not promoted. In Calvert, 
between a fourth and a third of the boys withdrew or failed, the 
social studies and French losing a third. In Caroline, the per cent of 
boys withdrawing or failing was comparatively low, except for com- 
mercial subjects, in which it totaled 36 per cent, and French in which 
it included over one-fourth. In Carroll, losses of boys from Latin and 
French were very low, but they were twice as great in commercial 
subjects and mathematics. In Cecil, losses of boys were least in 
commercial subjects and Latin, and at their highest in French. In 
Charles, agriculture, French and Latin had very few withdrawals 
and failures for boys, but 45 per cent lost out in commercial sub- 
jects. In Dorchester 40 per cent of the boys taking Latin withdrew or 
failed, while the corresponding percentage for French was but 17. 
Frederick boys in agriculture, Latin and French achieved greater 
success from the point of view of promotion and withdrawal than 
did those in English, commercial subjects and science. Latin and 
commercial subjects had few failures and withdrawals for Garrett 
boys compared with mathematics in which one-fourth lost out. For 
Harford boys, commercial subjects, Latin, and mathematics proved 
greater stumbling blocks than agriculture. For mathematics, 36 
per cent of the Howard County boys were withdrawn or not pro- 
moted, while corresponding percentages for commercial subjects and 
agriculture were 9 and 12, respectively. (See Table 83.) 

In Kent and Montgomery, the per cent of withdrawal and failure 
for boys in all subjects, except commercial subjects, was relatively 
low compared with other counties, although in Montgomery in 
French it reached 29 and in agriculture 26 per cent. For Prince 
George's boys, French had only 15 per cent of withdrawals and 
failures in contrast with 32 per cent for commercial subjects. In 
Queen Anne's, French seemed comparatively easy for the boys, 
since only 11 per cent withdrew or failed. In St. Mary's failures and 
withdrawals combined for boys ranged between 20 per cent for 
Latin and 30 per cent for science and mathematics. Somerset, as 
mentioned above, had among the counties some of the highest per- 
centages of failure and withdrawal for boys in most of the subjects. 



% OF Boys and Girls in Each County Withdrawn or Failed by Subject 107 

In commercial subjects only were there a number of counties having 
a higher percentage of boys withdrawn or failed than Somerset re- 
ported. French and commercial subjects caused the least trouble, 
affecting 13 and 18 per cent of the Talbot County boys by with- 
drawal or failure, while 27 per cent withdrew from or failed English, 
mathematics, and social studies. 

As mentioned before, the percentage of withdrawal and failure was 
fairly low and constant for Washington County, boys taking com- 
mercial subjects having a higher proportion of withdrawal and failure 
than any other subject — 21 per cent. 

Of Wicomico County boys taking commercial subjects, 38 per cent 
withdrew or failed. For French, however, the corresponding percent- 
age was 22. For the remaining subjects percentage of withdrawal 
and failure for boys ranged between 27 to 32 per cent, the latter 
occurring for mathematics. For Worcester boys foreign languages 
caused the greatest percentage of withdrawal and failure and agri- 
culture the lowest, only 5 per cent. (See Ta hie 83.) 

Failures and Withdrawals of County High School Girls 

For girls, withdrawals and non-promotions in English ranged from 
7 and 8 per cent in Kent, Talbot, Caroline, Harford and Charles to 
17, 18 and 19 per cent in Howard, Somerset, and Frederick, respec- 
tively. In mathematics Talbot and Kent had only 8 and 9 per cent 
of the girls withdrawn and not promoted in contrast with 25 per cent 
in Somerset, 26 per cent in Worcester and 34 per cent in Howard. 
Howard had relatively more withdrawals and failures in mathematics 
for both boys and girls than any other county. In the social studies 
only 6 and 9 per cent of the girls in Kent and Talbot withdrew or 
failed, while this was true of 22.5 per cent in Frederick and 18 per 
cent in Calvert, Howard, Somerset and Wicomico. Talbot and Kent 
again had the smallest percentage of girls who withdrew from and 
failed in science. At the opposite extreme 22, 23 and 25 per cent of 
the girls in Calvert, Somerset and Frederick, respectively, were 
not eligible for promotion in science. (See Table 83.) 

Only 3 and 5 per cent of the girls in Charles, Howard and Kent 
withdrew from and failed in Latin, but this was the case for 26, 27 
and 31 per cent in Dorchester, Cecil and Calvert, respectively. In 
French, only 1 and 3 per cent of the girls in Kent and Talbot were 
dropped or failed of promotion over against 12 and 14 per cent in 
Cecil, Montgomery and Frederick. (See TahU S3.) 

In commercial subjects the percentage of girls withdrawn and not 
promoted included 4 and 7 per cent in Kent and Howard at one 
extreme and 21, 23 and 31 per cent in Somerset, Anne Arundel and 
Frederick, respectively, at the other extreme. (See Ta hie 83.) 

In general for girls, Kent had a very low percentage of withdrawals 
and non-promotions in all subjects. Except in foreign languages, 
girls in Somerset had a very high percentage of withdrawals and non- 
promotions, as was the case in Frederick in all subjects except Latin. 
(See Table 83.) 



108 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 
In 1933-34 in the work of the last four years in the county white 
high schools a teaching staff equivalent to the full-time service of 
1,169 teachers was employed, 14 fewer than the preceding year. 
Except for social studies and mathematics, every subject had a smal- 
ler teaching staff on a full-time basis than in 1933. (See Table 84.) 

TABLE 84 



Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



subjects 


Number of 
Teachers on 
FuU-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number of 

Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


201.9 
170.3 
153.5 
150.0 
53.4 
49.9 

98.0 
74.1 
a56.1 
40.4 
25.0 
24.5 
12.8 
2.8 

56.3 

1,169.0 


151 
151 
151 
151 
115 
96 

68 
115 
79 
111 
41 
36 
19 
9 








Social Studies 








Mathematics 








Science 








French and Spanish .. 
Latin 














Commercial 








Home Economics 
Industrial Arts 


18 
14 
b22 

7 


39 
30 
51 
15 


105 
76 
85 
34 


Music 


Agriculture 


Physical Education.... 
Library 








Art 








Administration and 
Supervision 








Total 





















a Includes teachers of mechanical drawing and vocational industrial arts. 

b Includes an orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools which already have 
a regular music teacher, and a music supervisor in Frederick who teaches in 3 schools which have a 
regular music instructor. 



English, with 202 teachers on a full-time basis, had more teachers 
than any other subject. The number of teachers of social studies on a 
full-time basis was 170, while mathematics required 154 and science 
150 teachers. French and Spanish required over 53 teachers and 
Latin had 50 teachers on a full-time basis. (See Table M.) 

The full-time equivalent of 98 teachers was required for instruction 
in the commercial subjects. Home economics with 74 teachers on a 
full-time basis, actually required the services of 105 different teachers 
instructing in 115 schools. Industrial arts and vocational work in 
trades and industries with a full-time staff of 56 teachers included 76 
different teachers who taught in 79 schools. (See Table 84.) 



White County High School Teachers by Subject and Certification 109 



Music with 40 teachers on a full-time basis was taught in 111 schools 
by 85 individuals. There were 25 full-time teachers of agriculture, but 
actually 34 individuals gave instruction in 41 schools. Physical 
education required the services of 24.5 teachers on a full-time basis, 
and the art courses were given by the equivalent of 3 full-time in- 
structors. (See r«^/d 84.) 

Eighteen schools employed the services of 13 librarians or teacher- 
librarians on a full-time basis. Administration and supervision 
required on a full-time basis 56 principals and vice-principals. The 
principals in 8 large county high schools who devoted all their time 
to administrative and supervisory work did no teaching. (See Table 
84.) 

Five counties employed clerks in 16 large schools at an annual 
salary cost of $9,632. The average salary of $602 is much lower 
than that paid a teacher, and the principal is relieved of many 
clerical and routine duties making it possible for him to devote his 
time to constructive professional supervision. (See Table 85.) 



TABLE 85 

Number of Clerks in County White High Schools, 1933-34 

Average 

No. of Total Annual 



County Clerks Salaries Salary 

Total 16 $9,632 $602 

Allegany..... 8 4,525 566 

Montgomery 3 2,250 750 

Baltimore 3 1,688 563 

Anne Arundel 1 669 669 

Frederick 1 500 500 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Of 877 principals and teachers employed in regular and senior 
white high schools in all counties except Baltimore and Montgomery 
in October, 1934, 97.2 per cent held regular principals' and high 
school assistants' certificates. There were 24 high school instructors 
holding provisional certificates or employed as substitutes or 2.7 
per cent. Of 429 principals and teachers in junior-senior high schools 
in 6 counties, 89 per cent held regular principals' and high school 
teachers' certificates, 8.9 per cent had regular first grade certificates, 
and 2.3 per cent were substitutes or held provisional certificates. 
Of 86 principals and teachers in junior high schools of four counties, 
68.6 per cent were certificated as principals or regular high school 
assistants, 29.1 per cent as holding elementary first grade certificates, 
and 2.3 per cent were substitutes or provisionally certificated. 
Similar data for individual counties are given in detail in Table 
XIII, page 297. 



110 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The number of white high school teachers in service in October, 
1934, who attended summer school in 1934 was 356, a smaller num- 
ber than for any year since 1929. They represented 25.6 per cent of 
the staff in junior-senior, junior, regular and senior high schools. 
(See Table 86.) 

TABLE 86 



White High School Teachers Who Were 
Summer School Attendants 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


232 


31.0 


1925 


280 


32.3 


1926 


281 


30.7 


1927 


319 


32.7 


1928 


296 


28.4 


1929 


367 


33.5 


1930 


410 


34.3 


1931 


448 


36.1 


1932 


*472 


35.1 


1933 


*357 


26.3 


1934 


*356 


25.6 



* Includes teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools. 



TABLE 87 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 1934, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1934 



County 



Total. 



Charles 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Allegany 

Caroline.. 

Howard 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Prince George's. 

Frederick..., 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Dorchester _ 

Cecil 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Wicomico 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1934, Who 

-\ttended Summer 
School in 1934 



Number 


Per Cent 


a*356 


25.6 


15 


62.5 


16 


42.1 


bl2 


40.0 


13 


36.1 


60 


33.0 


12 


32.4 


8 


32.0 


25 


30.1 


6 


27.3 


25 


26.9 


22 


26.5 


*39 


25.2 


7 


21.2 


26 


21.1 


2 


20.0 


c8 


19.5 


9 


19.1 


22 


18.3 


2 


18.2 


9 


15.8 


10 


14.5 


3 


12.5 


5 


10.2 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Teachers' College, Columbia Univ 

Western Maryland College 

Penn State 

University of Chicago 

University of Virginia..._ 

Duke University 

University of Wisconsin 

Catholic University.. _ 

Cornell University 

Maryland Institute of Art 

George Washington University 

Ohio State University.,^ 

Temple University 

University of North Carolina 

University of Michigan 

Rutgers University 

State Teachers' College 

Frederickburg, Va 

All Others 

Travel 



Number 

of 
White 
High 
School 

Teacherst 



* Excludes supervisor. 

t Inciudes teachers in junior as well as in regular and senior high schools, 
a Includes 3 who travelled, 
b Includes one who travelled, 
c Includes 2 who travelled. 



Summer School Attendance; Jun., Jun.-Sen. High Schools; Resignations 111 



Among the counties, the per cent of summer school attendance 
ranged between 10 and 63 per cent. In Charles, Garrett, Somerset 
and Worcester Counties, over 35 per cent of the white high school 
teachers were summer school attendants. At the opposite extreme, 
less than one fifth of the white high school teachers in Wicomico, 
Kent, Anne Arundel, Harford, St. Mary's, Washington, Cecil and 
Dorchester went to summer school in 1934. (See Table 87.) 

The University of Maryland attracted 129 or 36.2 per cent of 
the county high school teachers. Johns Hopkins came second with 
52 or 14.6 per cent. Teachers College, Columbia University, third 
with 46, and Western Maryland College fcurth with 22 high school 
teachers who attended summer school. (See Table 87.) 

GROWTH OF STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH 

SCHOOLS 

The number of teachers serving in junior and junior-senior high 
schools grew from 125 in Allegany County in October, 1926, to 513 
in eight counties in October, 1933. Allegany still has the largest 
number, 153, but Baltimore County is a close second with 148, 
and Montgomery, which was the second county to have junior- 
senior high schools, employs 109 teachers in them. Dorchester em- 
ployed 8 teachers in the junior-senior high school at Hurlock in 
October, 1933. (See Table 88.) 



TABLE 88 

Teachers in County White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dorch- 


October 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


ester 


1926 


125 


125 
















1927 


155 


134 


21 














1928 


175 


138 


37 














1929 


179 


137 


42 














1930 


217 


138 


51 


28 












1931 


334 


146 


96 


33 


44 


15 








1932 


362 


151 


101 


33 


44 


15 


13 


5 




1933 


513 


153 


109 


23 


44 


15 


13 


148 


8 



FEWER RESIGNATIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Between October, 1932, and October, 1933, there were many fewer 
resignations of white high school teachers than for any year since 
1927-28 when the study of causes of resignation was begun. There 
were 79 resignations from regular and senior white high schools and 
19 from junior and junior-senior high schools. (See Table 89.) 

Marriage continued the chief cause of resignation, 20 having left 
the regular and senior high schools and 4 the junior-senior and junior 
high schools for this cause. The economy program and reduction 
in enrollment brought about the abolition of 13 positions. From the 
regular and senior high schools 8 and from the junior and junior- 
senior high schools 3 entered work other than teaching. For num- 
ber who resigned or were dropped because of inefficiency, provisional 



112 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



certificate or failure to attend summer school, rejection by the Med- 
ical Board, acceptance of other teaching and administrative positions, 
retirement, illness, etc., see Ta ble 89. 

TABLE 89 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County Regular and Senior White High Schools and from Junior and Junior-Senior 
High Schools Between October of One Year and October of the Following Year 



year 



OXfl 



O.S 



5 ^ 

ill 



HO 



o c 

:?.2 



o o 

o 

o . 



w 6. 



^ o 6 



White Regular and Senior High Schools 



1927-1928 


20 


41 


2 




19 


37 


5 


2 


2 


5 




2 


13 


148 


7 


36 


6 


1928-1929 


19 


44 


7 




19 


53 


3 


5 




10 




2 


4 


166 


17 


50 


7 


1929-1930 


17 


43 


6 




17 


50 


4 


5 


2 


2 




2 


15 


163 


9 


37 


22 


1930-1931 


29 


36 


11 




16 


33 


4 


4 


3 


1 




1 


9 


147 


4 


27 


63 


1931-1932 


26 


22 


11 


9 


7 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


14 


107 


7 


15 


26 


1932-1933 


5 


20 


3 


13 


8 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


4 


9 


79 


2 


7 


114 



White Junior and Junior-Senior High Schools 



1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1932 

1932- 1933 



14 



There were 114 who transferred from regular high schools to junior- 
senior high schools. Practically all of these were in Baltimore 
County which added the seventh grade to the high school organiza- 
tion in all of the larger high schools. (See last column in Table 89.) 

TURNOVER IN HIGH SCHOOLS LOWEST ON RECORD 
It is to be expected with the smallest number of resignations on 
record and the establishment of only a few additional positions, 14, 
some of which were due to the addition of the seventh grade in 
elementary schools to junior high school status, that the turnover 
among high school teachers would be lower than ever before. For 
regular and senior high schools in the counties, the turnover was 
only 58 or 6.8 per cent of the number of teaching positions, while 
for junior and junior-senior high schools it was 49 or 9.5 per cent 
of the number of positions. These figures do not take into considera- 
tion teachers transferring from one county to another or reorganiza- 
tions due to adopting a junior or junior-senior type of organization 
if the same individuals continue to teach. (See Table 90.) 



Resignations and Turnover of White High School Teachers 



113 



TABLE 90 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular and Senior High and Junior and Junior- 
Senior High School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1933-34 







New to 




Number New to County High Schools Who Were 






County 


Change in 






















Number of 






















Teaching 






Experienced 










t 
+ 




Positions 




















October 














County 




Num- 


tPer 


of One Year 


Inex- 




in Counties 




From 


Sub- 






ber 


Cent 


to 


peri- 




but not 




Other 


sti- 










October 


enced 


but 


in 


From 


Types of 


tutes 










of Following 




New 


Service 


An- 


Schools 


and 










Year 




to 


Preceding 


other 


in Same 


others 














State 


Year 


County 


County 




Total and 






















Average 






















1930-31* 




°272 


25.0 


+ 69 


180 


55 


26 


38 


10 


11 






°66 


21.7 


+38 


25 


16 


6 


1 


6 


19 


1931-32* 




°177 


17.6 


— 23 


135 


27 


13 


25 


3 


2 






°68 


19.7 


+ 117 


37 


23 


6 


2 


88 


2 


1932-33* 




°104 


10.9 


—43 


66 


12 


19 


13 


4 


7 






°29 


8.0 


+ 28 


15 


11 


2 


3 


29 


1 


1933-34* 




°58 


6.8 


—138 


39 


10 


8 


5 


11 


1 






°49 


9.5 


+ 152 


31 


4 


9 


4 


140 


5 


Cecil 




1 


2.1 

3.3 




1 














1 


—1 








1 








1 


4.2 


1 












1 


4.2 


— 1 






1 






Oueen Anne's . . 


1 


4.5 


—2 




1 











Dorchester* 




2 


5.9 


—9 


2 










■■■( 




+8 










8 




Carroll 




4 


4.9 


3 


1 











Washineton* .. f 


4 


5.5 




2 


2 




1 








2 


4.5 




1 








1 




Allegany* 


„„! 


2 


6.3 




1 


1 




1 








8 


5.2 


+3 


6 


2 




3 




Harford 




3 


5.6 


+ 2 


1 




2 








Wicomico 


3 


6.1 


—1 


3 










Frederick* f 


5 


7.5 


—2 


4 






^ 


1 






\ 


2 


13.3 




2 










Garrett 




4 


10.3 


—1 


3 




1 








Calvert 


1 


11.1 






1 






Prince 




4 


c o 


+ 7 


1 


1 


1 


8 


1 


George's* 


....{ 


6 


26.1 


— 10 






2 


1 




Q 

£. 


Worcester 




4 


11.1 


—5 


2 


2 










Howard 


3 


12.0 




3 












Baltimore* 




1 


16.7 


—127 


1 












{ 


18 


11.8 


+ 143 


10 


1 


3 


1 


126 


3 


Talbot 




4 


12.1 


+ 1 


4 












Montgomeryt. 


14 
8 


12.7 


+8 


9 


1 


2 


2 


2 




Anne Arundel 


13.1 


+ 1 


4 


4 










Caroline* 




3 


10.7 


—1 


2 












{ 


3 


21.4 


2 




1 








St. Mary's. 




3 


25.0 


+ 1 


2 






1 






Baltimore 


( 


1 


.2 
.8 


+ 2 


1 










Citv 


\ 


5 


+ 36 


3 




2 








Entire State.... / 


59 


4.6 


—136 


40 


10 


8 


5 


11 


1 




\ 


54 


4.7 


+ 188 


34 


4 


11 


4 


140 


5 



* Top row of figures includes teachers in regular and senior high schools; bottom row represents 
teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools. 

t All secondary schools in Montgomery are organized as junior-senior high schools. 

X In computing number and percentage of turnover teachers who have been transferred from 
regular high schools in the same county, junior and junior-senior high schools have been excluded, and 
vice versa. 

° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

Inexperienced teachers appointed included 39 in the regular and 
senior high schools and 31 in the junior and junior-senior high schools. 



114 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Teachers with previous experience who were not in service in Mary- 
land the preceding year numbered 18 in regular and senior high 
schools and 13 in junior and junior-senior high schools. (See Table 
90.) 

Among the counties the per cent of turnover ranged from one 
teacher representing less than 5 per cent of the high school staff in 
Cecil, Somerset, Charles, Kent and Queen Anne's to over 12 per 
cent of the staff in Talbot, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Caroline 
and St. Mary's. (See T^/'/^ 90.) 

TABLE 91 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inencperidnced 
White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Regular and Senior High 
Schools: Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teaching Experience in 
Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland Counties, for School Year, 1933-34 



state of 
college 
attended 


Total 


Allegany 


1 Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


1 Kent j 


Montgomery 


Prince George's ! 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


1 Talbot j 


Washington 


Wicomico 


1 Worcester 


Inexperienced Teachers Employed ^^or School Year, 1933-1934 


Total . - - - 


*70 a6 

1 


4 


til 




b3 


3 


1 


1 


2 


b6 


3 


1 


3 




t9 


c2 




2 




4 


c3 




3 




Maryland 


°48 

al9 
dl] 


f3 

b2 
cl 


4 
3 


d8 

b2 
cl 
f3 




c2 
c2 


3 
3 


1 


1 




b3 


1 




3 




a6 


c2 




2 
2 




3 


c2 
cl 


2 
2 


2 
2 


Western Maryland 






1 




1 






1 
1 




e4 


c2 










Goucher 


f5 
b4 
c3 

3 
b2 

1 
c6 
c5 
f3 
b3 
f5 








1 
















St. Joseph's 




















b2 










1 


1 












c2 




















1 
















Washington 
















1 
















1 








Hood 
















b2 
























Notre Dame 






































1 
1 








Virginia 


cl 
cl 


















2 


2 


















1 






Pennsylvania 


















1 
















1 


























f3 














3 Other States 


cl 








cl 


































1 






f3 










2 





































































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed ^or School Year 1933-1934 



Total 


el4 


b3 


4 


cl 




1 


1 


















cl 


1 


1 












1 






























Maryland 


3 
c2 
c2 
b6 

1 












1 




















1 


1 














Pennsylvania 


1 
cl 
cl 


























cl 














Wisconsin 










































1 


6 other States. 


3 
1 


cl 




1 




































Unknown 



















































































* Includes 31 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools. 

° Includes 21 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

t Includes 10 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools. 

X Includes 9 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

a Includes 6 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

b Includes 2 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

c Includes 1 teacher in a junior or junior-senior high school, 

d Includes 7 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

e Includes 4 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools, 

f Includes 3 teachers in junior or junior-senior high schools. 



Turnover, Training and Experience of White High School Teachers 115 

Of the 70 inexperienced teachers appointed to the high school 
staffs in the counties, 48 graduated from colleges in Maryland, and 
14 from adjoining states. Of those graduating from^ Maryland 
colleges, Western Maryland contributed 19, the University of 
Maryland 11. Goucher 5, St. Joseph's 4, Johns Hopkins and Wash- 
ington College 3 each. Hood 2. (See Table 91.) 

MARYLAND 1933 COLLEGE GRADUATES WHO MET CERTIFICATE 
REQUIREMENTS AND WHO RECEIVED COUNTY HIGH 
SCHOOL POSITIONS 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1933 graduates from the 
counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive Maryland 
high school certificates and who actually received county high school 
positions. Of 144 Maryland county 1933 graduates eligible, the col- 
leges reported county high school positions in 1933-34 for 41 or over 
28 per cent, i^e Table 92.) 

The excess in placements of graduates of the University of Mary- 
land, Goucher, John Hopkins and Notre Dame appearing in Table 
91 over Table 92, is undoubtedly due to the inclusion in TdbU 
91 of graduates of preceding years. 

TABLE 92 

Maryland Students Who Completed, in June 1933, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the 
Number of Graduates Who Took Positions in the County 
High Schools in the Fall of 1933 

Number of Graduates 
Who Met Requirements 

for Certification from Who Received 





Maryland 


Baltimore 


Md. County High 


College 


Counties 


City 


School Positions 


University of Maryland 


47 


4 


6 


Washington 


27 




4 


Hood 


8 




2 


Western Maryland 


45 


4 


20 


St. Joseph's 


10 




4 


Notre Dame 


1 


"l 





Goucher _ 


4 


19 


3 


Johns Hopkins University 


2 


4 


2 


Total 


144 


38 


41 



EXPERIENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The high school teaching staff is becoming more stabilized each year. 
Ten years ago in October 1924, the median experience of 791 white 
high school teachers was only 4 years. In October 1934, it was 6.8 
years for 1,392 white high school teachers. The median teaching 
experience of 515 members of the staff in the senior-junior and junior 
high schools of seven counties was 7.8 years, while that of 877 teachers 
in regular and senior high schools was 6.5 years. (See Table 93.) 

The number of junior-senior and junior high school teachers hav- 
ing no experience and experience of each year from one year to ten 
years ranged between 28 and 41, except for the group with two 



116 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Experience and Sex of County White High School Teachers 117 



years' experience, which included only 18. The corresponding group 
in regular and senior high schools numbered in each year from 42 to 
85 teachers, with the exception of the nine year group which con- 
tained only 28. There were 41 inexperienced teachers in the junior 
senior high schools and 75 in the regular and senior schools. These 
figures were increases of 8 and 39 over similar figures for the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 93.) 

In individual counties the median experience in junior-senior high 
schools ranged between 5.3 years in Brunswick, Frederick County, 
and 10 years in Allegany junior-senior high schools. In the regular 
high schools the median experience for the 11 teachers in St. Mary's 
county was only 2.8 years in contrast with the upper extreme, 11.5 
years, the median experience of the 24 Kent County high school 
teachers. (See Table 93.) 

Every county having junior-senior or junior high schools showed 
an increase over October 1933 in the median years of experience 
ranging from a half year to over one year. For regular and senior 
high school teachers there was an increase in median years of ex- 
perience over October 1933 in all counties, except Allegany, Dor- 
chester, Frederick and Prince George's, which showed decreases, 
and Somerset and Worcester, which remained stationary. (See 
Table 93.) 

MORE MEN TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOLS 
TABLE 94 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year 
1923.. 
1924.. 
1925.. 
1926.. 
1927.. 
1928.. 



Number 
.. 253 
271 
.. 283 
.. 303 
.. 307 
.. 333 



Per Cent 
36.9 
36.2 
35.1 
35.0 
33.7 
34.3 



Year 
1929. 
1930. 
1931.. 
1932.. 
1933.. 
1934.. 



Number Per Cent 



348 
365 
416 
430 
430 
440 



34.4 
34.0 
35.9 
35.7 
36.3 
37.7 



TABLE 85 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 



Total and Average 

Prince George's 

Kent 

Anne Arundel._ 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Howard. 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



440.2 

23 

7 
18 

9.8 
39 
17 

8 

3 
17 
26 

8 



37.7 

28.8 
29.2 
30.3 
30.4 
30.5 
31.7 
32.9 
33.3 
35.0 
36.2 
36.4 



COUNTY 



Cecil 

Dorchester.. 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Frederick..... 

Charles 

Caroline 

St. Mary's... 
Worcester... 
Washington 
Garrett 



Men Teaching 



Number 



17 
15 
12 
45. 
32 
31. 
10 
16 
5 
17 
41 
22 



Per C«nt 



37.2 
39.1 
40.0 
40.0 
40.5 
40.9 
41.7 
44.3 
46.3 
47.2 
47.6 
57.9 



118 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of men teachers in white high schools continued to 
show gains over preceding years, there being 440, or 37.7 per cent of 
the staff in 1933-34. This was a gain of 10 in number and 1.4 in per 
cent over the year preceding. (See Table 94.) 

Allegany with 46 had the largest number of men employed in 
high schools, Washingtan came second with 41, and Baltimore 
County third with 39. In proportion of men employed on the staiff, 
there was a range from 29 to 58 per cent. (See Ta bte 95.) 

In Prince George's, Kent, Anne Arundel, Talbot, Baltimore, Har- 
ford and Howard Counties, less than one third of the staff were men. 
In Carroll, Frederick, Charles, Caroline, St. Mary's, Worcester, 
Washington, and Garrett, men made up over 40 per cent of the white 
high school teaching staff. (See Ta bl e 95. ) 

NUMBER OF APPROVED WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

There was practically no change in the number of white high 
schools for the school year 1933-34. The only difference was due to 
provision of State-aid for two one-year high schools at Brooklyn 
and Linthicum Heights which had previously been a part of the Glen 
Burnie High School in Anne Arundel County. Of the 151 county 
white high schools, 136 were first group schools and 15 were one-year 
or junior high schools. (See Table 96 and Chart 15.) 
^ The number of high schools in the counties included 2 in Calvert 
and St. Mary's and 12 in Allegany and Baltimore Counties. If the 



TABLE 96 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Year and 


Total 


Group 


County 


Total 


Group 


County 




°1 


°2 


1 


1 


2 


Total Counties: 








Charles 


5 


5 




1920 


82 


*69 


tl3 


Dorchester 


6 


6 






Frederick. 


7 


7 




1925 


148 


*130 


tl8 
tl4 


Garrett 


6 


6 




1926 


150 


*136 


Harford 


8 


8 




1927 _ 


152 


*137 


tl5 
12 


Howard 


5 


4 


1 


1928 


153 


141 


Kent 


4 


4 




1929 


151 


141 


10 


Montgomery 


7 


7 




1930 


152 


142 


10 
9 


Prince George's 


11 


10 


n 


1931 


153 


144 


Queen Anne's 


5 


5 


1932 


152 


140 


12 


St. Mary's 


2 


2 




1933 


149 


136 


13 


Somerset 


4 


4 




1934 


151 


136 




Talbot 


6 


6 






Washington.^ 


8 


6 




Allegany 


12 
6 


9 


2 


Wicomico 


7 


7 


Anne Arundel 


4 


Worcester 


5 


5 




Baltimore 


12 


6 


t6 










Calvert 


2 


2 


Baltimore City.„ 


6 


6 




CaroIine.„„ 


5 


5 












Carroll 


10 


10 




State 


157 


142 




Cecil - - 


8 


8 























° First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment 
of 15, an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one- 
year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

j Each X represents one junior high school. ° Includes 7 junior high schools. 



120 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



range in number of first group schools only is considered, there were 
2 in Calvert and St. Mary's and 10 in Carroll and Prince George's. 
(See Table 96 and Chart 15.) 

SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1933-34 the median county white high school had a teaching 
staff of 6 including the principal. In five of the smallest schools there 
was only one high school teacher. Four of these schools were one- 
year high schools which were a part of junior high school organiza- 
tions including the seventh (and eighth) grade, and the fifth was a 
second group school. The largest county high schools had 32, 35 and 
36 teachers at Catonsville, Hagerstown Senior, and Frederick, 
respectively. {See Table 97,) 

TABLE 97 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County White High Schools, 
Year Ending July 31, 1934. 



Allegany 


Anne Arundel | 


Baltimore | 


Calvert | 


Caroline | 


Carroll J 


Cecil 1 


Charles | 


Dorchester | 


Frederick | 


Garrett | 


Harford | 


Howard | 


Kent 1 


Montgomery | 


Prince George's ] 


Queen Anne's | 


St. Mary's | 


Somerset | 


Talbot 1 


Washington | 


Wicomico | 


Worcester 1 


12 


6 


12 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 


2 




2 




















1 






















2 


i' 

1 


2 


1 






1 
1 


1 


1 
1 




1 


i 




1 




2 


2 




1 


1 

2 




2 
2 






1 




1 




1 


2 


2 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 




1 




1 


2 


2 


2 


1 




1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


"i 




2 


4 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 
1 


1 






1 




3 


1 








1 


1 




5 


1 


1 




1 




1 






1 




1 




1 


1 












1 




1 


i 




1 




1 


1 


i 








1 














1 


2 






1 




1 








1 










1 




2 


1 








1 






























1 




1 


1 


































1 






1 












1 






1 


















1 


1 




























1 




1 








































1 




















2 
















1 














































1 
























1 










1 


















1 




















1 






































1 




























1 


















1 




























































































1 










































1 












































1 








































1 








1 
















































































1 
























1 









































































Number of Teachers* 



Total 



151 



* Midpoint of interval. 

SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The median county white high school had an average enrollment 
of 118 pupils, but this represented a group having three schools with 
fewer than 25 pupils, and, at the other extreme, three schools with 
over 900 pupils. Catonsville High School had the largest average 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County White High Schools 121 



enrollment, nearly 1,177; Hagerstown Senior had the next highest 
number, 1,036; and Frederick had 904. It will be noted that al- 
though Catonsville had 273 more pupils than Frederick, it had four 
fewer teachers. Likewise Salisbury with an average enrollment of 
725 had the same number of teachers as Towson for 845 pupils. 
(See Table 97 and 98.) 

TABLE 98 

Size of Enrollment in Maryland Countv White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Average Number 
Belonging 



Total 

Less 
than 25 . 

26- 40.. 

41- 50. 

51- 75.. 

76- 100.. 
101- 125 . 
126- 150.. 
151- 175.. 
176- 200.. 
201- 225 . 
226- 250.. 
251- 275-. 
276- 300.. 
301- 325 . 
326- 350.. 
351- 375.. 
376- 400.. 
401- 425 . 
426- 450.. 
451- 475.. 
476- 500.. 

526- 550 . 

576- 600.. 
601- 625.. 
626- 650 .. 
701- 725... 

801- 825 .. 
826- 850... 

901- 925.. 

1026-1050. 

1176-1200. 



151 



Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


12 


6 


12 
2 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 
1 


6 


2 


1 




1 










1 








1 






1 




























1 


1 


1 




1 
















1 


1 








2 




1 








2 


2 


2 






2 


1 


1 


1 


2 








2 




2 


2 






1 




1 


2 








3 




2 






1 




2 






1 




1 




1 






1 


4 


2 








3 




i' 




1 


■3 


1 


i 








2 








1 






1 




1 








i 


1 












2 










1 


1 


2 






1 






1 






1 


1 


1 








1 




i 








1 




2 


1 








i 




1 




i 








1 






1 




1 




















1 










2 




1 


































2 








"i 






























1 












1 




1 


























1 
















1 












1 
























1 


























1 






































1 




















1 










































1 




































1 








































1 


































1 


































































1 






















1 








































1 














































1 


1 




































































1 
























































1 




1 














































1 


1 


























































1 




































































1 










1 

















































































RATIO OF TEACHERS TO HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS LOWER 

Because of the necessity of meeting lower State budget appro- 
priations for high school transportation and caring for additional 
enrollment without appointing additional teachers, the ratio of 
county high school pupils to the number of teachers and principals 
increased from 24.4 in 1933 to 24.8 in 1934. (See Chart 16.) 



122 



1934 Repoet of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average number belonging per teacher ranged from 18.8 in 
Carroll to 33.4 in Baltimore County. Three Counties, Baltimore, St. 
Mary's and Anne Arundel, had a higher pupil average per teacher and 
principal than Baltimore City. The increase in enrollment without 
a corresponding increase in teachers accounts for the increase in 
number belonging per teacher in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Prince 
George's, Talbot and Dorchester. The decrease in number belong- 
ing per teacher and principal in eleven counties is explained in 

CHART 16 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



Covmty 


1932 


1933 


Co. Average 


22.5 


24.4 


Baltimore 


27.5 


32.2 


St. Mary'E 


29.6 


32.5 


Anne Arundel 


22.3 


27.3 


Allegeny 


24.9 


27.9 


Washington 


26.1 


27.0 


Pr. George's 


21.3 


23.5 


Wicomico 


24.0 


23.9 


Harford 


23.0 


24.8 


Garrett 


20.4 


24.2 


Que^ Anne ' s 


22.0 


21.6 


Frederick 


23.4 


24.1 


Cecil 


22.8 


23.9 


Calvert 


23.9 


24.9 


Talbot 


19.6 


21.8 


Montgomery- 


18.9 


21.5 


Caroline 


19.6 


20.2 


Kent 


20.7 


20.7 


Dorchester 


21.1 


19.8 


Somerset 


21.4 


21.4 


Charles 


18.8 


20.8 


Worcester 


18.3 


19.1 


Howard 


17.2 


19.3 


Carroll 


16.4 


18.9 


Balto. City* 


25.6 


28.4+ 


State 


23.2 


25.5 



* Senior high schools only. 

t The average for the first term in 1932-33 was 27.3 and for the second term 29.4. 



No. OF Pupils and Average Salary per White High School Teacher 123 



seven counties — Allegany, Washington, Frederick, Calvert, Somerset, 
Carroll and Garrett — by the decrease in enrollment. (See Chart 
16 and Table 63, page 82.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER AND 
PRINCIPAL BACK TO 1922 LEVEL 

The average salary per county high school teacher and principal 
increased gradually but steadily, with a sHght exception in 1930, 
from 1917 to 1932, the average paid in the latter year being $1,571. 
The higher qualifications and the increase of experience account for 
the larger salaries. In 1933 there was a drop to $1,532, and in 1934, 
a much greater drop to $1,394. The reduction from 1932 to 1934 
totalled 11.3 per cent. It is necessary to seek a year prior to the school 
year 1922-23 to find an average salary as low as that paid in 1933-34. , 
(See Table 99.) 

TABLE 99 

Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 1917-1934 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$ 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 
1,477 
1,485 


1926 


$1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 
1,571 
1,532 
1,394 


1918 


1927 


1919 


1928 


1920 


1929 


1921 


1930 


1922. 


1931 


1923 


1932 


1924 


1933 


1925.. 


1934 



In individual counties the average salaries began to decline after 
1931 in Baltimore, Allegany, Frederick, Garrett, Charles, Talbot, 
Howard, Worcester, CaroHne and St. Mary's; after 1932 in Anne 
Arundel, Queen Anne's, Harford, Washington, Calvert, Prince 
George's, Dorchester, Wicomico and Carroll; and not until after 
the school year ending in June, 1933, in Montgomery, Cecil, Somer- 
set and Kent. Most of the decHnes after 1931 were due to the ap- 
pointment of large numbers of inexperienced teachers who brought 
down the average for the group. None of the counties reduced their 
salary schedules before the school year 1932-33. In Baltimore 
County 10 per cent reductions took effect in January, 1933; there 
were reductions in the Carroll salary schedule in the fall of 1932 and 
in the Anne Arundel schedule in January, 1933. In the fall of 1933, 
all counties except Baltimore, which had taken a voluntary reduction 
of 10 per cent in January, 1933, put into effect reductions of 10 
per cent, or 10 to 12 per cent depending on amount of salary, from 
the salaries paid in 1932-33, and in many counties no increments 
due to experience were paid. (See Chart 17.) 



124 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average salary per principal and teacher in the counties in 
1933-34 varied from $1,146 in St. Mary's to $1,658 in Baltimore 
County. In eight counties the average paid was under $1,300 and 
in only seven counties was it over $1,400, leaving a middle group of 
eight counties with average salaries ranging from $1,301 to $1,399. 
(See Chart 17.) 

CHART 17 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1931 1932 1935 1934 
Co. Av. tl568 $1571 $1532 

Balto. 




Wicomico 1401 
Caro. 1493 
Carroll 1452 
St. M. 1427 



Balto. 2501 2334 2196 
Cityt 

State 1818 1780 1715 



* Since the county changed from a twelve-month to a ten-month basis of salary payments at the 
end of the school year 1932-33 the average salary shown includes one-twelfth more than was actually 
earned during the year 1932-33. 



Salaries of White High School Teachers 



125 



In Baltimore City salary reductions of per cent began in 
January, 1932. In January, 1933, reductions of 5 per cent were 
made on salaries under $1,000, of 73^ per cent on salaries from $1,000 
to $1,199, and of 10 per cent on salaries of $1,200 and over. In Jan- 

TABLE 100 

Distribution of Salaries of White Junior and Junior-Senior and of Regular and 
Senior High School Teachers in Service, October, 1934. 



ASSISTANT 


TEACHERS 


PRINCIPALS 








No. of 




No. of 


No. of 


No. of 




Prin- 




Prin- 


Salary Teachers 


Salary Teachers 


Salary 


cipals 


Salary 


cipals 



JUNIOR AND JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



$800 


or less |5 


$1,550 


8 


$1,950 


1 


$3,000 


1 


900 




1,600 


15 


2,050 


2 


3,050 


1 


950 


'"3 


1,650 


9 


2,100 


1 




1,000 


15 


1,700 


19 


2,150 


2 


3,150 


"4 


1,050 


18 


1,750 


6 


2,250 


3 


3,200 


1 


1,100 


37 


1,800 


59 


2,350 


1 


3,500 


2 


1.150 


31 


1,850 


2 


2,400 


3 




1,200 


57 


1,900 


3 


2,450 


1 






1,250 


49 


1,950 


4 


2,500 


1 






1,300 


22 


2,000 


1 


2,550 


3 






1,350 


55 


2,100 


1 


2,600 


1 






1,400 


25 


2,150 


4 


2,700 


2 






1,450 


15 


2,400 


1 


2,750 


3 






1,500 


16 


2,600 


1 


2,800 


1 






Total 


481 


Total 






■""34 




Median 




$1,353 


Median 






$2,583 













REGULAR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



$900 or less *11 
950 

98 
91 
93 
71 
129 
52 
38 
53 
23 
30 
16 
14 
7 

Total 

Median.. 



$1,650 
1,700 
1,750 
1,800 
1,850 
1,900 
1,950 
2,000 
2,050 
2,100 

2,500" 



4 
5 
13 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 



761 
$1,206 



$1,350 
1,400 
1,450 
1,550 
1,600 
1,650 
1,700 
1,750 
1,800 
1,850 
1,900 
1,950 
2,000 
2,050 
2,100 



Total... 
Median. 



2 


$2,150 


4 


2 


2,200 


5 


1 


2,250 


5 


8 


2,360 


2 


3 


2,400 


4 


1 


2,500 


1 


13 


2,550 


1 


10 


2,600 


1 


8 


2,700 


3 


8 


2,750 


2 


5 


2,850 


1 


6 


3,050 


2 


3 


3,150 


1 


10 


3,200 


1 


3 


'ii6 



$1,920 



t Includes one part-time teacher receiving a salary of $517. 

* Includes all part-tinne teachers receiving salaries less than $900. 



126 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



uary, 1934, there were no reductiors on salaries under $1,200, but 
there were deductions of 5 per cent on salaries from $1,200 to $2,099 
and of per cent on those $2,100 or over. In January, 1935, 
Baltimore City exempted salaries under $1,500 from salary 
reductions, made the deduction 3 per cent for salaries from $1,500 to 
$2,099, and 6 per cent for salaries of $2,100 and above. The re- 
ductions in salaries in Baltimore City, which began in January, 
1932, were at their maximum for the calendar year 1933, and began 
to be restored in January, 1934. This is reflected in the average salaries 
of senior high school teachers which were $2,501 for the school year 
1930-31, decHned to $2,334 in 1932, to $2,196 in 1933, and increased 
to $2,379 in 1934, a cut of less than 5 per cent from the amount paid 
in 1931. (See Chart 17.) 

The distribution of salaries paid in the counties in October, 1934, 
shows an increase from $1,293 to $1,353 in the median salary of 481 
teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools, but the median 
salary of 34 principals of these schools decreased from $2,608 to 
$2,583. In regular and senior high schools the median salary of 
teachers remained $1,206, the same as for the preceding October, 
while for 116 principals the median salary was $1,920 compared with 
$1,960 for October, 1933. (See Table 100.) 

The minimum salary schedule, decreased by 10 to 12 per cent by 
the legislation of 1933, and providing for no increments because of 
experience, is continued in effect for 1934-35. If the Board of Public 
Works provides partial restoration from the $500,000 cushion fund 
available in the 1936 and 1937 State school budgets, it will be pos- 
sible to reduce the cuts to 5 and 6 per cent of the minimum State 
salary schedule, without provision for increments over 1932-33. 

INCREASED ENROLLMENT vs. DECREASED TEACHING STAFF AND 

SALARY BUDGET 

Although the total county white high school enrollment in the 
last four years of high school was 2,489 or 8.7 per cent greater in 
1934 than it was in 1932, the number of white high school teachers 

TABLE 101 

Change from 1932-34 in County White High School Enrollment, Teaching Staff 
and Salaries Last Four Years of County White High School 



No. of Salaries of 

Year Enrollment Teachers Teachers 

1932..._ 28,547 1,204 $1,891,000 

1933. 30,778 1,183 1,807,000 

1934. „_ 31,036 1,169 1,635,000 

1932-34 Change 

Amount -f2,489 —35 —$256,000 

Percent... +8.7% —2.9% —13.5% 



Increased Enrollment vs. Decreased Staff and Salary B 



Expenditures for Salaries 
(in Thousands of Dollars) 


1 


1 ?iS§2!;ss;;gSsss5g§2J;;g3?i3» 
„- - e - 


1 




i 








1 


1 






i 

c 

1 
1 


i 




i 




i 




i 




1 








1 


i 


1 ||pi|pi||p§||iiii|p 


i 




i 




i 


|. ^ « ^ ^ 


i 


9,333 

1,093 
326 
954 

341 
571 


i 




County 


J 11 


Charles 

Dorchester.. 

Frederick 

Garrett 


Kent 


Moritgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 





128 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



employed, at its peak in 1932 with 1,204 in service, decreased to 
1,183 in 1933 and to 1,169 in 1934, a reduction of 3 per cent from 
1932. The salary budget showed even greater reduction, the peak 
of $1,891,000 in 1932 dropping to $1,635,000 in 1934, a decrease of 
13.5 per cent (See Table 101.) 

Although about one half of the counties show increases and the 
other half decreases from 1933 to 1934 in high school enrollment, 
when comparison is made between 1932 and 1934, all of the counties, 
except four on the Eastern Shore — Caroline, Dorchester, Somerset 
and Worcester — show increases in enrollment. (See Table 63, 
page 82, and Table 102, also Table 101, page 136, in the 1933 report.) 

In comparing the teaching staff for 1933 with that of 1934 it will 
be noted that all counties, except five — Baltimore, Harford, Mont- 
gomery, St. Mary's and Talbot, decreased their white high school 
teaching staff or kept it stationary. When comparison is made 
between 1932 and 1934 all counties decreased their staffs, except 
six, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Cecil, Harford, St. Mary's and Wicomico, 
which had increases, and Charles and Queen Anne's, which re- 
mained stationary. (See Table 102.) 

Expenditures for teachers' salaries decreased from 1932 and from 
1933 to 1934 in every county, except Anne Arundel, which went 
from a twelve-month basis of payment to a ten-month basis, which 
comphcates the comparison, and Calvert, which remained stationary. 
In Calvert, which has a very small staff, the decrease in teachers' 
salaries offset the salary of the additional teacher appointed. (See 
Table 102.) 

COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL LESS 

Since 1931 there has been a steady decrease in the current expense 
cost per county white high school pupil. In 1931 the cost was $99, 
in 1932 it was $95, in 1933 it decreased to $83, and in 1934 to $76. 
The decrease in average salary per teacher and the increase in the 
average number of pupils per instructor were the two chief factors 
affecting the cost per pupil. (See Chart 18.) 

The cost per pupil was lower in 1934 than it was in 1933 in every 
county, except Calvert and Frederick, the former having the high- 
est current expense per white high school pupil in the State, $108. 
In Baltimore City, which had a partial salary restoration in Jan- 
uary, 1934, the pupil cost also showed an increase from $95 tc $99 
from 1933 to 1934. The cost per pupil was higher in 1931 than in any 
subsequent year in eleven counties, while in eight counties it was 
higher in 1932 than in any year following. In three counties the 
cost per pupil was stationary in 1931 and 1932. In Dorchester there 
was considerable fluctuation in the per pupil cost from 1931 to 1934. 
(See Chart 18.) 

Cost per white high school pupil had a range from $63 in Baltimore 
County to $108 in Calvert in 1934. The large size of classes in Balti- 
more County more than offset the fact that salaries were higher than 



More Pupils vs. Lower Salaries; Cost per White High School Pupil 129 

CHART 18 



COST PER VrfHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPHISES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1931 
Co. Average $ 99 

Calvert 115 

Charles 106 

Carroll 121 

Howard 114 

Queen Anne' s 105 

Worcester 110 

Dorchester 106 

Garrett 112 

Kent 105 

St. Mary's 108 

Montgomery 123 

Somerset 98 

Cecil 99 

Talbot 99 

Caroline 102 

Pr. George's 94 

Frederick 81 

Ylficoniico 80 

Harford 93 

Allegany 98 

Anne Arundel 117 

Washington 75 

Baltimore 93 

Balto. City<- 127 115 95 

State 107 101 86 




* Excludes $73 for junior high and $127 for vocational schools. 

those paid in any other county, making the cost per pupil $4 lower 
than in any other county in the State. Baltimore, Washington, 
Anne Arundel, Allegany, Harford, Wicomico and Frederick Counties 
each spent less than $75 per white high school pupil for current 
expenses. At the opposite extreme, six counties, Calvert, Charles, 
Carroll, Howard, Queen Anne's and Worcester, each spent over $90 
per white high school pupil. (See Chart 18.) 



130 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Only two counties, Calvert and Charles, spent more per high school 
pupil for current expenses than Baltimore City. (See Chart 18.) 

Analysis of Cost per White High School Pupil 

The current expense cost of $76.21 per white high school pupil 
was made up of the following factors: salaries of teachers $56.05, 
books, materials and other costs of instruction $3.86, operation of 
buildings $5.43, maintenance of buildings $2.51, and auxiliary agen- 
cies, including transportation, libraries and health, $8.36 per white 
high school pupil. The average cost of each of these factors, except 
only maintenance, was lower than for the year preceding. The in- 
crease in the cost per pupil for maintenance is explained by the con- 
tributions of materials and supervision furnished by the county 
boards of education in order that civil works projects on school build- 
ings and grounds could be carried through. (See Tables 103 and 
172, page 223.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The salary cost per white high school pupil ranged between $38 
in St. Mary's and $68 in Montgomery. St. Mary's had the lowest 
average salary in the State (See Chart 17) and ranked next to 
Baltimore County in high ratio of pupils to teachers. (See Chart 16.) 
On the other hand, Montgomery ranked fourth from the top in 
average salary per teacher and fifteenth in average belonging per 
teacher. Every county, except Calvert, had a lower salary cost per 
pupil in 1934 than in 1933. (See columns 1 and 8 in Table 103,) 

In Baltimore City the salary cost per white senior high school 
pupil was $83.66, an increase of nearly $6 over 1933. This cost was 
considerably higher than that found in any county. 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government for one-half of the 
salaries of instructors in vocational education was received by 16 
counties. In Garrett, Howard and Queen Anne's, in which counties 
a large proportion of the high school pupils took vocational work, 
the federal aid per high school pupil totaled $6.90, $6.81 and $5.74 
per white high school pupil belonging. (See Table 104.) 

By reporting the reimbursement per pupil from federal funds it is 
possible to show the effect of including or excluding this amount on 
the rank in salary costs for the 16 counties which offer vocational 
education. The greatest effect of Federal aid on rank appears in 
Howard which would drop from third to twelfth place, according to 
whether the federal aid were included or excluded. Queen Anne's 
would change from tenth to fifteenth, Garrett which is sixteenth, 
when federal aid is included, would stand twentieth were this 
amount excluded, and Charles would drop from fourth to eighth 
place. (See J^/'/e 104.) 

Receipts of each county toward the salaries of day vocational 
teachers of agriculture, home economics, and industries from federal 
funds and from other sources, which include county funds plus 



Analysis of Cost per White High School Pupil 



131 



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132 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 104 

Comparison of 1934 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and 
Exclusive of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



1934 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 

Rank Among 23 Counties Federal 
Including Excluding Including Excluding Aid Per 



County 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


H.S. 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Pupil 


Average for 23 Counties .. 


$56.05 


$54.25 






$1.80 


Montgomery 


67.55 


65.04 


1 


1 


2.51 


Worcester 


62.48 


61.23 


5 


3 


1.25 


Dorchester 


62.45 


60.68 


6 


5 


1.77 


Somerset 


61.72 


60.27 


7 


7 


1.45 


Charles 


63.30 


59.95 


4 


8 


3.35 


Caroline 


58.51 


56.75 


12 


11 


1.76 


Howard 


63.45 


56.64 


3 


12 


6.81 


Harford 


59.24 


55.78 


11 


13 


3.46 


Frederick 


57.61 


55.18 


15 


14 


2.43 


Queen Anne's 


60.40 


54.66 


10 


15 


5.74 


Allegany 


55.53 


54.01 


17 


16 


1.52 


Prince George's 


54.22 


52.74 


18 


17 


1.48 


Washington 


53.67 


50.26 


19 


19 


3.41 


Garrett 


55.82 


48.92 


16 


20 


6.90 


Anne Arundel 


49.60 


48.70 


21 


21 


.90 


Baltimore 


47.99 


47.21 


22 


22 


.78 



state aid either from the high school or the Equalization fund, 
showed a total decrease of over $12,000, of which approximately- 
half or $6,000 was in federal funds. Teachers of vocational agri- 
culture had their salaries reduced by $6,000, those in home economics 
by $4,000, and those in all day and part-time industries classes by 
$2,000 under amounts paid in 1933. (See Table 105.) 

Instruction in vocational agriculture at Stevensville in Queen 
Anne's County was abandoned in order to make it possible to organ- 
ize the work and increase the time for instruction at Centreville. 
A new department was opened at Prince Frederick in Calvert County 
in the fall of 1934. 

The work in vocational home economics reached a greater number 
of pupils in 1934 over 1933 in every county except Queen Anne's 
and Charles. 

The enrollment of all day classes in industries in the seven counties 
offering courses showed a decrease from 1933 to 1934. Part-time 
classes in Allegany and Washington showed an increase. 

Expenditures per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other Than Salaries 

The amount spent per pupil for books, materials and ''other costs 
of instruction" other than salaries fell within a range from $1.52 to 
$5.55. Ten counties spent more for these purposes in 1934 than in 
1933. Seven counties showed a lower expenditure per pupil for these 
purposes than the $3.02 spent in Baltimore City. The specific State 



Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Education 



133 



TABLE 105 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
For Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 



AGRICULTURE 
White 

Garrett 

Frederick.- 

Harford 

Washington 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Baltimore „ 

Montgomery._ 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Prince George's . 

Charles 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel.„ 

Somerset 

Colored 

Caroline 

— Charles 

Prince George's 

Total 

HOME economics 
White 

Garrett 

Howard 

Harford 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline.... 

Charles "Zl 

Prince George's 

Montgomery.. . . 

Frederick*- 

Colored 

Caroline.- 

Charles ZZ"!! 

Total 

INDUSTRIES 
All-Day Classes 

Washington 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Caroline.- 

Total All-Day 

Part-Time 

Washington.— 

Allegany 

Total Part-Time 

Total Industries. 

Grand Total 



Expenditures for Salaries of County 
Vocational Teachers from 









rou- 


County 






ment 


Funds 


Federal 


Total 




and 


Funds 






State Aidt 








$3,725.98 


$3,725.99 


$7,451.97 


194 


3,493.70 


3,493.69 


6,987.39 


161 


2,911.75 


2,911.73 


5,823.48 


123 


2,812.42 


2,812.42 


5,624.84 


83 


2,380.75 


2,380.75 


4,761.50 


64 


1,300.71 


I no o T i 

l,9oo.71 


3,977.4<i 


04 


1,004.03 


l,ob4.dy 


TOQ "70 
O, ( ^O. (O 


( 


1,04 /.OU 


1 Oon AA 


O Ci^A f\f\ 

o, 654. 00 


Q1 
31 


1,542.21 


1,542.21 


O f\Q A /4 O 

3,084.4^ 


RA 


1,429.95 


1 AnC\ AO 

1,429.30 


O O CA oo 

2,859.00 


Do 


1,160.01 


1 1 Cf\ AA 


O OOA A1 
£,,610.01 


1 


l,U7U.yO 


1 A^A AA 

i,07u.yo 


2,141.80 


A 1 


921.82 


921.80 


1 O >4 O ^O 

l,84o.b2 


00 




no A QT 


1,841.96 


40 


QA'7 Qfi 

yu ( .ou 


907.80 


1,815.60 


33 


454.65 


454.65 


909.30 


38 


250.00 


250.00 


500.00 


A 1 


194.99 


194.99 


389.98 


28 


$29,858.02 


$29,857.93 


$59,715.95 


1,309 


$2,574.56 


(^0 CT y4 C A 

$2,574.54 


»T 1 O 1 A 

$5,149.10 


Z04 


1 QAO 1 Q 

i,oUo.iy 


1 QAO 1 1 

l,oUo.l ( 


o,bUb.ob 


1 91 


1,584.00 


1,584.00 


O 1 CQ AA 

o,lbo.00 


103 


1 1 T A O 

1,170.61 


1,170.35 


O O A r\ TO 


79 


1 AO A KA 


1 AOA CA 

1,0^U.5U 


O A ^ 1 AA 


47 


DDD.by 


bbb.by 


1 O Q O O Q 

1 ,ooo.oo 


56 


645.27 


645.23 


1,290.50 


26 


591.67 


591.67 


1,183.34 


45 


576.85 


576.85 


1,153.70 


69 


267.30 


267.30 


534.60 


31 


50.00 


50.00 


100.00 




450.00 


450.00 


900.00 


80 


302.40 


302.40 


604.80 


65 


$11,702.80 


$11,702.70 


$23,405.50 


956 


$d,ol4.1o 


$0, 314.14 


»C C<yQ OA 

$b,bzo.30 


97 


1,856.25 


1,856.25 


3,712.50 


39 


1,490.63 


1,490.63 


2,981.26 


66 


1,237.50 


1,237.50 


2,475.00 


49 


950.00 


950.00 


1,900.00 


47 


817.50 


817.50 


1,635.00 


19 


712.00 


712.00 


1,424.00 


34 


$10,378.04 


$10,378.02 


$20,756.06 


351 


$1,592.00 


$1,592.00 


$3,184.00 


19 


360.00 


360.00 


$720.00 


65 


$1,952.00 


$1,952.00 


$3,904.00 


84 


$12,330.04 


$12,330.02 


$24,660.06 


435 


$53,890.86 


$53,890.65 


$107,781.51 


2,700 



* Amount paid to Frederick County for a practice teacher from Hood College who instructs at 
the Walkersville High School. 

t Includes state aid through high school aid and Equalization Fund. 



134 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



aid for books and materials was 87 J/^ cents per pupil, exclusive of 
funds for this purpose provided in the Equalization Fund. (See 
columns 2 and 9 in Table 103, page 131.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

The range in cost per county pupil for heating and cleaning 
buildings was from $4.16 to $9.40. Over one half of the counties and 
Baltimore City showed higher costs for these purposes than were 
reported for the preceding year. No county spent as much as Balti- 
more City, $9.77 per senior high school pupil for operation of school 
buildings. (See Table 103.) 

For maintenance, the variation in expenditure was very much 
greater — from 46, 62 and 92 cents per pupil in Anne Arundel, 
Caroline and Calvert, respectively, to $6.59 in Prince George's. 
The use of county funds to buy materials and pay for stipervision 
in connection with civil works projects on schools probably accounts 
for the increased expenditures per pupil for repairs in fourteen 
counties from 1933 to 1934. (See Table 172, pages 222 to 223.) 

Cost per White High School Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies Shows Decline 

Auxiliary agencies is a term used to cover combined expenditures 
for transportation, libraries, health and community activities. Costs 
for these combined purposes had a variation from 75 cents per pupil 
in Harford, which does little in the way of transporting high school 
pupils at county expense, to $37.78 per pupil in St. Mary's which 
transports all of its high school pupils at county expense. Ten of the 
counties showed an increase in this cost per pupil from 1933 to 1934. 
In Baltimore City the expenditure per pupil for this purpose was 
almost negligible, eight cents. (See columns 5 and 12 in Table 103.) 

Pupils Transported Increase While Costs Decrease 

All except eight counties increased the number of pupils trans- 
ported to white high schools at county expense, the total number 
transported being 10,536, including 34.5 per cent of all white county 
high school pupils. The decreases which occurred in eight counties 
in number of white high school pupils transported at public ex- 
pense, except in Queen Anne's, Kent, and Baltimore Counties, 
accompanied a decrease in total white high school enrollment. In 
Harford, only 88 white pupils were transported to high school at 
public expense, whereas in neighboring Baltimore County, 1,142 
pupils were thus transported. (See Table 106.) 

The number of high schools, their distribution, and the concen- 
tration of population in larger centers bear a close relation to the per 
cent of white high school pupils transported at public expense. 
St. Mary's and Calvert, entirely rural, each having only two county 
white high schools, transported 100 and 91 per cent, respectively, 
of their white pupils to high schools. Counties with many high 
schools located in thickly populated centers do not need to transport 



Pupil Cost for Operation, Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies 135 

large numbers of pupils living within walking distance of the high 
school. All or some of these factors account for the smaller per 
cent of pupils transported to high school in Frederick, Allegany, 
Prince George's, Washington and Baltimore Counties. (See first 
two columns in Table 106.) 

TABLE 1C6 

Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School 
Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Transportation 



COUNTY 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
ExF>ense 


Amount 
Spent 
From 


Cast 
Per 
Pupil 










Public 


Trans- 






Pe 


r 


Funds 


ported 


- 


Number 


Cent 








Total and 














Average ... 


10,536 


34 


5 


$224,725 


$21 


33 


St. Mary's .. 


347 


100 





12,071 


34 


79 


Calvert 


203 


91 





7,403 


36 


47 


Charles 


368 


71 





11,484 


31 


21 


Garrett 


614 


63 


2 


20,577 


33 


51 


Queen 














Anne's 


329 


61 


2 


10,305 


31 


32 


Kent 


276 


51 


8 


6,401 


23 


19 


Anne 














Arundel.... 


900 


49 





22,107 


24 


56 


Dorchester .. 


404 


47 


3 


9,714 


24 


05 


Carroll 


883 


57 


7 


17,089 


19 


35 


Howard 


243 


47 


4 


5,508 


22 


66 


Somerset 


281 


41 


7 


7,023 


24 


99 


Worcester.... 


412 


53 


4 


8,076 


19 


60 


Caroline 


449 


55 


4 


7,790 


17 


35 


Talbot 


295 


40 


1 


6,493 


22 


01 


Wicomico . 


512 


39 


4 


8,896 


17 


37 


Cecil 


445 


38 


8 


7,272 


16 


34 


Baltimore .. 


1,142 


25 


4 


15,102 


13 


22 


Washington 


544 


23 





10,823 


19 


89 


Frederick. 


269 


13 


8 


7,909 


29 


40 


Prince 














George's .. 


429 


20 


2 


8,156 


19 


01 


Allegany- 


606 


18 


.3 


10,697 


17 


65 


Montgomery 


497 


30 


8 


3,286 


6 


61 


Harford 


88 


6 


.5 


543 


6 


17 









Health and 




Libraries 




Physical 






Education 




Amount per 






Total 






Total 


Amount 


Expen- 






Expen- 


Per 


ditures 


School 


Teacher 


ditures 


Pupil 


$3,509 


$23.24 


$3 . 00 


$11,805 


$.41 








10 


.05 


39 


7.75 


1.62 


125 


.25 


366 


61.04 


9.64 






7 


1.30 


.30 


47 


.09 


32 


8.02 


1.34 


85 


.17 


25 


4.17 


.42 


306 


.17 


201 


33.46 


5.23 


24 


.03 


586 


58.62 


7.42 






20 


4.00 


.82 










30 


6.00 


.83 






32 


.04 


74 


12.37 


2.30 






274 


39.19 


5.64 






172 


21.46 


3.76 






485 


40.42 


3.79 


9,390 


2.20 


153 


19.15 


1.78 


131 


.06 


235 


33.57 


3.03 






30 


2.73 


.38 


200 


.10 


260 


21.67 


2.28 


498 


.16 


91 


13.04 


1.27 


957 


.61 


429 


53.59 


8 .00 











The expenditures for transporting county pupils to white high 
schools, $224,725, were $9,606 lower than for the preceding year. 
Ten counties, however, spent more than in the preceding year, but 
in eight of these counties the number transported was larger in the 
later than in the earlier year. Most of the counties renewed con- 
tracts which expired on a lower cost basis and thus were able to re- 
duce the cost of transportation. Some of the counties like Harford, 
Montgomery, Frederick, Baltimore and Howard spent little be- 
cause the parents of pupils contribute from $10 to $30 per year to- 
ward the cost of transporting high school pupils. (See column 3 in 
Table 106.) 

The 1934 average cost per county pupil transported, $21.33, was 
$1.73 lower than the corresponding figure in 1933. The expenditure 



136 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



by the public per pupil transported was lowest in Harford, $6.17, 
and highest in Calvert, $36.47. Calvert is the only county in the 
State using a motor boat for transportation and it proves to be ex- 
pensive. Other counties which spent over $30 per pupil transported 
were St. Mary's, Garrett, Queen Anne's and Charles. It is claimed 
that the gravel roads in Southern Maryland are particularly hard on 
tires. Other factors affecting cost are distance travelled, type of 
road, steepness of grade, type of car, equipment and capacity of car. 
The cost per pupil to the public shown for Harford, Montgomery, 
Baltimore, Frederick and Howard must be supplemented by the 
amount paid by parents of pupils who contributed individually and 
not through public taxation toward the cost of high school trans- 
portation. (See fourth column in Table 106.) 

There were seven counties which had higher costs per pupil 
transported in 1934 than in 1933. They were Calvert, Charles, 
Queen Anne's, Howard, Wicomico, Washington and Harford. (See 
Table 106.) 

County Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Nineteen counties spent $3,509 for books for high school libraries, 
Carroll spending the maximum amount $586. The expenditure per 
high school varied from nothing in St. Mary's, Calvert, Somerset 
and Caroline to $54, $59 and $61 in Harford, Carroll and Garrett. 
The average spent per white high school teacher, $3, expressed the 
centi^al tendency for the four counties which spent nothing and five 
counties, Garrett, Harford, Carroll, Wicomico and Dorchester, 
which expended more than $5 per teacher. (See columns 5-7 in Table 
106.) 

COOPERATION FROM THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION* 

The county white high schools borrowed 4,148 books from the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission, which is now located 
on the third floor, Enoch Pratt Library Building, 400 Cathedral 
Street, Baltimore, Maryland. This number borrowed is 2,118 fewer 
than the number in 1932-33. The counties showing increases in the 
use of these books were Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Frederick, St. 
Mary's and Worcester. (See Table 107.) 

Traveling school libraries are collections of books loaned for a 
period of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are fixed collections but 
are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transportation must 
be met and guarantee of reimbursement for lost or damaged books 
is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs 

* Data furnished by Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries. 



Transportation & Library Service to White County High School Pupils 137 

or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned to anyone liv- 
ing in Maryland who is without access to a public library. 

TABLE 107 



Service of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to County White 
High Schools, School Year, 1933-1934 







Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 




Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 














County 


Number of 


Number of 




Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


/1931.... 
) 1932. ... 
Total.... ) 1933 ... 

^,1934... 


3,236 
4,562 
6,266 
4,148 


■ ■ ■ 

31 
31 
35 
35 


47 
48 
45 
39 


77 
105 
148 

91 


27 
49 
47 
37 


32 
54 
57 
63 


125 
189 
331 
324 


Allegany..... 


a83 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


13 


Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 


cbfTO 
fl,713 

38 


6 


1 
6 


1 

34 


1 

7 


3 
13 


12 
130 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Caroline. 


550 


4 


4 


13 


4 


7 


31 


Carroll 


81 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


12 


Cecil 


f31 








2 


4 


12 

5 


Charles 


cb27 








1 


2 


Dorchester 


cl54 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


28 


Frederick 


cllO 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


16 


Garrett 


f409 


5 


5 


12 


1 


1 


5 


Harford 


cbf329 


2 


4 


10 


1 


4 


1 . 


Howard 


52 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


5 


















Montgomery. 
Prince George's 


gl34 
6 


4 


3 


4 


2 
1 


2 
1 


4 

2 












St. Mary's 


39 








1 


2 


6 


Somerset 


35 


1 


1 


1 






Talbot 


d 












Washington 


d 














Wicomico 


of 30 








2 




13 


Worcester 


f257 


2 


5 


6 


3 


7 


14 

















a Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools in Cumberland from its own collections. In 
addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of the Cumberland schools and 
supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited Ifbrary service given by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no out- 
side help. 

f Teachers also supplied through school librarian or principal. 

g Silver Springs Public Library supplies the nearby schools from its own collections also. 

The decrease in the use of the Commission is the result of two 
things. First the book appropriation was cut 90%; second, the 
transportation item was so reduced that borrowers are now required 
to pay all carrying charges. 

At their request, the Director of Public Libraries assisted all 
high schools in Montgomery County to organize their libraries 
during 1933-34. 

Because of lack of funds there was no Library Institute at Hood 
College under the auspices of the Maryland Library Commission in 
the summer of 1934. Several high school librarians and teacher 



138 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



librarians in the past have taken advantage of the opportunity 
afforded by the institute for special library training. 

Health and Physical Education Expenditures Increase to $11,805 

Twelve counties invested $11,805 in health, physical education and 
community activities in 1933-34, an increase of nearly $2,000 over 
expenditures the year preceding. Most of the total expended was for 
instruction in physical education under P. A. L. leaders in Baltimore 
County high schools, which cost $9,390 and averaged $2.20 per 
high school pupil. Montgomery County with an expenditure of 
$957 invested 61 cents per pupil for health. Other counties which 
made expenditures for these purposes in 1934 which did not do so in 

1933 were Washington, Charles, Caroline, Dorchester and Calvert. 
(See Table 106.) 

For the school activities of the State and County Health De- 
partments, see pages 66 to 71. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay reported for white high schools for the year 1933-34 
totalled nearly $803,000 although over half of the total or $426,000 
for Wicomico County should have been reported for the preceding 
year. Montgomery and Allegany both invested over $131,000 in 
their high school housing programs, while Prince George's had a 
capital outlay of nearly $47,000. Prince George's and Montgomery 
both received P. W. A. funds toward their construction programs. 
(See next to last column in Table 108.) 

The total capital outlay for county white high schools from 1920 
to 1934 totaled $9,680,000 of which $1,847,000 was the total outlay 
in Baltimore County, $1,274,000 in Allegany County, $823,000 in 
Montgomery, $732,000 in Anne Arundel, $708,000 in Washington, 
$597,000 in Wicomico, $493,000 in Prince George's, $480,000 in 
Frederick, $390,000 in Carroll, $345,000 in Dorchester, $342,000 in 
Cecil and $309,000 in Harford. In many of the counties capital 
outlay was possible through the proceeds from the issue of bonds, 
but several counties, notably Carroll, Cecil, Garrett and St. Mary's, 
have financed their capital outlay without issuing bonds. (See last 
column Table 108.) 

The average capital outlay per county white high school pupil in 

1934 was $27.66 which included $357.56 in Wicomico County, 
$84.11 in Montgomery, $42.25 in Allegany, and $23.23 in Prince 
George's County. (See Columns 7 and 14 in Table 103, page 131.) 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

One of the effects of the reduction in the budget of the State 
Department of Education beginning October, 1933, was the retire- 
ment from the State staff of Mr. Samuel M. North, who was the 
first State supervisor of high schools and had been in continuous 
service since 1916. In consequence it was necessary for 1933-34 to 
divide the work of high school supervision between the two rem-ain- 



Capital Outlay for White High Schools 



139 



00 in t- 00 ;o a> t- «o .-( 00 o CO ^ ^ o o o o CO o +- 

C-u3t0a>OO00^00«Ot-«JOC^lC0"5OOOO-^O 
C<J00iftC<lQ0iO50C<JOOCJ-«t00O N 00 "5 0^0^0_0_C^)^0_ 

.-ico co"<a"ar^*oo"io*o'c^3r^*^o*eo NtO'tfoo oo oo t- »ft 

t-CO-«J>WrOOO-«1"^-<1'«ir3000— iNOl^kOt-OO^t- 

Nt-00 ^ so « — > ec ■<»■ -H ec (M oo c<i t~ in m 



»^U5t-00<Oait-t£l-<S<M'^00 

t-»o«o<?>oooo-^ooeoot^to 

M^00_iO 04 00 "5 ^.<N ® 



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* i 



I w 00 CO in ;o o Oi 

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iM^ooN : ■<r eo 05 1~ CO in 




II 



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140 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ing supervisors, who had been appointed in 1921 and 1925, respec- 
tively. Unfortunately, the untimely death of Mr. William K. Klinga- 
man in February, 1934, left Mr. E. Clarke Fontaine the sole remain- 
ing State high school supervisor. 

The State Board of Education in May 1934 appointed Mr. Thomas 
G. Pullen, Jr., then Superintendent of Schools in Talbot County, to 
the position of State supervisor of high schools for the school year 
1934-35. His territory is the central section of the State east of 
Washington County and west of Harford. At the same time, Mr. 
James E. Spitznas, formerly supervisor of high schools in Allegany 
County and in 1933-34 principal of the Allegany County High School, 
was given the supervision of the three westernmost counties, Garrett, 
Allegany and Washington. (See Tabic 109.) 



TABLE 109 

Supervision of White High Schools by State High School Supervisors 1934-35 

Number Number of Number of 

Section of Public High Teachersf 

Counties Schools 

Western 3 26 194 

Central 9 60 427 

Eastern 11 64 367 

t Excludes teachers of home economics, industrial arts, and agriculture. 

High school teachers of agriculture, home economics, and in- 
dustrial arts during 1933-34 were supervised by the respective 
supervisors of these subjects on the State staff. 

Because there was need for more supervision of high school teach- 
ers than could be given by the State high school supervisors, Balti- 
more and Montgomery Counties employed full-time county high 
school supervisors, and a high school principal in Anne Arundel 
County was assigned to supervision of the remaining high 
schools of the county for part of his time. In each of the remaining 
20 counties any supervision of high schools supplementary to that 
given by the State supervisors was given by the county superinten- 
dent and (or) high school principals. 

The work of the State high school supervisors includes visits to 
schools to check on organization and administration, visits to class- 
rooms especially of recently appointed teachers to make suggestions 
regarding improvement of instruction or to more mature teachers who 
need help according to the judgment of the principal, participation 
in conferences of teachers to advise and guide in curriculum con- 
struction, and in conferences of principals to discuss problems of 
administration and supervision. The State high school supervisors 
meet once a month to go over common problems and to determine 
high school aid. It is their function to stimulate principals and 
teachers to do the finest type of work of which they are capable so 
that the high school work offered will constantly fit more closely 
the needs of the boys and girls who attend. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



26,347 COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS ENROLLED IN 
COUNTIES IN 1934 

The county colored elementary schools enrolled 26,347 pupils in 
1934, a decrease of 361 pupils under the enrollment of the preceding 
year. Seven counties — Baltimore, Worcester, Dorchester, Calvert, 
Kent, Harford and Allegany — showed slightly larger enrollments 
in the colored elementary schools than in 1933, but only four counties 
— Anne Arundel, Prince George's, Baltimore and Allegany — had 
higher enrollments in colored elementary schools in 1934 than those 
reported for 1923. (See Table 110.) 



TABLE 110 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates, 
for Years Ending July 31, 1923, 1933 and 1934. 



County 



Total Counties.. 

Anne Arundel.... 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Charles 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

St. Mary's.„ 

Talbot 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 



t31,070 

2,853 
2,781 
1,942 
1,898 
2,255 
1,803 
2.088 
1,947 
1,675 
1,343 
1,405 
1.373 



1933 



t26,708 

2,974 
2,909 
2,004 
1,789 
1,734 
1,639 
1,530 
1,433 
1,450 
1,140 
1,170 
1.023 



1934 



t26.347 

2,966 
2,901 
2,022 
1,730 
1,701 
1,633 
1,541 
1,440 
1,386 
1.151 
1,145 
943 



County 



Frederick 

Kent 

Harford 

Caroline...^ 

Queen Anne's.. 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Washington 

Baltimore City 

State 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 



1,150 
1,188 
916 
1,188 
1,093 
848 
548 
440 
267 
377 

tl5,675 

t46,745 



1933 



872 
854 
801 
834 
814 
605 
434 
384 
269 
296 

t23,343 

t50,061 



1934 



872 
859 
826 
809 
755 
583 
407 
374 
275 
272 

t24,649 

t50,996 



t Total excludes duplicates. 



In Baltimore City the enrollment in the colored elementary 
schools increased from 23,343 in 1933 to 24,649 in 1934, a gain of 
1,306 pupils. The increased enrollment in the Baltimore City colored 
elementary schools of 8,974 since 1923 is much greater than the 
decrease of 4,723 in county elementary school pupils. The colored 
population in Baltimore City is undoubtedly being recruited not 
only from the rural sections of the State, but also from other states. 
(See Tabic 110.) 

The decline in the colored birth rate from 1920 to 1933, of which 
the decline to 1927 is perhaps another important factor in explaining 
the decrease in the colored school population in 1934, is counter- 
acted in the city and a few of the counties adjacent to cities by 
migration from elsewhere. (See Tables 111 and 112.) 

141 



142 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 111 



Birth Rate Per Thousand Colored Population, 1920 to 1933 

(Figures Furnished by State Department of Health) 



23 



Baltimore 
City 



Entire 
State 



Year 



Counties 



1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



28.6 
30.8 
28.2 
27.9 
27.0 
25.9 
25.0 
23.6 
24.1 
23.6 
23.5 
22.9 
23.5 
21.9 



26.1 
25.7 
24.4 
25.8 
26.0 
25.6 
25.8 
25.1 
24.4 
23.1 
22.6 
21.5 
21.1 
20.8 



27.5 
28.5 
26.5 
26.9 
26.5 
25.7 
25.4 
24.3 
24.2 
23.3 
23.1 
22.1 
22.3 
21.3 



In addition to the public school enrollment, there were 607 
colored pupils enrolled in 8 county Catholic parochial elementary 
schools and 1,066 in 9 Catholic parochial elementary schools in 
Baltimore City. There were also 8 colored elementary pupils en- 
rolled at the Princess Anne Academy in Somerset Coimty and 138 
in a Lutheran school in Baltimore City. (See Tables III-V, pages 
286 to 289.) 

COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN OVER 168 DAYS 

The dates for the opening of the colored schools in 1933-34 ranged 
from September 5 to October 2, while the closing dates extended from 
May 4 to June 22. A conference of teachers and principals was held 
in every county prior to the opening of school. (See Table 113.) 

The average length of session in the county colored elementary 
schools in 1934 was 168.3 days, a half day longer than for the pre- 
ceding year. The length of the colored elementary school session in 
the counties ranged from nearly 161 days in Kent and Queen Anne's 
to almost 192 days in Baltimore County. Baltimore, Allegany, 
Washington, Cecil and Carroll Counties had the colored schools 
open as long as the white schools were open. In seven counties in 
which the colored high schools were open fewer than 170 days, the 
high schools did not have a longer session than the colored ele- 
mentary schools. These counties were Queen Anne's, Calvert, 
Somerset, Wicomico, Worcester, Caroline, and Montgomery. In 
Baltimore City the colored schools were in session for 190 days. (See 
Table 113.) 



Colored Birth Rate; Length of Session' Colored School 



OOIUIOOlA\. 



U0^3uil{SBjY^ 



c; Oi ^ ici 



^^asjauiog 



ift C~ CJ ( 



XJ^luo3:^uoJ/\I 



pjOJJBH 



in 



ot-;Dt>^o^xo^(N«r.ot- 



auii0JB3 



iiliiiliiii 



avaA 



144 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 113 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



county 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline..— 

Carroll 

Cecil .„ 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City.. 



School Year 1933-34 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 


Last 


Day 


Day 


of 


of 


School 


School 


9/11 


6/15 


9/6 


a5/ll 


9/5 


6/22 


9/5 


5/4 


9/18 


5/31 


9 /5 


6 /8 


9/7 


6/15 


10/2 


5/31 


9/25 


a5/25 


9/6 


a5/9 


9/15 


a5/31 


10/2 


6/5 


blO/2 


6/1 


9/12 


5/18 


9/11 


5/31 


10/2 


5/31 


10/2 


6/6 


9/11 


5/18 


clO/2 


d6/5 


9/5 


6/7 


9/11 


5/11 


9/18 


5/18 


9/7 


6/20 



Average Days in Session 



county 



County Average. 



Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's. 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Caroline.- 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Frederick...- 

Howard 

Charles 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 



Baltimore City.. 
State Average.-. 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



173.9 



187.0 
188.0 
189.0 
188.0 
173.9 
179.1 
169,0 
185.8 
166.0 
188.0 
163.9 
163.0 
162.8 
173.0 
185.0 



180.0 
162.0 



182.0 
160.0 



180.0 
182.0 



Colored 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 



168.3 

191.9 
188.0 
187.3 
185.1 
184.0 
173.7 
171.7 
168.1 
165.5 
164.9 
163.9 
163.6 
163.3 
163.2 
162.9 
162.7 
162.2 
162.0 
161.4 
161.1 
160.8 
160.8 

190.0 

179.1 



a High school, 6/8. 
c High school, 9/11. 



b High school, 9/6. 
d High school, 6/12. 



In 1934 there were 10 colored schools in 5 counties which were 
open fewer than 160 days, the number of days required by law. This 
is a smaller number than for any of the five preceding years shown, 
indicating that the counties are succeeding in their efforts to have 
every school open for at least the legal session. (See Tabte 114.) 

TABLE 114 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer than 169 Days, 
the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year and by County, for 1934 



Year 



Number 



1929 53 

1930 41 

1931 - 34 

1932 12 

1933 32 

1934 10 



County Number 

Charles 1 

Dorchester 1 

Worcester 1 

Calvert 3 

Howard 4 



ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Due partly to the unusually bad weather and road conditions in 
February, 1934, there was an average of only 84 per cent of at- 
tendance for the average number belonging in county colored ele- 
mentary schools in 1934, a decrease of 2 per cent under 1933. Only 
three counties. Queen Anne's, Somerset and Dorchester showed a 



Length of Session and Attendance, Colored Schools 145 



higher percentage of attendance in 1934 than in the preceding year. 
The range in per cent of attendance was from 72.2 in Calvert to 92.9 
per cent in Washington. (See Tabie 115.) 

In Baltimore City the average attendance was 86.7 per cent in 
1934 as against 87.3 per cent in 1933. The average per cent of at- 
tendance for the State as a whole was 85.3 in 1934. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years Ending 
in June 1923, 1932, 1933 and 1934 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

County Average ...76.2 86.3 86.0 84.0 

Washington 81.7 90.0 93.2 92.9 

Talbot 84.3 89.4 91.0 90.5 

Allegany 87.4 90.3 90.6 89.9 

Frederick 84.6 89.8 90.8 89.2 

Wicomico 84.8 90.7 89.3 87.9 

Queen Anne's 73.1 89.1 86.8 87.6 

Baltimore 75.4 86.9 88.5 86.8 

Carroll 72.0 85.9 88.3 86.2 

Somerset 80.5 88.5 85.3 85.7 

Cecil 74.4 88.5 88.3 85.5 

Harford 79.9 89.1 90.3 85.1 

Prince George's 76.4 87.2 86.9 85.1 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

Kent 73.4 88.1 87.9 84.9 

Caroline 76.4 86.3 85.2 84.7 

Montgomery 80.8 88.5 89.1 83.9 

Anne Arundel 71.2 86.3 87.4 83.3 

St. Mary's 62.9 84.9 83.6 83.0 

Dorchester 74.2 83.1 77.6 81.5 

Worcester 80.1 85.4 85.0 80.6 

Howard. 71.0 81.0 81.9 79.6 

Charles 66.8 81.0 79.6 78.0 

Calvert 65.3 72.7 75.6 72.2 

Baltimore City 87.0 87.9 87.3 86.7 

State 79.9 87.1 86.6 85.3 



The average enrollment in the county colored schools reached its 
maximum in November with 25,360 pupils in the elementary schools 
and 2,665 pupils in the high schools. The highest percentage of 
attendance in both elementary and high schools was found in 
September, while the lowest per cent was reported in February. 
(See Table 116.) 

TABLE 116 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1934 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 




Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


17,378 


2,213 


95.3 


95.8 


October 


24,738 


2,662 


91.4 


93.5 


November 


25,360 


2,665 


87.5 


92.0 


December 


25,280 


2,605 


82.7 


89.9 


January 


25,304 


2,512 


83.8 


90.8 


February 


25,240 


2,454 


69.0 


84.4 


March 


25,023 


2,407 


78.8 


91.1 


April 


24,784 


2,359 


85.9 


91.4 


May 


24,608 


2,301 


86.5 


93.4 


June 


*5,669 


tl,024 


88.1 


94.4 


Average for Year 


24,862 


2,478 


84.0 


91.2 



* Elementary schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, 
Cecil, Charles and Washington Counties only. 

t High Schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, 
Dorchester, Frederick, Harford, Talbot and Washington Counties only. 



146 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 4,070 pupils or 15.9 per cent of the enrollment in the 
county colored elementary schools who were present under 100 days 
as against smaller numbers and percentages for the two years im- 
mediately preceding. For the first time since 1925 the consistent 
decline in the number and per cent of pupils attending schools fewer 
than 100 days was broken. Similarly there were 6,603 pupils, who 
comprised 25.9 per cent of the county colored elementary school 
enrollment, who attended school fewer than 120 days in 1934, which 
showed an increase over the corresponding figures for 1932 and 1933. 
In 6 counties, however, Washington, Allegany, Cecil, Queen Anne's, 
Somerset and Dorchester, there was a decrease in the per cent of 
pupils present under 100 and 120 days as compared with corre- 
sponding figures for 1933. Caroline showed a decrease for those present 
under 120 days. {See Table 117.) 

TABLE 117 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 
and 120 Days, by Year and by County for 1934 



Number Present Per Cent Present 

Year and County 

Under Under Under Under 

100 Days 120 Days 100 Days 120 Days 
Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 

1925 9,463 13,195 33.2 46.3 

1926 8,078 11,295 29.5 41.3 

1927 7,643 10,836 29.0 41.1 

1928 6,610 9,563 24.8 35.9 

1929 5,987 9,045 22.9 34.6 

1930 4,937 7,842 1».3 30.6 

1931 4,342 7,039 16.7 27.1 

1932 3,807 6,139 14.8 23.8 

1933 3,609 6,074 13.9 23.4 

1934 4,070 6,603 15.9 25.9 

Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by County, 1933-34 

Washington 7 12 2.7 4.7 

Allegany 10 15 3.7 5.6 

Baltimore 170 251 8.8 13.0 

Frederick 58 127 6.8 15.0 

Cecil 38 60 9.7 15.3 

Carroll _ 33 58 9.2 16.2 

Prince George's 257 495 9.3 18.0 

Harford 108 158 18.6 19.8 

Talbot 96 187 10.4 20.3 

Queen Anne's 31 153 4.4 21.8 

Wicomico 162 306 12.0 22.7 

Somerset 249 386 15.6 24.1 

Kent - 115 202 13.8 24.3 

Caroline 120 187 15.6 24.3 

Montgomery 298 436 18.1 26.6 

Dorchester 238 414 16.9 29.4 

St. Mary's 206 336 18.4 30.1 

Anne Arundel 534 869 18.6 30.2 

Howard 104 198 18.5 35,3 

Worcester 354 526 24.2 35.9 

Charles 437 631 27.8 40.1 

Calvert 445 596 39.7 53.2 



Pupils Present Under 100 and 120 Days; Colored Late Entrants 147 

At one extreme seven counties had less than 10 per cent of their 
colored elementary pupils present fewer than 100 days, while three 
had over 24 per cent present so short a time. In Calvert, nearly 40 
per cent were present fewer than 100 days, which, of course, makes 
successful completion of the work of a grade practically impossible. 
For pupils present under 120 days, Washington County had as few 
as 5 per cent while Charles had 40 and Calvert 53 per cent. (See 
Table 117.) 

FEWER COLORED PUPILS ENTER SCHOOL LATE 

The number and per cent of late entrants in the colored elementary 
schools because of negligence and indifference or employment de- 



TABLE 118 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or 
Neglect, by Year and by County for 1934. 



Year and 
County 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


Late Entrants by Year 


1926 


5,393 
5,204 
4,739 
3,280 
3,148 
2,505 
1,891 
1,279 
1,067 


18.1 
17.8 
16.5 
11.6 
11.4 
9.0 
6.9 
4.6 
3.9 


6.9 
7.5 
7.8 
5.3 
5.8 
5.0 
4.5 
3.3 
2.5 


8.3 
7.9 
6.5 
5.1 
4.5 
3.1 
1.6 
.9 
.9 


2.9 
2.4 
2.2 
1.2 
1.1 
.9 
.8 
.4 
.5 








1927 








1928 








1929 








1930 








1931 








1932 








1933 








1934 

















Late Entrants by County "or 1934 



Washington 














1 

6 


1 


Somerset 


15 


.9 


.3 


.5 




3 


6 


Carroll 


6 


1.6 


1.0 


.3 




6 


5 


9 


Frederick. 


15 


1.7 


.8 


.9 




4 


12 


4 


Cecil 


7 


1.7 


1.2 


.5 




9 


7 


3 


Caroline 


15 


1.7 


.2 


.8 


.7 


2 


11 


19 


Baltimore 


38 


1.9 


1.6 




.2 


12 


3 


8 


St. Mary's 


26 


2.2 


1.2 


!6 


.4 


8 


10 


14 


Prince 


















George's .... 


69 


2.3 


1.8 


.2 


.3 


14 


4 


12 


Charles 


40 


2.3 


1.5 


.5 


.3 


11 


9 


11 


Wicomico 


36 


2.6 


1.2 


1.4 




7 


17 


5 


Talbot 


26 


2.6 


1.0 


1.5 


.1 


5 


19 


7 


Howard 


17 


2.9 


1.9 


.5 


.5 


15 


8 


17 


Worcester 


51 


3.2 


1.6 


1.2 


.4 


13 


16 


13 


Allegany 


8 


3.4 


3.4 






18 


2 


2 


Kent 


35 


4.0 


1.5 


1.5 


1.0 


10 


18 


20 


Queen Anne's 


37 


4.8 


2.6 


1.9 


.3 


16 


21 


10 


Montgomery 


101 


5.7 


3.9 


1.2 


.6 


19 


15 


18 


Harford 


49 


5.8 


2.8 


2.5 


.5 


17 


22 


16 


Anne Arundel 


181 


6.0 


4.7 


.9 


.4 


21 


13 


15 


Dorchester . .. 


106 


7.0 


4.6 


1.1 


1.3 


20 


14 


21 


Calvert 


189 


16.2 


11.9 


1.9 


2.4 


22 


20 


22 



148 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



creased from 5,393 or 18.1 per cent of the total enrollment in 1926 to 
1,067 or 3.9 per cent in 1934. There were fewer late entrants for 
negligence and indifference in 1934 than during the preceding year, 
but late entrance because of illegal employment of pupils under 14 
years of age increased .1 of a per cent over corresponding figures for 
1933. As in previous years, the chief causes of late entrance are 
negligence and indifference. (See Table 118.) 

The percentage of late entrants in the individual counties ranged 
from none at all in Washington to 16.2 per cent in Calvert. In Alle- 
gany there were no late entrants due to employment, and in Fred- 

TABLE 119 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools by 
Year and by County for 1933-34. 



YEAR 

and 

COUNTY 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 



Employ- 
ment 







Over or 




Mental 


Under 




and 


Compul- 


Poverty 


Physical 


sory At- 




Inca- 


tendance 




pacity 


Age 



other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1925 


2,549 


8.6 


3,515 


12.3 


6.4 


2.6 


1.1 


1.7 


.5 


1926 


2,446 


8.2 


2,697 


9.9 


4.9 


1.9 


1.0 


1.5 


.6 


1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1.5 


1.2 


1.1 


.4 


1928 


2,130 


7.4 


2.231 


7.8 


4.1 


1.2 


1.0 


1.1 


.4 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1.5 


1.1 


.9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6.2 


2.9 


1.2 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1,405 


5.0 


2.2 


1.0 


.9 


.6 


.3 


1932 „ 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4.2 


1.2 


1.0 


1.0 


.6 


.4 


1933 


1,652 


6.0 


1,069 


3.9 


1.5 


1.0 


.7 


.5 


.2 


1934 


1,773 


6.5 


980 


3.6 


1.2 


.9 


.7 


.6 


.2 








Withdrawals by 


County, 


1934 








Frederick 


53 


5.9 


16 


1.8 


.7 


.2 


.6 


.3 




Dorchester 


113 


7.4 


30 


2.0 


.8 


.5 


.3 


.3 


.1 


Pr. George's 


225 


7.6 


66 


2.2 


.7 


.2 


.6 


.6 


.1 


Caroline 


82 


9.6 


19 


2.2 


.7 




.8 


.7 




Howard 


38 


6.4 


14 


2.4 


.9 


1.0 


.2 


.3 




Anne 














Arundel... 


136 


4.5 


78 


2.6 


.8 


.8 


.6 


.3 


.1 


Baltimore .. 


118 


5.8 


56 


2.7 


1.3 




.7 


.6 


.1 


Queen 




















Anne's 


64 


8.4 


21 


2.7 


1.0 


.7 


.4 




.5 


Washington 
Somerset 


16 


5.9 


8 


3.0 


.4 


2.2 




A 




147 


8.4 


56 


3.2 


1.0 


1.0 


.4 


.6 


.2 


Montgomery 


126 


7.1 


59 


3.3 


.5 


1.8 


.3 


.3 


.4 




47 


5.6 


29 


3.4 


1.0 


.8 


.9 


.5 


.2 


Cecil 


27 


6.5 


15 


3.6 


1.2 


.7 


1.2 


.5 




Talbot 


83 


8.3 


37 


3.7 


.9 


.1 


.3 


1.9 


.5 


Allegany 


6 


2.2 


11 


4.0 


.4 




.7 


2.2 


.7 


Kent 


46 


5.3 


36 


4.1 


2.2 


1.0 


.7 


.1 


.1 


Wicomico .... 


55 


3.9 


60 


4.3 


1.3 


1.0 


1.5 


.4 




Carroll 


28 


7.3 


17 


4.4 


1.3 


.8 


1.5 


.8 




St. Mary's „ 


59 


5.0 


53 


4.5 


1.9 


.9 


.6 


1.0 


.1 


Charles . 


134 


7.8 


97 


5.7 


2.4 


2.0 


.6 


.5 


.2 


Calvert 


44 


3.8 


72 


6.2 


1.8 


2.1 


1.0 


1.2 


.1 


Worcester.... 


126 


7.9 


130 


8.2 


2.3 


2.9 


1.3 


1.6 


.1 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals; Colored Grade Enrollment 149 



erick, Cecil and Wicomico no young children under 14 years entered 
school late because they were kept out to work. (See Table 118.) 

FEWER COLORED PUPILS WITHDREW FROM SCHOOL FOR 
PREVENTABLE CAUSES 

The total number of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or 
commitment to institutions included 1,773 pupils, or 6.5 per cent, 
of the enrollment in the colored elementary schools in 1934, more 
moving about than were reported for the two preceding years. Per- 
centages for these withdrawals in the individual counties varied 
from 2.2 per cent in Allegany to 9.6 per cent in Caroline. (See first 
two columns in Table 119.) 

There were 980 withdrawals for causes other than those mentioned, 
or 3.6 per cent of the total county colored elementary school en- 
rollment, .3 per cent lower than in 1933, but a decrease of 8.7 since 
1925, the first year these data were available. The total withdrawals 
included 1.2 per cent for employment, .9 per cent for poverty, .7 
per cent because of mental or physical incapacity, .6 per cent who 
were under or over compulsory school attendance ages, and .2 per 
cent for other causes. (See Table 119.) 

In the counties these withdrawals ranged from 1.8 per cent in 
Frederick and 2 per cent in Dorchester to 8.2 per cent of the en- 
rollment in the colored elementary schools in Worcester. Poverty 
was reported in Worcester, Washington, Calvert and Charles as 
affecting the withdrawal of between 2 and 3 per cent of the pupils. 
(See Table 119.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 
TABLE 120 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years Ending 
in June, 1931, 1933 and 1934. and as of October, 1921 



GRADE 


Number in Each Grade, 
1934 


Number in Each Grade 


Increase 
1921 to 
1934 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1921 


1931 


1933 


1 


2,628 


2,408 


5,036 


9,804 


5,648 


5,279 


*4,768 


2 


2,094 


1,861 


3,955 


4,237 


4,098 


4,082 


*282 


3 


2,024 


1,841 


3,865 


3,741 


3,935 


3,803 


124 


4 


1,825 


1,855 


3,680 


3,126 


3,883 


3,821 


554 


5 


1,662 


1,722 


3,384 


2,011 


3,272 


3,406 


1,373 


6 


1,423 


1,514 


2,937 


1,348 


2,723 


2,938 


1,589 


7 


1,222 


1,426 


2,648 


859 


2,394 


2,582 


1,789 


8 


19 


13 


32 


170 


29 


33 


n38 


I 


488 


642 


1,130 


168 


989 


1,072 


962 


II 


312 


432 


744 


98 


584 


801 


646 


Ill 


230 


289 


519 


51 


387 


506 


468 


IV 


146 


227 


373 


6 


222 


337 


367 


Grand Total.. 


14,073 


14,230 


28,303 


25,619 


28,164 


28,660 


2,684 



* Decrease. 



150 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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11.2.2 



Colored Grade Enrollment; Elementary School Graduates 



151 



The enrollment in the county colored elementary schools in 1934 
was lower in every grade, except the third and the seventh than for 
the preceding year. On the other hand, the enrollment in the high 
schools showed increases over the corresponding enrollment in 1933 
for every year except the second. (See Table 120.) HI 

A comparison of the enrollment by grades for 1921 and 1934 shows 
a decrease of 4,768 pupils in the first grade since 1921. Except for 
the second grade, there is a considerable increase in enrollment in 
every grade thereafter, the most marked increases occurring in the 
fifth, sixth and seventh grades. (See Table 120.) 

The enrollment by grade in 1934 is given in detail for the individual 
counties in Ta ble 121. It will be noted that the first grade enrollment 
is exceeded by the enrollment in upper grades in Caroline, Kent and 
Washington Counties. This may be a result of a declining birth rate. 
(See Table 112, page 143.) 

INCREASE IN GRADUATES OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The 1,997 graduates from county colored elementary schools 
in 1934 who comprised 7.8 per cent of the total elementary school 
enrollment, represented a larger number and per cent graduated than 
were ever recorded before. These graduates included 861 boys or 6.7 
per cent of the boys and 1,136 girls, or 9 per cent of the girls enrolled 
in colored elementary schools. (See Ta bl e 122.) 

TABLE 122 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates 







Number 






Per Cent* 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923.... 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1928..-- 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1929..... 


733 


1,077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1930 


728 


993 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1933 


805 


1,105 
1,136 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1934 


861 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 



*Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, commit- 
ment and death, graduated. 

Among the individual counties the percentage of boys graduated 
from elementary schools ranged from 3.1 per cent of the elementary- 
school enrollment in Calvert to over 10 per cent in Allegany, Cecil 
and Wicomico. For girls the percentages ran from 6.4 per cent in 
St. Mary's to 13.8 per cent in Wicomico. In every county except 
Allegany and Washington, there was a higher percentage of girls 
graduated than of boys. Wicomico, Somerset, Frederick, Harford, 
Charles and Anne Arundel graduated more boys and girls in 1934 



152 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



than in 1933. The boys graduated in 1934 outnumbered those in 
1933 in Montgomery, Howard, Allegany, Queen Anne's, Prince 
George's, Washington, Worcester and St. Mary's, while this was the 
case for girls only in Dorchester and Calvert. (See Chart 19.) 



CHART 19 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN TOTAL COUNT! COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1934 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 



Number 
Bpys Girls 

861 



Per Cent Bqys 



E23Per Cent Girls 



1.136 FTo 



Wicomico 
Cecil 
Allegany- 
Dorchester 
Carroll 
Somerset 
Washington 
Queen Anne's 
Talbot 
Montgomery 
Harford 
Frederick 
Caroline 
Kent 

Worcester 
Pr. George' s 

Baltimore 
Howard 
Charles 
Anne Arundel 
St. Mary's 
Calvert 



67 
21 
17 

57 
14 
63 
14 
31 
52 
57 
27 
30 
30 
31 
54 
97 
55 
19 
38 
58 
32 
17 



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Graduates and Failures in Colored Elementary Schools 153 



MORE FAILURES IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In 1934 there were 5,317 pupils who were not promoted, or 20.8 per 
cent of the colored elementary school enrollment, a higher percent- 
age than was reported in any year since 1930. The non-promotions 
in 1934 included 3,133 boys or 24.3 per cent of the boys enrolled and 
2,184 girls, 17.3 per cent of the girls enrolled. (See Table 123.) 

TABLE 123 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary Schools* 



Year 




Number 






Per Cent 




Ending in 














June 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2,361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2,977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


1934 


3,133 


2,184 


5,317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions. 

In the individual counties the percentage of non-promotions 
varied from 11.2 per cent for boys and 5.3 per cent for girls in Carroll 
to nearly 34 per cent for boys and 28 per cent for girls in Calvert. 
In every county except Howard, where the percentages were the 
same, there was a higher percentage of non-promotion for the boys 
than for the girls. (SeeC:W20.) 

The number and per cent of non-promotions for both boys and 
girls were lower in 1934 than in 1933 in Carroll, Cecil, Caroline, 
Worcester, Dorchester, Wicomico, St. Mary's and Allegany; for 
boys only in Talbot and Howard, and for girls only in Somerset and 
Queen Anne's. (See Chart 20.) 

The chief causes of non-promotion for colored elementary pupils 
reported by teachers were unfortunate home conditions and lack of 
interest, and irregular attendance not due to illness. Sickness, 
mental incapacity and employment, however, were also important 
factors in causing failures in the colored schools. 

NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADE 

The highest percentages of non-promotion for both boys and girls 
in 1934 were found in the first and seventh grades, and the lowest in 
the fifth and third grades. Decreases in non-promotion for 1934 under 
corresponding figures for the preceding year were found in only the 
fourth and seventh grades for boys, and in the second, third, and 
seventh grades for girls. The high percentage of failure in the first 



154 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 20 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELBIENTARI PUPILS NOT PROMOTED - 1934 



County 



Number 



Total and 3,133 
Co. Average 



Boys Girls 

2,184 DH 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Kent 

y/ashington 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Queen Anne ' s 

Howard 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Pr. George's 

Alleganj' 

Montgomei::/- 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Calvert 



19 

28 
59 
66 
108 
129 
78 
27 
134 
74 
70 
53 
200 
160 
191 
259 
407 
42 
263 
450 
133 
183 




178 118:3 



242 ITbT 
22 1176 



170 rzTa 



346 [2^ 



107 



161 \ Z7.i 



grade can be attributed to irregular attendance because of con- 
tagious diseases, inclement weather, indifference and neglect, and 
to the immaturity of a number of the children, who have not the 
mental ability of average six year old children. (See Chart 21.) 



Non-Promotions and Testing in Colored Elementary Schools 155 



CHART 21 









1934 NON PROMOTIONS BY GRADES 
COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 


Grade 


N\imber 
Boys Girls 


IHI Per Cent Boys iw>i Per Cent Girls 


1 


931 


742 


30.8 y/////////////////////////////////////^^ 


2 


443 








260 




3 


416 








215 




4 


366 


268 




5 


320 






201 


^^^^^^^^^^^ 


6 


301 








210 


^^^^^^^^^^^ 


7 


354 








286 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


8 


2 










.1 





COLORED ELEMENTARY PUPILS GIVEN METROPOLITAN 
ACHIEVEMENT TEST 

During the year 1933-34, the county colored elementary pupils 
were given the Metropolitan Achievement tests in reading, arith- 
metic fundamentals and reasoning. Since the tests were given at 
different times during the year and the medians would not be 
comparable, the per cent of pupils who reached the monthly medians 
set up by the authors of the test were computed for all counties, 
except Calvert and Somerset, which did not send in the distribution 
of their scores. 

The per cent of county colored pupils in grades 3 to 7 who reached 
or exceeded the median set by the authors of the tests was slightly 
over 12 in reading and arithmetic fundamentals and just over 10 
per cent in arithmetic reasoning. Fifty per cent of the pupils from 
whose scores the authors derived the standards had scores at the 
median or above. (See Table 124.) 

Among the counties there was great variation in the results. In 
reading from 3 per cent to 40 per cent of the colored county pupils 
reached the standard median. In arithmetic fundamentals the 
extremes in county results were 3 and 38 per cent, while in arith- 
metic reasoning they were 4 and 27 per cent. At the top of the lists 
were Cecil and Baltimore Counties which have a long school year, 
the most experienced and best trained teaching staffs, and in which 



156 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the colored schools are supervised by the attendance officer and 
the assistant superintendent of schools. Success in obtaining and 
holding in the service those who do excellent work in teaching is 
probably the best guarantee that pupils will secure the maximum 
benefits from their instruction. (See Table 124.) 

TABLE 124 

Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Elementary Pupils in Grades 3-7 Inclusive 
Who Reached the Standard Median in Parts of the Metropolitan 
Achievement Test — 1933-34 







Per Cent At or Above Standard Median in 


COUNTY a 


Number 








Tested 


Paragraph 


Arithmetic 


Arithmetic 




Grades 3-7 


Reading 


Fundamentals 


Reasoning 


Total and Average .... 


11,978 


12.1 


12.2 


10.3 


Cecil 


240 


39.6 


37.5 


22.9 


Baltimore 


1,075 


36.0 


26.9 


26.9 


Allegany 


174 


33.9 


17.8 


16.7 


^V^as Vi 1 n ct on 




23.6 


10.1 


14.2 


Frederick 


522 


15.1 


13.2 


15.5 


Harford 


314 


14.3 


11.1 


14.3 


Carroll 


228 


13.2 


8.8 


4.4 


Wicomico 


724 


11.6 


9.9 


10.8 


Montgomery 


752 


11.4 


13.2 


10.2 


Caroline 


495 


9.7 


6.5 


6.3 


Anne Arundel 


1,606 


9.6 


10.4 


7.2 


Prince George's 


1,550 


9.0 


16.6 


10.5 


St. Mary's 


566 


6.4 


14.0 


8.5 


Kent 


504 


6.0 


9.3 


8.7 


Dorchester 


664 


5.6 


3.8 


6.3 


Talbot 


345 


5.5 


3.2 


4.6 


Howard 


295 


5.1 


6.1 


4.7 


Queen Anne's 


404 


5.0 


6.7 


5.0 


Worcester 


700 


3.4 


7.3 


4.1 


Charles 


672 


3.3 


4.2 


4.6 



a Counties are arranged in order of per cent who reached standard median in paragraph reading. 



COLORED fflGH SCHOOLS 
Number of Schools 

There were 26 county colored high schools in 1933-34 of which 
24 were first group and 2 were second group schools. Since Baltimore 
County continued its practice of paying the tuition fees of its quali- 
fied colored elementary school graduates who attended the colored 
junior-senior high school in Baltimore City, Howard and St. Mary's 
were the only counties which offered no high school opportunities 
to their colored population. St. Mary's, however, opened a high 
school offering two years of work in the fall of 1934. Work for third 



Results of Tests; Colored High Schools 157 

and fourth year pupils will be added within the next two years. (See 
Table 125 and Chart 15, page 119.) 

TABLE 125 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 
with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 



Total Counties. 
1920 

1925 

1926, 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll.. 



Total 



Group 



*11 
*12 
*13 
14 
14 
17 
21 
23 
24 
24 

1 
1 

1 
1 



:2 



County 



Total 



Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick._„ 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's.. 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City._ 
State 



Group 



X First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 
15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928, 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

For individual schools see Table XXXVIII, pages 322 to 327. 

Enrollment in Colored High Schools 
TABLE 126 

Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High School 
in 23 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1934 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Year 








Four 








Four 


Ending 








Year 








Year 


July 31 




Average 




High 




Average 




High 




Total 


No. 


Average 


School 


Total 


No. 


Average! School 




Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 


Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 




ment 


ing 


ance 


uates 


ment 


ing 


ance 


uates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922.. 


368 


* 


292 


5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,023 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 


2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2,553 


2,433 


2,266 


329 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



i 



I 



I llllllllllllllili 



} IllillillilS^ 



} IPIlii iPIIIII 



1 11 P^l 



I P!l II 



lillil} 



I 



i i 



! ; i : i i i ! i i 



i 



r 



Si 




Growth in Enrollment, Staff and Salaries, Colored High Schools 159 

The constantly mounting enrollment in the county colored high 
schools reached a peak of 2,819 pupils in 1934, an increase of 69 
pupils over corresponding figures for 1933. The average number 
belonging and attending in 1934, however, was smaller than for the 
year before. The 1934 enrollment of 2,553 pupils in the colored 
senior high school in Baltimore City was 132 fewer than were en- 
rolled the preceding year, when the maximum high school enroll- 
ment was reported. (See Table 126.) 

In eight of the 19 counties having colored high schools, the en- 
rollment in high school decreased from 1933 to 1934. The counties 
having decreases were Calvert, Kent, Prince George's, Somerset, 
Talbot, Washington, Wicomico and Worcester. 

Development of County Colored High Schools 

The county colored high schools show rapid growth in number, 
enrollment, teaching staff, and salary budget from the date they were 
first recognized in 1919. The first setback in the total figures for the 
counties appears in the 1934 expenditures for salaries of county 
high school teachers which are $3,982 below the amount spent in 
1933. (See Table 127.) 

All except eight counties showed increases in colored high school 
enrollment from 1933 to 1934, and all except three of these eight 
counties had a higher enrollment in 1934 than in 1932; all except 
five counties had a teaching staff in 1934 as large as or larger than in 
1933; all except thirteen counties spent more for colored teachers' 
salaries in 1934 than in 1933. In many of the counties the increase 
in staff more than offset the decrease in teachers' salaries which went 
into effect as a result of the 1933 legislation permitting decreases in 
the minimum State salary schedule. (See Table 127.) 

Ratio of High School to Total Colored Enrollment 

The increasing emphasis on the high school is indicated in the ratio 
between the number belonging in high school and the number enrolled 
in high and elementary schools combined. This ratio of 9.1 for the 
counties as a group in 1934 was .1 higher than in 1933, but 7.1 
greater than it was a decade ago. The ratio in Baltimore City 
dropped from 10.2 in 1933 to 9.4 in 1934. Since the pupils from Bal- 
timore County who attend the junior-senior high school in Balti- 
more City are included in the Baltimore City figures, the average for 
the counties is slightly lower and that for Baltimore City a little 
higher than they would be were the figures adjusted for the actual 
facts. (See Table 128.) 

In the individual counties the ratio of pupils in high school to 
total enrollment ranged from in Howard and St. Mary's and 6 in 
Calvert to 23 in Allegany. Ten counties showed a smaller proportion 
of colored pupils in high schools in 1934 than in the preceding year. 
These counties included those except Somerset, which decreased in 



160 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

high school enrollment and, in addition, Allegany, Anne Arundel and 
Washington. 

TABLE 128 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School Years Ending in 
June, 1924, 1932, 1933 and 1934 



County 1924 1932 1933 1934 

County Average 2.0 8.3 9.0 9.1 

Allegany „ 11.9 21.0 24.8 23.0 

Caroline 2.3 18.0 18.2 19.6 

Wicomico 6.0 16.0 17.2 16.7 

Cecil 7.6 7.9 14.2 

Washington 12.0 14.2 13.6 

Dorchester 4.7 11.6 12.4 13.3 

Carroll 4.0 6.7 11.8 12.5 

Talbot 3.0 11.3 11.9 11.3 

Somerset 1.6 10.7 10.9 11.0 

Queen Anne's 2.0 4.2 7.6 10.6 



County 1924 1932 1933 1934 

Frederick 6.7 9.7 10.5 10.4 

Worcester 10.3 11.3 10.1 

Kent 3.0 10.8 12.5 9.7 

Prince George's 1.5 9.0 9.4 8.5 

Montgomery 6.4 6.0 8.1 

Charles 1.8 6.8 7.7 8.0 

Anne Arundel 2.5 7.0 7.3 7.1 

Harford 5.1 6.5 6.6 

Calvert 5.7 6.9 6.0 

Baltimore City 9.2 *9.9 *10.2 *9.4 

State 4.7 9.1 9.6 9.2 



* Includes pupils from Baltimore County attending Junior and Senior High Schools in Baltimore 
City whose tuition is paid by the Baltimore County Board of Education. 



Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 
In 1934 the average per cent of attendance in the county colored 
high schools was 91.2 per cent as compared with 92.2 per cent in 
1933, a decrease of 1 per cent. Baltimore City reported 91.3 per cent 
in attendance, making the average for the entire State 91.2 per cent. 
The percentages in the individual counties ran from 86 in Harford 
and Calvert to over 95 in Anne Arundel. The unusually bad weather 
and road conditions in February, 1934 brought the per cent of 
attendance in 11 counties in 1934 below that for 1933. (See Table 
129.) 

TABLE 129 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, tor School Years Ending 
in June, 1923, 1932, 1933 and 1934 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

County Average 89.3 91.9 92.2 91.2 

Anne Arundel 88.9 93.6 95.1 95.3 

Kent 86.3 93.9 95.0 94.3 

Wicomico 90.5 94.2 94.7 93.4 

Queen Anne's 89.7 90.6 93.3 

Dorchester 87.4 93.0 92.4 92.6 

Talbot 87.3 89.4 92.1 92.4 

Charles 88.4 88.9 91.6 92.4 

Worcester 94.4 92.1 92.3 

Carroll 90.4 93.0 92.1 

Washington 92.2 92.0 91.2 



County 1923 1932 1933 1934 

Frederick 90.5 93.7 93.4 91.2 

Caroline 85.6 89.1 88.8 89.5 

Somerset 89.0 89.0 89.4 

Montgomery 92.3 94.1 89.1 

Prince George's 92.5 91.4 88.7 

Allegany 93.5 90.3 91.1 88.6 

Calvert 88.3 89.8 87.4 

Harford 90.4 90.8 86.0 

Cecil 90.6 88.5 86.0 

Baltimore City 88.8 91.2 91.1 91.3 

state Average 88.9 91.5 91.6 91.2 



318 County Colored High School Graduates 

The county colored high schools in 1934 graduated the largest 
number in their history, 318 pupils, of whom 128 were boys and 190 
were girls. There was an increase of 11 boys and 10 girls over corre- 



Attendance, Graduates and Program in Colored High Schools 161 



sponding figures for 1933. Among the counties the number of gradu- 
ates varied for boys from 1 in Harford, Carroll and Calvert to 20 in 
Wicomico, and for girls from none in Harford to 25 in Wicomico. 
There were 116 boys and 213 girls graduated in Baltimore City. (See 
•Table 130.) 

TABLE 130 

Graduates of Four Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



Schools 
In 


Boys Graduated In 


Schools 
In 


Girls Graduated In 




1 Q^^ 

LvOO 










1 KiXjCLl 






*** 


Tnf al 








Cmmtips'}' 

V^'vlLiiiLXvro 1 




***i 1 7 
ill 




vyULAllUCoj ... 


hi fid. 


C I oU 


^11 on 




22 


25 


**20 


AyT r»r» cr n m PT* 17 


***15 


5 


*****9 




**14 




16 


Oiipon Annp'c 






*3 




****12 


13 


13 






2 


•3 


Somerset 


***\2 


5 


13 


Pr. George's .. 


***32 


****24 


***25 


Pr. George's.... 


**15 


*11 


12 


Worcester 


***8 


*4 


* * » 


Montgomery .. 


♦6 


8 


****9 


Wicomico 


*****26 


****28 


**^**25 


Caroline 


8 


c 


8 


Frederick ... 


6 


8 


*7 


Charles 


2 


3 


8 


Somerset 


*14 


*19 


*n6 


Talbot 


10 


7 


6 


Charles 


*11 


**13 


no 


Worcester.... 


2 


5 


Caroline... 


**2 


12 


*20 


Allegany 


2 


5 


3 


Dorchester ... 


4 


9 


*23 


Frederick 


**5 


*l 


3 


Anne Arunde" 


***12 


no 


19 


Kent 


3 


*9 


3 


Kent 


10 


10 


7 


Cecil 


5 


1 


o 


Calvert 


3 


3 


Queen Anne's 




2 


Cecil 




4 


3 


Washington ... 


2 


1 


2 


Talbot 


***13 


*10 


3 


Calvert 






1 


Washington .. 


2 


6 


3 


Carroll . 


1 


4 


1 


Allegany 


4 


*8 


2 


Harford 


**5 


4 


1 


Harford 


*5 


**5 




Baltimore City 


**103 


*139 


116 


BaltimoreCity 


****210 


****225 


****213 


Fntire State. .. 


a**227 


****25P 


***244 


Entire State 


b*374 


0*405 


d*403 








*** 




*** 


*** 





* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following gradua- 
tion from high school. 

abed Includes the following who entered Bowie Normal School from the counties in the fall follow- 
ing graduation from high school: 

(a) 16 boys in 1932: (b) 28 girls in 1932; (c) 17 girls in 1933; (d) 26 girls in 1934. 

t For boys, counties are arranged in order of number of boy graduates in 1934. 

For girls first 11 counties are arranged in order of percentage of graduates entering Bowie in fall 
of 1934 and thereafter in order of number of girl graduates in 1934. 

The Colored High School Program 

In 1934 the academic course was the only one offered in 15 of the 
26 county colored high schools and the general course was the only 
one given in 6 county high schools. The high schools in iVnnapolis, 
Elkton, Cambridge and Salisbury, however, offered both the aca- 
demic and general courses, and the Denton School, in addition to 
these two courses, provided vocational courses. Academic, commer- 



162 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



cial and technical courses were given in the Baltimore City Colored 
Junior-Senior High School. (See Table XXXVIII, pages 322 to 
327.) 

For subjects taken in each individual high school, see Table 
XXXIX, pages 328 to 333. 

Occupations of 1933 High School Graduates During 1933-34 

Of 116 boys graduated in 1933 from county colored high schools, 
19 or 16.4 per cent in the year following graduation continued their 
education in liberal arts colleges, normal schools, and college pre- 
paratory schools. In addition to those who were enrolled in in- 
stitutions of higher learning, 28 boys were either staying or work- 
ing at home, 19 boys were farming or fishing, 7 boys were employed 
in factories, 3 were clerks, 2 were chauffeurs and 38 others had oc- 
cupations which were either unknown or unclassified. Of the 181 
girls graduated in 1933, 36 or 19.8 per cent were enrolled in in- 
stitutions of higher learning in 1933-34. Besides those attending 
schools, 106 girls were staying or working at home, 13 were married, 
2 were clerks, 1 was employed in a factory and the occupations of 
23 girls were unknown. 

LEGISLATION BRINGING OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chapter 577, enacted by the 1935 Legislature, provides aid to- 
ward opportunities for higher education which are not now available 
within the State for the colored people of Maryland. The law reads 
as follows: 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That 
there is hereby created a Commission, to be known as the Maryland Com- 
mission on Higher Education of Negroes, the said Commission to be com- 
posed of the following members: 

Judge Morris A. Soper Dr. David Robertson 

Dr. Bamett M. Rhetta W. A, C. Hughes, Jr. 

John W. Haywood Francis M. Wood 

Carl J. Murphy Dr. William Rosenau 

Dr. Ivan E. McDougle Dr. Arthur 0. Lovejoy 

It]shall be the duty of said Commission to make a study and survey 
of the needs of higher education in Maryland, including Morgan College, 
and to make such recommendations as may be necessary to provide facilities 
for the higher education of Negroes in the State of Maryland. The report 
of said Commission shall be submitted to the Governor and General As- 
sembly not later than January 15, 1935. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of said 
Commission to administer the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000) 
included in the Budget for the years 1935-1936 and 1936-1937 for scholar- 
ships to Negroes to attend college outside the State of Maryland, it being 
the main purpose of these scholarships to give the benefit of such college, 
medical, law, or other professional courses to the colored youth of the State 
who do not have facilities in the State for such courses, but the said Com- 
mission may in its judgment award any of said scholarships to Morgan 
College. Each of said scholarships shall be of the value of not over Two 
Hundred Dollars f$200). Each candidate awarded such scholarship must 
be a bona fide resident of Maryland, m.ust maintain a satisfactory standard 
in deportment, scholarship and health after the award is made, and must 
meet all additional charges beyond the amount of the scholarship to en- 
able him to pursue his studies. 



Graduates' Occupations; Legislation; Baltimore City; Certification 163 

Section 3. And be it further enacted, That the appropriations con- 
tained in the State Budget to Morgan College Commission for University- 
scholarships, and for the expense of the Commission, shall be made avail- 
able to the Commission created by this Act, and shall be paid by the State 
Comptroller on proper vouchers submitted by said Commission. 

Section 4. And be it further enacted, That the Commission shall 
not receive any salaries, but may engage an executive secretary at a salary 
to be fixed by the Commission. 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

The 27,202 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored schools 
included 21,527 in the elementary schools, 3,503 in the junior high 
schools (grades 7-9), and 1,683 in the senior high school. The schools 
were open for 190 days with 93.3 per cent of attendance in the senior 
high school, 92.1 in the junior high schools, and 89.1 in the ele- 
mentary schools. In addition to the regular elementary and second- 
ary schools, the vocational school enrolled 280 boys and 209 girls. 
Classes in trades and industries, such as carpentry, shoe repairing, 
auto mechanics and tailoring, were available for the boys, while 
dressmaking, personal hygiene, and trade cookery were offered for 
the girls. There were 200 physically handicapped colored pupils en- 
rolled in 10 special classes and 1,203 pupils in 37 centers for the 
mentally handicapped. (See Table 35, page 44.) 

In addition to the day schools, Baltimore City continued its 
night school classes for adults, thus enabling many deprived of op- 
portunities when they were young lo derive the benefits of an ele- 
mentary or secondary education. The colored evening school en- 
rollment included 1,365 in elementary classes, 456 enrolled in high 
school courses, and 917 receiving training in commercial, industrial, 
and home economics work. (See Table 156, page 201.) 

TRAINING OF THE COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The effectiveness of a school system depends primarily on the 
fitness and training of the members of its teaching staff. Although 
the success of inexperienced teachers cannot be determined until 
their abilities have been tested, it is nevertheless possible to insure 
that all vacancies are filled with teachers who have been well- 
trained for their profession at accredited state normal schools and 
colleges. Experienced teachers keep in touch with recent develop- 
ments in educational theory and methods by attending summer 
school. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in ]Mary- 
land, are graduation from a two-year normal school, or the equiv- 
alent, and attendance at summer school once in four years for the 
renewal of the certificate after if has been issued. After September, 
1937, prospective colored elementary teachers must hold advanced 
first grade certificates indicating completion of a three year normal 
school course. 

On May 19, 1933, the following special regulations regarding 
summer school attendance in 1933 and 1934 were passed by the 
Maryland State Board of Education : 



164 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



1. On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1933 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school 
attendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1935 for four 
years on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, summer 
school credits are presented in 1933, the renewal will extend over six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be renewed 
for the first time in 1933 present summer school credits for the renewal. 

2. On account of general salary reductions, all full regular teachers' 
certificates expiring in 1934 may, upon recommendation of the superin- 
tendent concerned, be extended for two years without summer school at- 
tendance. Such a certificate so extended may be renewed in 1936 for four 
years on the basis of summer school credits. If, on the other hand, summer 
school credits are presented in 1934, the renewal will extend over six years. 

It is recommended that teachers whose certificates are to be renewed 
for the first time in 1934 present summer school credits for the renewal. 

In October, 1934, of the 712 teachers employed in the county- 
colored elementary schools, 698 or 98 per cent held regular first- 
grade certificates, an increase of .3 per cent over corresponding 
figures for the preceding year. There were 12 teachers holding second- 
grade and two teachers holding third -grade certificates, as in 1933. 
In 11 counties every colored teacher held a first-grade certificate 
and in no county did the percentage of teachers holding first grade 
certificates fall below 90 per cent. (See Table XIV, page 298.) 

Of the 102 colored high school teachers employed in the Maryland 
counties, all but 6 held regular high school certificates in October, 
1934. (See r^/'/d XIV, page 298.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

TABLE 131 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1934, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1934 



County 



Total. 



Cecil 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Montgomery 

Frederick. 

Harford 

Worcester.. 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Prince George's. 

Dorchester 

Caroline. 

Kent 

Anne Arundel.^.. 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Howard 



Teachers Employed 


Oct., 1934, Who 


Attended 


Summer 


School 


1934 


Number 


Per Cent 


a***168 


20.6 


ttts 


47.1 


tt4 


40.0 


t5 


35.7 


tl7 


30.9 


t7 


29.2 


cl3 


27.7 


3 


25.0 


tttt*12 


24.5 


t8 


24.2 


ttte 


22.2 


9 


21.4 


9 


20.5 


tt7 


19.4 


*5 


19.2 


tttt*16 


18.6 


t9 


18.0 


ttt5 


17.2 


4 


14.8 


ttl2 


13.8 


tt6 


13.3 


3 


8.3 





0.0 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total. 



Hampton Institute 

Morgan College 

Virginia State Teachers' College.... 

Columbia University. 

Temple University... 

University of Pittsburgh 

University of Pennsylvania 

Trenton State Teacher's College.... 

Lincoln University 

Southern Illinois State Normal Un. 
All others 



Number 
of County 
Colored 
Teachers 



a***168 

°*66 
b**56 
°8 
°8 
°6 
ttt3 
t2 
t2 
tt2 
2 

tttttl3 



* Each asterisk represents a supervisor excluded. 

t Each dagger represents a high school teacher included. 

a Includes 37 high school teachers. 



° Includes 4 high school teachers, 
b Includes 9 high school teachers, 
c Includes 7 high school teachers. 



Colored Certification, Summer School Attendance, Turnover 165 



Summer school attendance was affected by the reduction in 
teachers' salaries and the regulations of the State Board of Education 
permitting the postponement of summer school attendance for re- 
newal of certificates. Of the colored county teaching staff in service 
in October, 1934, however, there were 168 or 20.6 per cent who had 
attended summer school in 1934, a decrease of 1.2 under the summer 
school attendants reported for the preceding year. The percentage 
of summer school attendants in the individual counties ranged from 
in Howard and 8.3 per cent in St. Mary's to 40 per cent in Allegany 
and 47.1 per cent in Cecil. (See Table 131.) 

As in previous years during the summer session in 1934 Hampton 
Institute attracted 66, a larger number of colored teachers from the 
Maryland counties than attended any other school. Morgan College 
Summer School enrolled 58 teachers from the Maryland counties, 
while Virginia State Teachers' College and Columbia University, 
each attracted 8 teachers. (See Table V^l.) 

TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Changes in Colored Elementary School Staff 

For the school year 1932-33 there were 80 teachers who resigned 
from the county colored elementary schools, 13 fewer than during 
the preceding year, and a smaller number than for any year preced- 

TABLE 132 

Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools for the School Year 1932-33 with 
Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 



Cause of Resignation 


Elementary School 


High School 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1932-33 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1932-33 


Inefficiency 


41 


52 


27 


8 


9 


9 


Abolished positions 


4 


11 








Voluntary 


13 


8 


9 


5 


1 




Illness 


12 


4 


8 


2 




Marriage 


16 


3 


6 


2 


1 


1 


Retired 


5 


6 


4 








Dropped for low certificate or 
failure to attend summer 
school 


3 


3 


2 


1 


5 




Teaching in Baltimore City.... 
Death 


9 


1 


2 


1 


2 




3 


1 


1 




Moved away 




1 








Left to study..... 




2 






1 


Teaching in another state 


6 
8 


7 




1 




Other and Unknown 


2 


9 


1 


2 
















Total 


116 


93 


80 


21 


20 


11 


Leave of absence 


7 


4 


5 


2 


2 


Transfer to another county.... 
Transfer to high school 


24 


10 


19 
1 


1 


4 


7 















166 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ing. These figures exclude teachers who were on leave of absence or 
who transferred to other counties. 

As in past years, inefficiency was the chief cause for the dismissal 
of county colored teachers, 27 teachers having been dismissed 
from the elementary schools for this reason. Because of consolidation 
of schools or decreased enrollment there were 11 positions abolished 
during 1932-33. In addition to dismissals for inefficiency and dis- 
continuance of positions, 9 teachers resigned voluntarily, 8 teachers 
resigned because of illness, 6 because of marriage, and 4 for retire- 
ment. Nineteen teachers secured positions in another Maryland 
county. (See Table 132.) 

From the county high schools, 9 colored teachers were dropped 
because of inefficiency, one married and one left to study. In ad- 
dition, four transferred to another county and two were on leave of 
absence. (See Table 132.) 

The appointments new to the county colored elementary schools 
in 1933-34 included the smallest number ever appointed, 73 teachers, 
10.2 per cent of the total number of teachers employed, a decrease 
of 3.7 under the corresponding per cent for the preceding year. 
These figures exclude those teachers who transferred from one county 
to another. Of the new elementary school appointments, 48 were 
inexperienced, 8 had had experience outside the Maryland counties, 
12 had taught in Maryland schools but were out of service in 1932-33, 
and 5 were substitutes. (See Table 133.) 

In the individual counties the turnover in the colored elementary 
schools during 1933-34 varied from in Baltimore and Cecil to 31 
per cent in Worcester and 33 per cent of the total number of teachers 
employed in Allegany and Calvert. In Baltimore City 21 teachers 
received appointments in the colored elementary, junior high, and 
vocational schools in 1933-34, 13 of whom were inexperienced and 8 
of whom had had teaching experience, but were out of service dur- 
ing the preceding year. (See Table 133.) 

Turnover in Colored High Schools 

There were 15 teachers or 15.8 per cent of the teaching staff in 
the county colored high schools new to the county high schools in 
1933-34, as compared with 28 or 29.5 per cent for the preceding year. 
These figures exclude the 7 teachers who changed their county. In 
eight counties there were no changes in the high school teaching 
staff, while in the remaining counties the number appointed ranged 
from 1 to 3 and the percentage from 16.7 per cent to 75 per cent of 
the total county high school staff. The turnover in the colored high 
schools is due in part to the determined effort made by the State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools to have every teacher certificated in 
the subjects which he teachers. In Baltimore City there were four 
appointments made in the colored senior high school (See Ta ble 133.) 

Schools in Which Newly Appointed Colored Teachers Prepared for Teaching 

Of the 48 inexperienced teachers who received appointments in the 



Teacher Turnover in Colored Schools 



167 



TABLE 133 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties » 
for School Year 1933-34, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced and from 
Other Counties with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 


New to County 


Change 
in 

No. of 
Teaching 
Positions 


New to County, Who Were 


Elementary 


High 


Inexperi- 
enced 


Experi- 
enced 
but 
New 

to 
State 


Experi- 
enced 
in Md. 
Counties 
but not 
Teaching 
in 

1932-33 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 
and 
Othert 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Oct., 1932 
to 

Oct., 1933 


1 Q^l — ^9 

1 Q.^5>-51^ 
1933-34 

B£iItiixior6 


*201 
®115 
«103 
®73 


26.4 
15,4 
13.9 
10.2 


*26 
®35 
®28 
®15 


30.2 
38.5 
29.5 
15.8 


4-3 
4 

—12 

—7 


tl76 
tll3 
t99 
t59 


*7 


*33 
**24 
***22 
12 


33 
*25 
***14 

°26 


4 
3 
3 
♦6 


Cecil 






2 


66.7 


*1 
1 
3 
2 
1 

**4 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
*4 
**7 
*3 
*9 
2 

**5 
6 
♦1 
2 

**15 
74 


*1 










2 
5 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
4 
5 
3 
4 

11 
7 
9 
4 
5 

12 
2 
8 

21 

94 


4.5 
6.8 
6.9 
8.3 
8.3 
8.6 
10.0 
11.1 
11.4 
12.2 
12.5 
13.3 
14.5 
16.3 
18.0 
19.0 
21.7 
30.8 
33.3 
33.3 

3.4 

7.0 


+ 1 








Anne Arundel 








2 


- 


r H P r 1 It 














Carrnll 
















Kent 












1 
*1 




Wicomico 


3 


30.0 






1 




Washington 




— 1 






Howard 














St. Mary's 






— 1 


1 


1 
1 




1 
*1 


Charles 


1 


20.0 


2 
*2 
*2 
4 
1 


Harford 




+ 1 


Talbot 


2 
3 

1 

3 
3 
1 
1 

4 

19 


33.3 








Prince George's .... 
Dorchester 


23.1 
16.7 
16.7 
50.0 


+ 1 
— 1 
— 1 




2 
1 


3 


Somerset 






Queen Anne's 


*2 
1 

*2 
1 
2 


1 




Caroline 


42.9 
75.0 
25.0 
50.0 

7.4 

12.8 


— 1 
—2 


*2 
♦*5 




Worcester 

Allegany 


1 

2 

**10 

22 


1 


Calvert 


— 1 
+ 43 
+31 


JBaltimore City .. 
Entire State 




11 


26 


6 



* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher. 

t Includes 22 high school teachers for 1930-31, 29 for 1931-32, 21 for 1932-33 and 11 for 1933-34. 
" Includes 7 high school teachers. 

t Includes junior high, vocational, and prevocational with elementary teachers. 

• Total number and per cent new to the counties as a group exclude transfers from other counties. 



county colored elementary schools in 1933-34, 27 or 56.2 per cent 
were graduates of the Bowie Normal School and 8 or 16.7 per cent 
were trained at the Fanny Coppin Colored Training School in Balti- 
more City. The remaining 27 per cent received training in schools 
outside of Maryland, Miner Normal School in Washington, D. C, 
training the largest number. All but one of the 8 experienced teach- 
ers who were appointed in 1933-34 received training in normal 
schools outside of Maryland. (See Table 134.) 

Of 14 newly appointed colored high school teachers, 8 were trained 
at Morgan College and 2 at Lincoln University. The remaining 4 
were graduates from colleges in 4 different states. (See Table 134.) 



168 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 134 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were New 
To Maryland Counties During the School Year 1933-34 



School or College 
Attended 



Total. 



Bowie Normal School, Md. 

Coppin Normal School, 

Baltimore, Md 

Hampton Institute, Va. 

Miner Normal School, 

Washington, D. C 

Cheyney Normal School, Pa 

New Jersey Schools 

Delaware Schools 

Tuskegee Institute, Ala.. 

Syracuse University, N. Y 

Virginia State Teachers College 
West Virginia State Institute 



Elementary 
Teachers 
Who were 



In- 
experi- 
enced 



Experi- 
enced 
But New 
in 
Mary- 
land 
1933-34 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Morgan College, Baltimore, Md 

Lincoln University, Pa 

North Carolina Agricultural College 

Langston University, Oklahoma 

Virginia State Teachers College 

W. Virginia State Teachers College 



t Includes three teachers with experience outside the state. 
* Includes one teacher with experience outside the state. 



EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The median experience of 814 county colored teachers in October, 
1934, was 5.9 years as compared with 5.3 years for the preceding 
year. In the individual counties the median years of experience 
ranged from 3.1 years in Somerset to 12 years in Washington. With 
the exception of Wicomico and Worcester, every county had a more 
experienced colored teaching staff in October, 1934, than it had the 
year preceding. It will be noted that 88 of the teachers in service in 
October, 1934, were inexperienced, an increase of 36 over the num- 
ber of inexperienced teachers in October, 1933. (See Tabte 135.) 

NUMBER OF MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 124 men employed in the county colored schools in 
1934 or 15.4 per cent of the county colored teaching staff, an increase 
of .4 per cent over the percentage of men employed in 1933. The 
number of men employed has been gradually increasing since 1929, 
partly because of the increased number of high school positions. 
(See Table 136.) 

Among the counties the percentage of men employed varied from 
none at all in Howard and 1 each in Calvert and Cecil to 13 in Dor- 
chester. The six men employed in Carroll included 42.3 per cent of 
the total colored teaching staff. The men generally have positions 
as principals or in the high schools. (See Table 137.) 



Experience and Sex of County Colored Teachers 



ja^saojojvi j i i I' m 



OOltUOOIjY'^ 


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12.0 










CO 




CO 


CO 


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in « rj< in CO t- 




CO 






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CO 




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CO 


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00 


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pjBMOJJ 


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10. 8j 




lM(MTl<C<IC0eOIMrHC<I 




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170 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 136 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923..... 135 18.3 

1924. 129 16.9 

1925 126 16.5 

1926 108 14.0 

1927..._ 107 13.8 

1928 93 11.8 



Year Number Per Cent 

1929 104 13.0 

1930 106 13.2 

1931 118 14.4 

1932 126 15.4 

1933 122 15.0 

1934 124 15.4 



TABLE 137 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 



Total and Average. 



Howard 

Calvert 

Cecil ___ 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 
Anne Arundel ... 

Somerset 

St. Mary's.. 

Kent... 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



123.7 



1 
1 

3 
4 

7 
6 

3.8 
5.2 



15.4 



3.8 
5.9 
6.6 
8.2 
8.2 
8.5 
11.1 
11.5 
18.4 



COUNTY 



Frederick 

Worcester 

Washington... 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's. 

Wicomico 

Caroline . 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Allegany 

Carroll 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



6.2 
8 

2.4 
9 
5 
10 



13 
7.3 



18.7 
19.7 
20.0 
20.5 
21.7 
22.2 
23.3 
24.4 
26.5 
26.7 
29.7 
42.3 



SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average class in the county colored elementary schools 
included 35 pupils in 1934 as compared with 34.9 pupils in 1933. 
Ten counties had larger classes than in the preceding year, the 
most marked increases being found in Allegany and Baltimore. In 
the individual counties the average number of pupils belonging per 
teacher in the colored elementary schools ranged from approximately 
27 pupils in Cecil and Washington to more than 43 pupils in Allegany, 
Baltimore and Calvert. In Baltimore City the average colored ele- 
mentary class included 39.2 pupils, making the average for the State 
as a whole 36.8 pupils. (See Chart 22.) 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers in Colored High Schools 

The average number belonging per colored high school teacher and 
principal was 26.3 pupils in 1934, a slightly lower figure than was 
reported in 1933. Among the counties the ratio of pupils to teachers 
in the colored high schools varied from 17.1 pupils in Washington 
to 41 pupils in Queen Anne's. In seven of eight counties which showed 
a smaller number belonging per principal and teacher in 1934 than 
in 1933 there was a decrease in the number of high school pupils 



Sex of Teachers: Number of Colored Pupils per Teacher 

CHART 22 



171 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN COLORED EL£2ffiNTARr SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 



1952 1935 1954 
34.0 34.9 




Somerset 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Howard 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Viashington 



Balto. City 36.3 38.3 
State 34.9 36.3 



Exciuae? 



ja..ior high and 25.5 for vocacional schools. 



belor ging. In Charles there was an increase in the teaching staff. 
Baltimore City had a ratio of 29 pupils to each teacher and principal 
in the colored senior high school. (See Table XVI, page 300.) 

SALARIES OF COLORED TEACHERS 
Elementary School Salaries Decline 

In 1934 the average salary paid a county colored elementary 
school teacher was $595, a decrease of $62 under the average salary 



172 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



paid in 1933, and the first decrease recorded since 1917. The schedule 
of salaries in effect since the fall of 1922 has recognized training and 
experience levels which have been improving each year. The de- 
crease of 1934 was due to the ten per cent reduction in salaries under 
$1,200 in the State minimum salary schedule, which went into effect 
in October, 1933, for a two-year period. Salary increments due to 
experience since the year 1932-33 have been withheld in most 
counties because of the 1933 legislation. These decreases will be 
continued for two more years as a result of the legislation of 1935, 
unless the Board of Public Works makes available funds for a partial 
restc ration of the cut in teachers' salaries. (See Table 138.) 

TABLE 138 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1934 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 

1918 - 279 

1919.._ 283 

1920 - 359 

1921 442 

1922.. 455 

1923 513 

1924.. 532 

1925 546 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1926 $563 

1927 586 

1928 602 

1929 621 

1930 635 

1931. 643 

1932 653 

1933.. 657 

1934 595 



In the individual counties the average salary per colored ele- 
mentary teacher and principal varied from $487 to $1,131 depending 
on the salary schedules in effect and the length of the school year. 
The counties which adhere in general to the minimum State salary 
schedule for eight months vary in average salary according to the 
proportion of trained and experienced teachers employed. In only 
seven counties was the average salary in 1933-34 over $600 and in 
six counties the average was under $500. The average salary per 
colored elementary school teacher in Baltimore City dropped from 
$1,614 in 1933 to $1,584 in 1934. (See Chart 23.) 

Decline in Salaries of High School Teachers 

The average salary for county colored high school principals and 
teachers was $784 in 1934, a decrease of $53 from 1933. Salaries 
ranged from $609 in Somerset to $1,311 in Allegany. Anne Arundel, 
Washington and Allegany Counties were the only ones with average 
salaries over $836. In Baltimore City the average salary per colored 
senior high school principal and teacher was $1,794, making the 
average for the State $1,160. (See Table XVII, page 301.) 

Salaries of Colored Teachers in October, 1934 

Salaries paid 712 county colored elementary teachers in service 
:n October, 1934, ranged from under $460 to $1,440, the median be- 



Decline in Salaries of Colored Teachers 



173 



CHART 23 



AVERAGE SALAK? PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEIJENTARY SCHOOLS 



Coiinty 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Co. Average 


$ 643 $ 653 $ 657 


Allegany 


1102 


1227 


1223 


Baltimore 


1186 


XJ. 1 C 


1 1 '^Q 


Washington 


ana 


/ yo 


907 


Cecil 


byy 


71 7 


( CD 


Pr. George's 




7^n 


744 


Harford 


692 


695 


703 


Anne Arundel 


632 


660 


661 


Montgomery 


642 


655 


649 


Frederick 


572 


574 


590 


Carroll 


626 


587 


587 


Wicomico 


572 


580 


586 


Kent 


577 


587 


582 


Calvert 


569 


566 


593 


Charles 


554 


558 


578 


St. Mary's 


548 


554 


570 


Talbot 


543 


553 


562 


Howard 


552 


560 


566 


Queen Anne ' s 


552 


561 


561 


Worcester 


532 


557 


559 


Caroline 


555 


553 


534 


Dorchester 


543 


559 


541 


Somerset 


524 


536 


539 


Balto. City 


1779 


1713 


1614 


State 


1095 


1091 


1056 




t Excludes $1,915 for junior high and $1,773 for vocational schools. 



ing $556, which is $9 below the calculated median of the year pre- 
ceding. The modal salary was $468 received by 200 county colored 
elementary teachers. There were 468 teachers, 65.7 per cent of the 
total, who received salaries ranging from $468, the reduced mini- 
mum paid for eight months' service to an inexperienced teacher hold- 
ing a regular first-grade certificate, to $612, the reduced maximum 
amount paid according to the State minimum salary schedule as 
revised in October, 1933. Salaries exceeding $1,000 were received by 
40 teachers in October, 1934. (See Table 139.) 



174 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Salaries of 102 county colored high school teachers and principals 
ranged from $540 to $1,520 in October, 1934, with a median salary of 
$710, lower by $33 than for October, 1933. (See Table 139.) 

TABLE 139 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland Counties 

October, 1934 



Elementary Schools 



Salary 



No. Salary 



Under $460 22 



460. 
500. 
540. 
580. 
620. 
660. 
700. 
740. 
780. 
820. 
860. 
900. 
940. 
980. 



200 
104 
73 
91 
35 
59 
30 
33 
15 
3 

" \ 
2 
4 



$1,020. 
1,060. 
1,100. 
1,140. 
1,180. 
1,220. 
1,260. 
1.300. 



1.440. 



No. 

5 
20 
2 

7 



Total 712 

Median $556 



High Schools 



Salary 



No. Salary 



Under $540 4 



$ 540 

580 

620 

660 

700 

740 

780 

820 

860 

900... 

940 

980 

1,020 3 

1,060 1 

1,100 4 



$1,140. 
1,180. 
1,220. 
1,260. 
1,300. 
1,340. 
1,380. 
1,420. 
1,440. 
1,480. 
1,520. 



No. 



Total 102 

Median $710 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING FOR CURRENT EXPENSES 
Costs per Colored Elementary School Pupil Decrease 

In 1934 the average cost per pupil belonging for current expenses 
in the county colored elementary schools was $22.58, a decrease 
of $1.54 under the average cost per pupil for the preceding year. 
The reduction in salaries and the curtailment of expenditures for 
books and other costs of instruction and repairs are responsible for 
the decrease in per pupil costs. Salary expenditures and size of class 
are the two most significant factors in determining the current ex- 
pense cost per pupil. Washington and Cecil having the smallest 
classes and ranking third and fourth, respectively, in average salary 
per teacher, had the highest per pupil costs among the individual 
counties. A study of Charts 22 and 23 with Chart 24 indicates very 
plainly the effect of size of class and average salary on the ranking 
of counties in current expense costs per pupil. 

Five counties — Cecil, Harford, Kent, Montgomery and Talbot — 
had a higher cost per pupil in 1934 than in 1933. In Cecil higher 
salaries and smaller classes resulting from decreased enrollment 
were the explanation, in Harford and Kent smaller classes, and in 
Montgomery and Talbot smaller classes resulting from decreased 
enrollment accounted for the increases. In Baltimore City, the 
average cost per colored elementary pupil dropped from $53 in 1933 
to $49.34 in 1934. (See Chart 22 and Table 169, page 219.) 



County Salaries, Oct. 1934; Current Expense Cost per Colored Pupil 175 

CHART 24 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMEWTARy SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1953 1954 




Baltimore Ci 
State 



* Excludes $82 for junior high and $99 for vocational schools. 

Cost per Colored High School Pupil 

The average current expense cost per pupil in the county colored 
high schools in 1934 was $44.80, an increase of $.46 over the corre- 
sponding cost for the preceding year. Costs per high school pupil for 
current expenses ran from $22.40 in Somerset to $87.79 in Alleganv. 
(See Table 169, page 219, and Table XXXVII, page 321.) 



176 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Cecil, Charles, Frederick, Kent, 
Queen Anne's and Talbot all had higher costs per high school pupil 
in 1934 than in 1933. In Calvert the average salary was higher and 
classes were smaller because of decreased enrollment. In Kent and 
Talbot classes were smaller because of decreased enrollment. In 
Allegany, Anne Arundel, Charles and Frederick classes were smaller. 
In Cecil expenditures for books and transportation were increased, 
and in Queen Anne's more pupils were transported at an increased 
cost for transportation. 

There was no colored high school in Baltimore County, but the 
county paid $12,915 fcr the tuition of 31 senior high and 87 junior 
high school pupils who attended secondary schools in Baltimore City, 
the charge being $150 for a senior high school pupil and $95 per junior 
high school pupil. 

Transportation at Public Expense 

There were 1,051 elementary and 680 high school pupils trans- 
ported at public expense to 49 colored schools in 16 counties in 1934. 
This was an increase of 204 elementary and 178 high school pupils 
over the number transported in 1933. The total cost to the public was 
$20,425 for transporting colored elementary pupils and $16,307 for 
transporting colored high school pupils. These amounts represented 
increases over 1933 expenditures of $3,090 and $3,435 for elementary 
and high school pupils, respectively. The average cost per pupil 
transported to the colored elementary schools was $21 and the 
colored high schools $24. (See auxihary agencies in Tables XXXVI 
and XXXVII, pages 320 and 321.) 

Excluding 26 pupils from Anne Arundel and 31 pupils from Prince 
George's transported to the Bowie Normal Demonstration School 
at State expense, the 1,674 pupils transported to county colored 
schools represented 5.9 per cent of the total county colored school 
enrollment. In the individual counties which provided transporta- 
tion to colored schools, the percentage of pupils transported varied 
from none in Howard, Talbot, Wicomico, Somerset and Prince 
George's to 22.5 per cent in Cecil and 25.6 per cent in Caroline. The 
largest increases in number and per cent transported from 1933 to 
1934 occurred in Baltimore, Cecil and Queen x\nne's Counties. 
Four counties — Carroll, Calvert, Worcester and Kent — transported 
a smaller percentage of colored pupils to school in 1934 than during 
the preceding year. (See Table 176, page 227.) 

COOPERATION OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

During 1933-34 the colored schools made very little use of the 
Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. One colored ele- 
mentary school in Baltimore County borrowed one package library 
of six books and one traveling library of thirty-five books. The 
colored high school in Charles County borrowed two package libraries 
of twenty-five books. 

* Data furnished by the courtesy of Miss Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries. 



Cost per Pupil; Transportation; Libraries; Capital Outlay 177 

Traveling libraries are collections of books which are loaned by 
the Maryland Public Library Commission for a period of four months 
at which time they may be returned and exchanged for another col- 
lection, or renewed for four more months. The books are selected 
with respect to the grades for which they have been intended. 
Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five 
in those sent by express. 

For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates, or individual needs and professional reading for the 
teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for one 
month to any one hving in Maryland who is without access to a 
public library. 

Those borrowing books from the Maryland Public Library Com- 
mission, now located on the third floor of the Enoch Pratt Library 
Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland, of which Miss 
Adelene J. Pratt is State Director, must fill out the necessary blanks, 
have them signed by three guarantors, and indicate the grades and 
subjects for which the books are desired. They must pay the trans- 
portation costs and guarantee reimbursement for books defaced or 
lost. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY IN 1934 

In 1934 capital outlay for county colored schools totaled $33,135, 
less than for any year since 1920, except 1921 and 1933. Since 1920 
the total capital outlay in the counties exceeded $1,180,000, the 
largest investments in school buildings for colored pupils having 
been made in Baltimore, Prince George's, Anne Arundel and 
Wicomico Counties. (See Table 140.) The capital outlay shown 
was stimulated by the receipt of nearly $115,000 from the Rosen- 
wald Fund over this period of years. 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

The value of school property owned by the counties and used by 
county colored pupils in 1934 was $1,450,810, a decrease of $2,550 
under corresponding figures for the preceding year due to the aban- 
donment of buildings no longer needed because of school con- 
solidation. The average value of school property per county pupil 
was $53 with a variation from $20 in St. Mary's and Kent, in which 
rented buildings are in use, to over $100 in Baltimore, Washington 
and Allegany Counties. (See Table 184, page 239, and Chart 25.) 

The valuation of property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City 
was $6,363,122, a gain of $96,277 over 1933, due to a revaluation 
of all school property. This made the value per Baltimore City 
colored pupil $242, an increase of $28 over the year preceding. (See 
Chart 25.) 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




C5 CC ^ CO 



lO t- o 
eo 00 o 



OOkO 
00 t- 



CO ec w CD 
CO 
o 



IC tH lO CCl 



5 £ 
o 

•2 o 



2 -'"^^11 1* 



a) o C 



ESS 



Capital Outlay; Value of School Property; Size of Colored Schools 179 

CHART 25 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE 
PER colored public SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 1932 1933 1954 
Co. Average t 52 $ 53 IM3BM 



Allegany 

Washington 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Pr. George's 

Charles 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Howard 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Kent 

St. Mary's 



Balto. City 217 214 
State 129 150 




* A revaluation of buildings in Baltimore City has brought about the increases. 

SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 
Fewer Colored Elementary Schools 

Of 484 colored elementary schools in the Maryland counties in 
1933-34, 332 employed one teacher, 115 two teachers, 22 three teach- 
ers, and 15 had 4 or more teachers. There were five fewer schools 
than were in operation the preceding year. The reduction was in 
the one-, two-, and three-teacher schools, but there was one more 
school with 4 or more teachers. (See Table 141.) 

Baltimore County reduced the number of colored elementary 
schools by 4, made possible by provision of transportation to larger 



180 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



schools, Charles and Dorchester each had one fewer school, while 
Calvert increased the number of colored elementary schools by 1. 
Anne Arundel's largest elementary school at Annapolis had 13 
teachers. The Salisbury colored elementary school had 9 teachers. 
(See Table 141.) 

TABLE 141 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
Year Ending July 31, 1934. 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomi-fco 


Worcester | 


Total.... 


484 


2 


40 


24 


20 


17 


10 


10 


32 


39 


21 


18 


14 


20 


31 


44 


17 


25 


29 


22 


5 


19 


25 


1 or les? 
1.1- 2 
2.1- 3 


332 
115 
22 


1 


19 
18 
2 


14 
6 


17 
2 
1 


14 

3 


8 
2 


6 
4 


25 
5 
2 


35 
3 


14 
5 
2 


14 
3 


11 
2 
1 


17 
2 


20 
9 
1 


20 
21 
2 


14 
2 
1 


17 
8 


17 
9 
1 


17 

4 


4 


12 
4 
2 


16 
6 
3 


3.1- 4 


3 






2 


















1 


















4.1- 5 


5 






2 
















1 












2 










5.1- 6 


5 


1 
















1 












1 










1 






8.1- 9 


1 








































1 




12.1-13 


1 




1 



















































































Prince George's had the largest number of schools, 44; Anne 
Arundel came second with 40, and Dorchester third with 39. (See 
Table 141.) 

Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 



TABLE 142 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1923-1934 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 - 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 - 


712 


403 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


734 


372 


50.7 


1930 


733 


363 


49.5 


1931 _ 


739 


353 


47.7 


1932 


727 


344 


47.3 


1933 


718 


S34 


46.5 


1934 - .. 


708 


331 


46.7 



Size of Colored Schools; Physical Education in Colored Schools 181 

There were 331 county colored teachers giving instruction in one- 
teacher schools during the school year 1933-34, or 46.7 per cent of 
the colored elementary teaching staff. There was a decrease of three 
teachers under the number in one-teacher schools in 1933 and there 
were 91 fewer than in 1920. (See Table 142.) 

In the individual counties the number and per cent of colored 
elementary teachers serving in one-teacher schools ranged from 1 or 
16.4 per cent in Allegany to 34 or 79.1 per cent in Dorchester. In 
six counties there were from 1 to 3 fewer teachers employed in one- 
teacher schools in 1934 than in the preceding year. (See Tabte 143.) 

TABLE 143 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average. 


331 


46.7 


Allegany 


1 


16.4 


Anne Arundel 


19 


25.7 


Prince George's 


20 


27.3 


Baltimore 


14 


31.8 


Wicomico 


12 


34.3 


Somerset 


17 


35.4 


Washington 


4 


41.7 


Cecil 


6 


42.9 


Worcester 


16 


43.7 


Montgomery 


20 


44.4 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Frederick 


14 


46.1 


St. Mary's 


17 


51.5 


Talbot 


17 


56.3 


Harford 


14 


57.4 


Caroline 


14 


60.9 


Howard 


11 


61.1 


Charles 


25 


61.7 


Queen Anne's 


14 


66.7 


Carroll 


8 


66.7 


Calvert 


17 


70.8 


Kent 


17 


70.8 


Dorchester 


34 


79.1 



Size of Colored High Schools 

The 26 county colored high schools employed from 1 to 8 teachers 
in 1934 and enrolled from 26 to 225 pupils. The largest colored high 
schools were in Annapolis and Cambridge with Salisbury and 
Denton next in size. Annapolis had 8 teachers, Cambridge 6, Salis- 
bury and Denton, 7 each. The median county colored high school 
had three teachers and enrolled from 76 to 100 pupils. (See Table 
144 and Table XXXVIII, pages 322 to 327.) 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

During the year 1933-34 there were 5,929 boys and 7,093 girls 
from Maryland county colored schools who entered the preliminary 
and final badge tests under the auspices of the Playground Athletic 
League. Of this number, 30 per cent of all boys entered and 41 per 
cent of the girls entered won the bronze, silver, gold, or super-gold 
badges. Carroll County had no boys or girls entered in the badge 
contests in 1934. In eleven counties there were more boys entered 
than in the preceding year, and in fourteen counties a larger number 
of boys won their badges than in 1933. Corresponding figures for 
girls showed a larger number of entrants in 1934 in thirteen counties 
and a larger number of winners in ten counties. (See Table 145 
and Table XXI, page 305.) 



182 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 144 



Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1934. 



No. of 


























tgomery 


rge's 1 














Teachers 
Average 


Total 
No. 
High 


>. 
c 

c« 


I Arun 


<v 


roline 






en 


hester 


erick 


o 




;e Geo 


n Ann 


1 

•> 


o 


lingtoi 


mico 


• 

1 


No. 


Schools 




c 


> 




'G 


Cl 




T5 


ki 


C 


c 


a 


w 

0) 


Som« 


ja 


CO 




Wor< 


Belonging 






c 
< 


15 
<J 


U 


e« 
U 


U 


.C 

(J 


o 
Q 




:« 




o 


04 




"3 
H 







SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF 



All Schools .. 


26 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1* 


2 






































2 


2 


6 






1 




1 


















1 




1 


1 




1 


3 


6 












1 








1 






1 




2 




1 




4 


6 


















1 




1 


1 


1 






1 






5 


2 














1 










1 














6 


1 
















1 
























7 


2 


































1 




8 


1 




1 









































































SIZE OF ENROLLMENT 



26- 40 


2 
































1 






1 


41- 50 


2 


































1 




51- 75 


6 






1 




1 


1 
























1 


1 


76-109 


9 


1 
















1 




1 




3 


1 


1 


1 








101-125 


1 


























1 








126-150 


2 
























1 
















176-200 


2 








1 


























1 




201-225 


2 




1 












1 































































* Mid Point of interval. 



All except three counties had colored pupils who participated in 
the State-wide athletic meets in 1933-34. The entrants engaged in 
track and field events, dodge, speed and volley ball, and flag, run and 
catch, and block relays. Entrants from 459 or 90 per cent of the 
colored schools participated in the meets. Every school in nine 
counties was represented in the contests and in only three counties 
participating did less than 90 per cent of the schools have representa- 
tion in the events. (See Table 146 and Table XXII, page 306.) 

As a result of a survey requested by several principals of colored 
high schools interest was shown in basketball played on a competitive 
basis under the supervision of the P. A. L. Twelve boys' and four 
girls' teams including 162 boys and 55 girls participated in a basket- 
ball tournament. Although progress has been made, participation 
in the tournament is somewhat retarded because of lack of suitable 
playing spaces. However, Salisbury Colored High School on the 
Eastern Shore, Hyattsville Armory and Bowie Normal School were 
used with complete satisfaction. 

The attitude of the participants, spectators and colored teachers 
was most satisfactory and the visiting team, in the majority of cases, 
was entertained by the home school. 



Size of Schools; Physical Education in Colored Schools 



183 



TABLE 145 

Number of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests in 1933 and 1934 



COUNTY 



Total 



Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline.... 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick.- 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent.. 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's.... 

Somerset 

Talbot , 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



BOYS 



1934 



Entered 



5,929 

455 
387 
234 
297 



123 
325 
324 
320 
250 
125 
200 
556 
598 
194 
281 
273 
226 
449 
312 



Won 



1,768 

120 
126 
87 
127 



54 
45 
90 
78 
93 
28 
88 

104 
71 
53 

113 

137 
56 

203 
95 



Entered 



5,673 
474 



207 
327 
146 
113 
435 
307 
342 
228 



212 
521 
694 
179 
244 
219 
224 
489 
312 



Won 



1,279 
147 



44 
116 
97 
55 
71 
78 
43 
165 
89 



GIRLS 


1934 


1933 




Won 


11 Lt:i tju 


TVon 


7,093 


2,938 


6,480 


2,728 


527 


193 


586 


198 


413 


204 






333 


155 


264 


159 


384 


185 


382 


152 






142 


23 


136 


55 


146 


44 


454 


106 


489 


196 


455 


314 


406 


183 


380 


118 


347 


101 


274 


132 


235 


96 


128 


57 






267 


140 


260 


89 


501 


149 


531 


219 


743 


270 


746 


279 


251 


79 


211 


111 


284 


77 


248 


161 


350 


156 


355 


169 


292 


123 


258 


120 


550 


268 


543 


256 


371 


157 


331 


172 



TABLE 146 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Schools Which Had Entrants in County 
Meets During Years 1933 and 1934. 



County 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 
Number Per Cent 
1933 1934 1933 1934 



Total and Average 440 459 85.4 89.8 

Caroline 18 18 100.0 100.0 

Cecil 10 11 90.9 100.0 

Harford 19 19 100.0 100.0 

Howard 14 100.0 

Kent 20 21 95.2 100.0 

Ouepn Anne's 18 18 100.0 100.0 

S\. Mary's 23 25 92.0 100.0 

Talbot 23 24 95.8 100.0 

Wicomico 21 21 100.0 100.0 



SCHOOLS ENTERED 

County Number Per Cent 

1933 1934 1933 1934 

Prince George's. 46 46 97.9 97.9 

Frederick...- 21 21 95.5 95.5 

Calvert 19 20 95.0 95.2 

Charles 34 31 100.0 93.9 

Somerset 31 29 100.0 93.5 

Worcester 22 26 78.6 92.9 

Montgomerv 28 29 87.5 90.6 

Anne Arundel 38 36 92.7 87.8 

Dorchester 38 34 92.7 85 

Baltimore 16 66.7 

Carroll 11 .... 100.0 



WORK OF STATE AND COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS AFFECTING 
COLORED CHILDREN* 

Children approaching school age were examined in the spring and 
summer in preparation for admission to school at the child health 
conferences held regularly under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of 
Child Hygiene and the County Departments of Health with the 
hope that necessary corrections could be made before opening of 

* Information furnished through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director of the State Depart- 
ment of Health. 



184 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school. There were 961 county colored children examined in all of 
the counties, except Carroll, Washington and Worcester. The 
number examined represented 28 per cent of the estimated number 
of county colored children six years of age. 

In Kent County 100 per cent of the colored pre-school children 
were examined, in Wicomico 72 per cent, in Cecil 67 per cent, in 
Baltimore County 58 per cent, while in Worcester, Washington, 
Carroll, Dorchester, St. Mary's, Caroline and Howard less than 10 
per cent of the colored pre-school children took advantage of the 
opportunity to be examined. 

It was found that 56 per cent of the county colored pre-school 
children examined required vaccination against small-pox, and that 
51 per cent were not immunized against diphtheria, the individual 
counties varying between and 100 per cent in the per cent ex- 
amined who required vaccination and immunization. (See Table 
53, page 68.) 

national negro health week* 
The celebration of the annual Negro Health Week in Maryland has 
gradually taken on the aspects of a periodical examination of health 
assets and liabilities, in the colored portion of the population, with 
emphasis on constructive activities in the improvement of en- 
vironmental sanitation, of health habits, and in the control of com- 
municable diseases. The programs in Baltimore City and in in- 
dividual counties have covered a wide range, but all have had an 
underlying all-the-year-round purpose. The schedules have included 
public meetings, exercises in schools and churches, health exhibits 
and demonstrations, preschool and child health conferences, clinics 
for immunization against diphtheria and against smallpox, medical 
examination of school children, chest clinics and venereal disease 
clinics. 

Individual initiative and local cooperation have opened the way 
for other activities of special promise. In Wicomico County, for 
example, in 1934, health clubs were organized throughout the county 
in connection with the annual celebration of the Health Week. Home 
nursing classes were held in Dorchester and in other counties, and 
clean-up campaigns, with excellent results, were featured in all of 
the counties. Particular interest was aroused in many of the schools, 
through participation in a health poster contest, fostered by the 
National Committee. In Kent County which has taken ''firsts" in 
the awards for a number of years, the presentation of a plaque, 
by the National Committee in recognition of continued effort, was 
the occasion for special exercises and a health pageant. 

improvement contests 
For a number of years, cleanliness and neatness improvement 
contests have been held in the colored schools, in selected counties, 
in connection with and following Negro Health Week. They have 

* Information furnished through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director of the State Depart- 
ment of Health. 



Health Activities for Colored Schools; P. T. A.'s 185 

been undertaken in response to the offer, by Dr. H. Maceo Williams, 
a colored physician of Baltimore City, of suitable awards to the 
schools which show the greatest improvement in the personal clean- 
liness of the pupils and in the appearance and cleanliness of school- 
rooms and school grounds, during the period of the contest. The 
contests have been sponsored by the State Department of Health 
and the State Department of Education, and have been conducted 
under the direction of the County Health Officer, the County Super- 
intendent of Schools, and the County Supervisor of Colored Schools. 
The special contest of 1934 was held in the Talbot County Schools, 
and on the recommendation of those in charge, the awards — por- 
traits of Major Moton, President of Tuskegee Institute, and of 
Dr. G. W. Carver, the distinguished Negro scientist — were made to 
the schools at Matthewstown and Royal Oak. 

Similar contests, arranged by the County Health Officers, were 
held during the year in Caroline and in Queen Anne's Counties. 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

In 1934 there were 394 active parent-teacher associations organ- 
ized in 81.1 per cent of the county colored schools. This was a 
decrease of 7 organizations under the number reported in 1933, but 
a reduction of .1 only in per cent of schools having organizations. 
Five counties, Somerset, St. Mary's, Talbot, Wicomico and Queen 
Anne's, had a parent-teacher association in every colored school. 
At the opposite extreme there were no P. T. A.'s in the colored schools 
of Washington County and only 3 in Calvert. The greatest gains in 
number and per cent of colored schools having parent-teacher organi- 
zations occurred in Talbot, Anne Arundel and Worcester Counties. 
On the other hand, the parent-teacher movement suffered losses in 
Baltimore, Montgomery and Frederick Counties. Because these 
organizations may become a great force in improving conditions for 
children through a better understanding of the aims of the schools 
and the teachers, it is believed that their functioning should be 
stimulated by the teachers and supervisors. (See Chart 26.) 



RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
PUBLIC FUNDS 

Six counties which sent in reports of receipts of colored schools 
from other than public funds showed gross collections of $3,815 in 
Charles, $1,817 in Baltimore County, $1,671 in Dorchester, $1,112 
in Caroline, $942 in St. Mary's and $233 in Washington County. 
Dues were reported by Charles as the major source of their receipts 
with school lunches bringing in a considerable amount. In Baltimore 
County the P. T. A.'s contributed the largest amount collected. In 
Caroline and Dorchester parties, dances and sales brought in a large 
part of the receipts. In St. Mary's parties and dances were the chief 



186 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 26 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1953 and 1934 



County 



Number 
1933 1934 

Total and 
Co. Average 401 

Somerset 27 

St. Maiy»s 26 

Talbot 20 

Wicomico 19 

Quaen Anne's 17 

Anne Arundel 34 

Pr, George's 42 

Kent 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Charles 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Dorchester 
Frederick 
Howard 
Carroll 
Allegany 
Calvert 
Washington 



Per Cent 
1933 1934 




source of revenue with plays, movies, and musicals coming second 
in importance. In Washington County plays, movies, and musicals 
produced most of the funds secured. (See Table 147.) 

Charles used almost all of its funds to provide for transportation 
of colored pupils to high school. Baltimore County used the largest 
portion of its extra funds for social affairs and trips, improving 
buildings and grounds and the auditoriums. Caroline devoted its 
funds to buildings and grounds, physical education and operation of 



p. T. A.'s; Receipts from Sources Other Than County Funds 187 



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188 



1934 



Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Expenditures from Other Than County Funds; Supervision 189 



buildings. The major portion of Dorchester's funds went into the 
auditorium, physical education and social affairs and trips. St. 
Mary's found use for its funds in promoting the physical education 
program for colored pupils. (See Table 148.) 



SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools is responsible for the 
supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most of his 
time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of 
colored schools and working with the high school principals and 
teachers. At the conference at the beginning of the year with the 
county supervisor of colored schools the State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools emphasized the necessity for improvement of classroom in- 
struction. Every supervisor prepared a comprehensive plan along 
this line which the State Supervisor checked and followed up dur- 
ing the year. In many counties standard or informal tests prepared 
by the supervisor were given to check up on the effectiveness of the 
work of the teachers. 

Conferences with Eastern Shore and Western Shore principals 
held early in the year dealt entirely with the administration of the 
colored high schools. A special effort was made during the year to 
employ only teachers regularly certificated in the subjects in which 
they teach. With few exceptions this objective was carried out. 

The State Supervisor visited the Bowie Normal School a number of 
times during the year to study the quality of instruction and to con- 
fer with both faculty and students. Much of his time at the office is 
spent in interviewing prospective county teachers in order to make 
suggestions regarding desirable colored teachers to the county 
superintendents. The salary and traveling expenses of the State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools are paid by the General Education 
Board. 

Each of 15 counties received $750 from the State as reim- 
bursement toward the salary of a full time colored supervisor. Five 
of the supervisors employed were women and 10 were men. In 4 
counties, the supervisors devoted some time to instruction in home 
economics or manual training in the high school. The attendance 
officers in Cecil, Howard, Queen Anne's and Somerset Counties 
spent part of their time in supervising the colored schools, and the 
Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore County had the 
supervision of the colored schools as part of his duties. In Allegany 
and Washington, supervision of the colored schools is given by the 
white elementary school supervisors and the county superintendent. 
There are only two colored schools in the former and five in the 
latter county. 



190 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment 

There were 96 students enrolled at the Bowie Normal School 
during the school year 1933-34, a decrease of 27 under the number 
enrolled in 1933. The enrollment in the fall of 1934 was 95, of whom 
48 were freshmen, 35 second year seniors, and 12 third year seniors. 
Strict application of entrance requirements and lack of funds for 
school fees account for the decrease in enrollment. The coopera- 
tion of county superintendents, high school principals and super- 
visors, made possible a better selection of students having the 
qualifications deemed suitable for prospective teachers. Of 65 
students who applied for admission, 48 were accepted. The action 
of the State Board of Education in increasing the length of the nor- 
mal school course for colored students entering as freshmen in the 
fall of 1934 marks a new milestone in the improvement of the colored 
schools of Maryland. (See Table 149.) 



TABLE 149 

Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Year Ending 






Enrollment 






June 30 


Total 


Freshmen 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Graduates 


1924 


*11 




11 






1925 


*26 




16 


10 


10 


1926 


*36 




24 


12 


12 


1927 


*80 




58 


22 


22 


1928 


no9 




55 


54 


50 


1929 


128 




76 


52 


46 


1930 


119 




46 


73 


56 


1931.... 


113 




59 


54 


41 


1932 


112 




56 


56 


54 


1933 


123 




71 


52 


49 


1934 


96 




36 


60 


t56 


Fall, 1934 


95 


48 




t47 



* Excludes high school enrollment. 

t Includes 11 graduates of the two-year course in 1934, who returned for the third year. 



The scholarship rating of the entrants for 1934 showed improve- 
ment. Students who met the required entrance average of **B" ad- 
mitting to full standing increased from 47.2 per cent in 1933 to 50 
per cent in 1934. 

The distribution of the freshmen of 1934 according to rank in 
their class showed 69 per cent in the upper third, 25 per cent in the 
middle third, and 6 per cent in the lower third. In 1933 the corre- 
sponding percentages were 58 in the upper third, 33 in the middle 
third, and 8 in the lower third. 

The Graduates 

There were 53 graduates of Bowie Normal School in 1934. Teach- 
ing positions in the Maryland counties were secured by 31, and of 
these 22 returned to positions in their home counties. Of the re- 
maining 22 graduates, 11 failed to secure positions and 11 returned 
to Bowie to take a third year of work. (See Table 150.) 



Bowie Normal School 



191 



TABLE 150 



Home and Teaching County of 19^ Graduates of Bowie 





Home 


Teaching 




Home 


Teaching 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


Total Counties 


d56 


31 


TT J 

Howard 




ac2 








Kent 


1 


1 


Anne Arundel 


****8 


2 


Montgomery 


5 


4 


Calvert 




ab2 


Prince George's 


... *t8 


c5 


Caroline 




1 


St. Mary's 


2 


1 


Carroll 


1 


1 


Somerset 


**t4 


Cecil 


1 


Talbot 


4 


a3 


Charles 


1 


"i 


Wicomico 


3 


3 


Dorchester 


3 




Worcester 


2 


a3 


Frederick 


*2 


"i 








Harford. 


**3 


1 


Baltimore City. 


•8 





♦ Each asterisk indicates that a two year graduate returned for the third year of work, 
t Includes one rejected by the Medical Board, 
a Includes one from Baltimore City, 
b Includes one from Montgomery, 
c Includes one from Prince George's. 

d Includes one who died, 11 who returned for third year of work, 2 rejected by medical board, one 
of whom is teaching in Virginia, and 11 without positions. 

The Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1934 the professional staff of the Bowie Normal 
School included 14 persons — the principal, 7 instructors, 2 teachers 
in the demonstration school, a librarian, a secretary-registrar, a 
stenographer and a dietitian. Twelve teachers in 4 two-teacher 
schools and 4 one-teacher schools located in actual rural situations 
act as demonstration and critic teachers for the practice work of 
students. Each normal school student is given 160 clock hours of 
practice teaching during the three-year course. 



Enrollment and Cost per Student 

The current expenses for the Bowie Normal School for 1934 totaled 
$39,082, of which $20,649 was spent for instruction and $18,433 for 
the dormitory. This is a decrease of $15,983, under the total ex- 
penditures for the year 1933, due to the reductions in salaries of all 
members of the staff and in other budget items. 

The instruction cost per pupil was $232, of which $9 was paid 
by each student and the remaining $223 by the State. Of the aver- 
age enrollment of 89 students, all but 3 lived in the dormitory. The 
total dormitory expenditure per pupil amounted to $214, an average 
payment of $146 being made by each student in fees or services, 
leaving a cost of $68 to the State. The combined cost to the State 
for instruction and dormitory expenses amounted to $291 per resident 
student in 1934, a decrease of $78 under the corresponding cost in 
1933. (See TaHe 151.) 



192 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 151 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1933-34 
EXPENDITURES 

Instruction Dormitory 



Administration 

Salaries $ 1,884.08 $ 1,368.08 

Other Than Salaries 312.91 373.93 

Instruction 

Salaries 12,664.07 

Other Than Salaries al,581.55 

Operation and Maintenance 

Salaries 1,639.35 b5,952.10 

Other than Salaries, excluding Food 2,566.98 c3,230.55 

Food c7,508.12 



Totals a$20,648.94 bc$18,432.78 



RECEIPTS 

From Students: 

Board and Lodging 9,058.90 

Value of Service Rendered 1,640.43 

Laundrv and Contingent Fees dl,388.19 

HeilthFees 466.69 

Athletic Fees d366.72 

Registration Fees 463.67 



Total Receipts from Students d$830.39 de$12,554.21 

Total From State 19,818.55 5,878.57 



COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 89 86 

Average Total Cost Per Student $ 232.01 $ 214.33 

Average Payment Per Student 9.33 145.98 

Average Cost to State Per Student 222.68 68.35 

Total Cost to State Per Resident Student $291.03 



a Excludes $363.35 received and expended from "special" funds, 

b Includes $1,640.43, value of service rendered by students, and excludee $4 refund of salaries, 
c Excludes $624.36 deducted for cost of extra activities paid for by students and faculty and $726.68 
expended from "special" funds. 

d Excludes $23.12 refunded for laundry, contingent and athletic fees. 

e Excludes $1,097.41 received from "special" funds, of which $726.68 was expended and $370.73 
was transferred to the 1935 budget. 

Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School property as of Septem- 
ber 30, 1934, totaling $210,349, was distributed as follows: Land 
$11,650; buildings $153,168; equipment and other $45,531. 



FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1933-34 there were 23 men and 88 women enrolled at 
the Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore City. 
The average net roll of 105 was an increase of 21 students over that 
of the preceding year. The faculty included the principal and 4 
assistants. The current expenses for the school amounted to $17,691, 
making the average instruction cost per student $168. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTIESf 

The director of the Playground Athletic League, acting as State 
Supervisor of Physical Education, plans and cooperates with the 
State Department of Education and county superintendents of 
schools in carrying out the program for physical education in the 
counties of Maryland. One of the outstanding characteristics of the 
Maryland plan is the large proportion of pupils above grade 3 who 
participate in the physical education program. 

Participation in Spring County Meets 

In 1934 there were 64,972 individual participations in the badge 
tests, games, track and field events scheduled in connection with 



TABLE 152 
Participation in County Meets — 1934 — White 



COUNTY 


Badge 
Tests 


Games 


Track and 
Field 


Totals 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Allegany (Graded) 


1,013 


1,502 




dip, 


( Oo 


oiO 


5,164 


Rural 


180 


203 


135 


125 


237 


313 


1,193 


Anne Arundel 


664 


1,184 


*435 


*345 


656 


588 


*3',872 


Ralt.imnrp 


1,390 


2,655 


*958 


*778 


1,060 


1,363 


*8 204 


Calvert 


116 


257 


136 


118 


230 


207 


1^064 


Caroline 


374 


568 


241 


231 


435 


391 


2,240 


Cecil 


313 


660 


*323 


*320 


419 


478 


*2,513 


L/narles 


251 


418 


100 


72 


286 


80 


1,207 


Dorchester 


471 


695 


269 


220 


385 


392 


2,432 


Frederick 


847 


1,289 


558 


416 


424 


534 


4,068 


Garrett 


278 


367 


237 


157 


283 


243 


1,565 


Harford 


542 


825 


392 


356 


447 


458 


3,020 


Howard 


368 


499 


217 


206 


369 


340 


1,999 


Kent 


301 


443 


230 


199 


294 


288 


1,755 


Montgomery 


858 


1,402 


679 


726 


876 


885 


5,426 


Prince George's (Graded). 


772 


904 


500 


386 


680 


578 


3,820 


Rural 


186 


312 


256 


216 


34 


41 


1,045 


Queen Anne's 


215 


354 


221 


203 


374 


295 


1,662 


St. Mary's 


166 


286 


168 


161 


326 


286 


1,393 


Somerset 


198 


353 


169 


189 


278 


230 


1,417 


Talbot 


299 


515 


230 


248 


378 


382 


2,052 


Washington 


809 


1,044 


412 


330 


500 


627 


3,722 


Wicomico 


481 


789 


257 


274 


388 


413 


2,602 


Worcester 


193 


333 


181 


180 


336 


314 


1,£37 


Total, 1934 


11,285 


17,857 


*7,904 


*6,932 


10,453 


10,541 


*e4,&72 


Tome Institute 


37 
18 


40 

333 










77 
351 


Towson Normal School.... 





















* Excludes the following participants in consolation dodge ball: Anne Arundel — 80 boys, 120 
girls, 200 total; Baltimore County— 80 boys, 260 girls, 340 total; Cecil 20 boys; all counties— 180 
boys. 380 girls, 560 total. 

t Data furnished by Dr. William Burdick, State Supervisor of Physical Education and Director 
of Playground Athletic League. 



193 



194 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the spring county meets held in every county except Carroll. These 
figures represent gross participation and include duplicates, since 
any one individual who was included for a badge test may also have 
appeared and been counted for one game, one track, and one field 
event. Nine of the counties had a greater number of individual 
participations in 1934 than for the preceding year. (See Table 152.) 

The number of white schools which entered pupils for events at 
the county meets decreased from 871 in 1933 to 805 in 1934, and the 
percentage of schools which entered pupils decreased from 82.9 to 
78.6. Four counties had entries from every white school, and four- 
teen counties had entries from over 90 per cent of the white schools. 
Nine counties had a higher percentage of schools which participated 
in 1934 than in 1933. (See T^^/e 153.) 

TABLE 153 

Number and Per Cent of County Schools for White Pupils Which Had Entries in 
County Meets During the School Years 1933 and 1934 

SCHOOLS ENTERED SCHOOLS ENTERED 

County Number Per Cent County Number Per Cent 

1933 1934 1933 1934 1933 1934 1933 1934 

Total and Average 871 803 82.9 78.6 Anne Arundel 32 33 94.1 94.3 

Cecil .._ 46 44 95.8 91.7 

Calvert. 9 9 100.0 100.0 Dorchester 42 39 93.3 90.7 

Queen Anne's 26 22 100.0 100.0 Caroline...^ 26 23 100.0 88.5 

Talbot 22 22 100.0 100.0 Allegany 62 64 81.6 84.2 

Wicomico 43 43 100.0 100.0 Harford 47 48 77.0 81.4 

Howard.. 32 33 91.4 97.1 Somerset 29 24 93.5 80.0 

Frederick 53 52 96.4 96.3 Worcester 21 20 75.0 76.9 

Kent 28 25 100.0 96.2 Washington 56 64 58.3 66.7 

Baltimore 64 70 83.1 95.9 Charles 15 5 93.8 33.3 

St. Mary's 23 23 95.8 95.8 Garrett 22 25 23.7 29.4 

Prince George's._ 62 63 93.9 95.5 Carroll 54 .... 98.2 „ 

Montgomery 57 52 100.0 94.5 



In most of the counties the superintendents attend to show their 
interest and to encourage participation in the meets. It gives the 
superintendents an opportunity to meet large numbers of parents of 
the children who attend their schools. 

Badge Tests 

The county schools enrolled 45,294 white boys above grade 3. 
Of these boys 17,328, or 38.2 per cent, in the opinion of their teachers 
successfully passed the badge tests on their school grounds, which 
permitted them to enroll for the tests at the meet. According to 
Table 152, there were 11,285 boys who were counted at the meets as 
entering the badge tests, 65 per cent of those who had passed them 
at their schools, and of these 4,987 won their badges. Of those who 
entered the meet, therefore, 44 per cent won their badges, although 
the percentage of the county enrollment of boys above grade 3 which 
won badges was only 11 per cent. (See Chart 27 and Table XVIII, 
page 302.) 

The badge tests on the school premises attracted over one-half 
of the boys enrolled above grade 3 in eight counties while at the 
opposite extreme less than one-third of the boys in five counties tried 



Schools Having Entrants at Meets; Badge Tests for White Boys 195 



them. Baltimore County which carries on a regular physical educa- 
tion program throughout the year does not have the same need as 
other counties for concentrating on the badge test program in the 
spring. (See Chart 27 and Table XVIII, page 302.) 



CHART 27 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1934, BASED ON 1935-54 ENROLL'««ENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Coun-ty 

Total and 
Average 

Calvert 

Kent 

Howard 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's 

Pr. George's 

Montgomery 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Charles 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Harford 

Anne Arxindel 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Garrett 

Worcester 

Carroll 



Number Number 
Enrolled Entered Won 



45,294 17,328 4,987 



285 
658 
801 
967 
1,187 
849 
1,563 
653 
3,200 
2,874 
496 
3,065 
5,336 
649 
1,491 
998 
1,814 
2,612 
6,727 
4,370 
1,556 
1,040 
2,103 



176 
400 
484 
546 
632 
451 
795 
328 
1,499 
1,269 
218 
1,325 
2,167 
257 
575 
377 
685 
975 
2,129 
1,290 
456 
296 



43 
171 
121 

190 
148 
120 
260 
102 
419 
522 
120 
324 
589 
141 
133 
109 
279 
261 
655 
235 
152 
115 



Per Cent 



Won 



Entered 





ei.8 I 




60.8 1 


15.1 


gO.4 1 



56.5 



1 IS 5 


53.2 




. 14.1 m 


53.1 




50.9 I 




50.2 1 




46.8 1 


'11.2 


44.2 1 


24.2 ^^ 


H 44.0 1 






29.5 



29.3 



26.5 I 



The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the 
policy of the physical education leaders in Maryland to plan activities 
adapted to the special physique and interests of the tv^o sexes. 
Of the 45,573 girls above grade 3 enrolled in the county public schools, 
24,138, or 53 per cent, tried out the badge tests for girls at their 



196 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



schools. According to Table 152, at the county meets 17,857 of these 
girls who had passed, or 74 per cent, entered for the tests, and of 
these 8,378 or 47 per cent won their badges. The percentage of 
county enrollment of girls above grade 3 which won badges was 18.3. 
(See Chart 28 and Table XVIII, page 302.) 

CHART 28 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARI AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1934, BASED ON 1933-54 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



Countj 



Niimber Number 
Enrolled filtered Won 



Total and 

Average 45,5/5 


24,138 


8,578 


Calvert 




518 


102 


Kent 


672 


550 


231 


Caroline 


1,025 


788 


254 


Howard 


821 


605 


190 


Talbot 


864 


626 


143 


St. Mary's 


452 


323 


128 


Dorchester 


1,295 


899 


265 


Charles 


658 


441 


200 


Queen Anne's 


699 


459 


174 


Wicomico 


1,694 


1,089 


451 


Cecil 


1,455 


902 


500 


Montgomery 


2,816 


1,705 


648 


Harford 


1,857 


1,048 


521 


Baltimore 


6,660 


5,785 


1,256 


Anne Arundel 


2,698 


1,468 


568 


Frederick 


5,079 


1,648 


681 


Somerset 


970 


516 


174 


Pr. George's 


5,189 


1,681 


721 


Allegai;7 


5,515 


2,702 


720 


Worcester 


955 


464 


161 


Washington 


4,447 


1,641 


511 


Garrett 


1,548 


480 


201 


Carroll 


2,078 







Won 



Per Cent 

Entered 




In three counties three-fourths or more of the girls above grade 
3 tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools and 
in only four counties was the percentage who successfully passed the 
tests at their school less than 50 per cent. (See Chart 28 and Table 
XVIII, page 302.) 



Badge Tests for Girls; Team Games for Boys and Girls 197 

The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment 
of physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted to enter 
the group activities of the physical education program. The games 
and track and field events set up opportunities for cooperation of 
individuals when they work together on teams as representatives of 
schools or groups with which they are identified. It is this phase of 
the physical education program that develops fine character ex- 
hibited in good behavior and self control. 

Team Games 

There were 28,828 white boys and girls entered on 2,100 teams in 
the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball out- 
ranked all other games in popularity, having had 10,261 boys and 
girls as entrants on 737 teams. Of these teams 121 were mixed. There 
were 7,030 boys on 495 speed ball teams. Soccer and boys' basket- 

TABLE 154 



Number of County High Schools from Which Girls Entered Games, Relays, Hit 
and Run the Bases, and Badge Tests, Year Ending June 39, 1934 



COUNTY 


Ball Games 


Relays 


, Indi- 
1 vid- 
! ual 


Badge J.Tests 


Basket Ball 


Field Ball 


Hit Ball 


Touchdown Pass 


Volley Ball 


Run and Catch 


Obstacle 


Hit and Run 
the Bases 


! « 

c 

i 

m 


Silver 


"o 
C 


Super-gold 


No. High 
Schools 


Total Counties 


58 


106 


99 


69 


109 


111 


81 


92 


100 


124 


119 


115 


*137 


Allegany 


6 


5 


4 


3 


6 




5 


6 


7 


9 


8 


7 


9 


Anne Arundel 


2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


I 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Baltimore 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Calvert 






1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Caroline 




5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


3 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Carroll 


5 
























10 


Cecil _ 




8 


7 


4 






3 


6 


7 


8 


8 


7 


8 


Charles 




5 


2 


3 


4 


I 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


Dorchester 


3 


4 


3 


2 


5 


6 


4 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Frederick .._ 


6 


7 


7 


3 


5 


6 


4 


1 


4 


7 


7 


6 


7 


Garrett 


3 


5 


5 


2 




6 


4 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Harford 




7 


7 


3 


f 


7 


3 


6 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 


Howard . . 


1 


4 


4 


3 


4I 


5 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Kent 




4 


3 


2 


4 


3 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Montgomery 


7 




6 




5 




6 


3 


3 


6 


5 


5 


7 


Prince George's 


6 


8 


7 


5 


10 


I 


5 


7 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Queen Anne's .... 




5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


St. Mary's 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Somerset 


2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


Talbot 


5 


6 


5 


4 


6 


6 


4 


6 


3 


5 


6 


6 


6 


Washington 


1 


6 


5 


4 


3 


4 


4 


5 


3 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Wicomico 


1 


7 


4 


5 


5 


7 


3 


3 


5 


7 


7 


7 


7 


Worcester 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


5 


4 







Excludes Junior High and One- Year High Schools. 



198 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ball showed little change in status for the counties as a whole from 
the preceding year. Every county, except Carroll and Calvert, had 
soccer teams, representing a total of 116 high schools. Each county 
winner of soccer played the neighboring winner, until the Western 
Shore series was won by Brunswick of Frederick County, which was 
the winner over Cambridge of Dorchester County, the champion 
team of the Eastern Shore. All counties, except Calvert, Caroline, 
Carroll, Cecil, Charles, St. Mary's and Washington had at least 
one boys' basketball team. The need for indoor gymnasiums prob- 
ably prevented the playing of basketball in the counties which had no 
basketball teams. (See Table XIX, page 303.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support 
of and interest in volley ball, field ball, hit ball, touchdown pass, 
and basket ball, in the order named. Every county, except Calvert, 
Carroll and Montgomery, had field ball teams at the sixth State-wide 
tournament, in which 2,115 girls from 106 high schools participated. 
Basketball was played by girls in 16 counties. Since an indoor 
gymnasium is required for practice during the winter months, 
basketball is, of course, limited to the localities having the necessary 
facihties. (See Table 154 and Table XIX, page 303.) 

Track, Field and Relay Events 

In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes running 
and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, broad 
jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who make 
up a team which brings success to the school or county represented. 
In Maryland the number of events in which any one participant 
may enter is limited to one running event for girls and one running 
and one field event for boys. It is thus impossible for a few good 
athletes to win the track meet for their school. All children who 
have attained even average ability in the events are needed to bring 
final success to their own schools. fSee Tables XVIII and XIX, 
pages 302 and 303.)^ 

From Table 154 it will be seen that the majority of the high 
schools had girls represented in the team games and relays. Space 
for playing basketball was not available in all of the counties. 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field meets 
took place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The win- 
ners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete for the 
State-wide championships. The girls were entertained at the State 
Normal School at Towson and a majority of the boys were cared for 
in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teacher Associations. 
The Y. M. C. A. took care of the boys not assigned to homes. The 
county winning the greatest number of points was awarded the Sun 
trophy. In 1934, this award went to Harford County. The dodge- 
ball championship was won by Frederick County athletes from 



Team Games, Track, Field and Relay at Meets; P. A. L. Finances 199 



Thurmont School, and the championship in volley ball was won by 
Caroline County representatives from Preston High School. 

State-Wide Group Athletic Meet 

The events for the State-wide group athletic meet were standing 
broad jump and basket ball shooting for boys and basket shooting 
and volley ball serve for girls. Twenty-two schools competed in the 
girls' events with a total of 23 teams of 50 each, making a grand 
total of 1,150. A few schools entered extra teams of 50. The result 
of the girls' competition gave Bethesda High School of Montgomery 
County and Pennsylvania Avenue of Allegany County a tie score. 

Twenty-five teams competed in the boys' events, with Brunswick 
High School of Frederick County furnishing an extra 155 boys, and 

with a grand total of 1,405 competing. In the boys' events Pennsyl- 

^ vania Avenue of Allegany County was the winner in each case. 

^ The winners were awarded a plaque suitably inscribed. 

uu 

^ Medical Inspection of High School Pupils 

^ Because of limited funds, the P. A. L. was not in a position to 

^ continue the medical examinations of high school boys and girls 

^ which have been a part of the program for many years, 
uu 

^ Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties as a Group 

^ The administration and direction of school athletics in Maryland 
-^^ counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1933, to September 30, 
>-* 1934, required a total expenditure of approximately $19,646. To- 
2^ wards this the Playground Athletic League received $18,000 from the 
fiC State through the State Public School Budget. In addition, certain 
g services were rendered the counties, for which the Playground 
— Athletic League received reimbursements to the extent of $12,395. 
Furthermore, materials and supplies worth $2,773 were bought by 
the counties through the P. A. L. The actual service rendered the 
counties, therefore, necessitated a budget of more than $34,814. 

TABLE 155 

Expenditures for State Work October 1, 1933 to September 30, 1934 

Salaries $6,425.39 

Wages 1,516.52 

Printing 355.84 

Postage 200.63 

Telephone 221.70 

Auto . 798.81 

Supplies 504.13 

Repairs 21.50 

Awards 4,953.90 

Travelling 2,290.02 

Miscellaneous 836.39 

$18,124.83 

Research 1,520.77 

$19,645.60 



200 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The Playground Athletic League made no charge to the counties 
for the general administration and direction of the P. A. L. pro- 
gram. {See Table 153.) 

The expenditure for salaries pays for the services of field leaders 
who conduct the meets and tournaments, and of the athletic leaders 
for boys and girls who act as teachers, referees, and umpires for 
*1,689 ''school units. " A school unit is defined as any school to which 
assistance is given, and the same school may be included a number 
of times in this figure. 

The amount for wages takes care of the cost of recording the 
badges and medals won by different pupils. The system of registra- 
tion prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 18,495 badges, 
985 date bars, 4,350 medallions, 7,999 pendants awarded to county 
pupils, and 1,300 badges for officials were all paid for through the 
State appropriation. These incentives to effort in the physical educa- 
tion program bring returns out of all proportion to the amount of 
money spent for this purpose, $4,954. (See Table 155.) 

The amount of $2,290 spent on trai^el includes transportation 
costs of the leaders who act as officials at the many county meets and 
athletic tournaments that are conducted during the year. (See 
Table 155.) 

The amount of $1,521 spent for research includes the costs of 
a study of color blindness among high school boys and girls. (See 
Table 155.) 

Physical Education Supplies Purchased for the Counties 

Through the P. A. L. the counties may purchase the supplies and 
materials needed for the physical education program at a greatly 
reduced rate. During the school year 1933-34, the counties paid 
$2,773 for these purchases. The savings possible through purchases 
from the P. A. L. permit more schools to have the needed equipment, 
and thus more children are able to participate with pleasure and 
benefit in these healthful activities. 

EVENING SCHOOLS 
Baltimore City 

As a result of the cut in the budget, the Baltimore City evening 
school net enrollment decreased for white adults from 9,160 in 
1932-33 to 7,328 in 1933-34 and for the colored from 3,198 to 2,738. 
The night school session ranged from 44 nights in vocational classes 
to 66 in Americanization and elementary classes, 72 in commercial, 
junior high, and colored senior high schools, and 88 for white senior 
high schools, i^ee Table \3^.) 

The per cent of attendance was 79.5 for white and 78.5 for colored 
adults. There were 217 teachers for white classes and 75 for colored 
classes. (See Table 156.) 

As a result of the decreased enrollment, the number who graduated 
or completed vocational courses in 1934 was smaller than for the 

* The 1,689 school units include 228 different schools to which supplies were sold by the P. A. L. 



p. A. L. Finances; Baltimore City Evening Schools 201 
TABLE 156 

Baltimore City Night Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Type of Work 



Net Enrollment 

Americanization 

Academic: 

Elementary 

Secondary 

Commercial 

Vocational : 

Industrial 

Home Economics 

Average Net Roll 

Average Attendance 
Per Cent of Attend. 
No. of Teachers 



Baltimore City Night Schools 



White 



1934 



387 

269 
2,608 
2,516 

1,200 
358 

5,252 
4,175 
79.5 

217 



1933 



943 

239 
3,265 
2,598 

1,303 
811 

7,161 
5,717 
79.8 

25<) 



1932 



1,215 

583 
3,181 
2,704 

2,418 
736 

7,310 
5,920 
80.8 
267.5 



Colored 



1934 



1,365 
456 
272 

230 
415 

2,475 
1,942 
78.5 
75 



1933 



1,517 
590 
302 

240 
549 

2,940 
2,377 
80.8 

78 



1932 



1,461 
540 
350 

376 
576 

2,815 
2,359 
83.4 
74 



Number of 
Nights 
1934 



White 



66 

66 
-88 
72 

44 
44 



Color- 
ed 



66 
72 
72 

44 
44 



* Junior High— 72. 

preceding year. The number who completed various numbers of 
units was smaller than for any year previously reported — i. e., since 
1929. (See Table 157.) 



Year 

1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 

The total expenditure for evening schools was $54,793, making 
the average cost per adult instructed on the basis of average net roll 
$7.09. (See /'/diss.) 

TABLE 158 

Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City — 1933-34 

Expenditures 





TABLE 157 






lore City Night School Students Completing Definite Courses 




or Units 






High 


Vocational 


Completion of 


School 


3 or 4 Year 


2-10 


One 


Graduation 


Course 


Units 


Unit 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


237 


165 


1,687 


634 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


285 


242 


943 


297 



Type of Work 

Americanization 

Elementary 

Handicapped 

Junior 

Senior 

Vocational 



White 
$ 2,597.82 
3,050.60 
121.23 
6,588.55 
25,345.52 
4,355.43 

$42,059.15 



Colored 
$ 

6,487.30 



5,100.27 
1,146.19 



$12,733.76 
$54,792.91 



202 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In the Counties 

The evening school program in the counties was limited to voca- 
tional work in industries in Allegany, Garrett and Washington, 
and to home economics classes in Cumberland. One-half of the funds 
spent for salaries came from Federal vocational funds. (See Table 
159.) 

TABLE 159 



Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening 
Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1934 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of 
Vocational Education in Evening Schools 


En- 
roll- 
ment 


County 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Industries: 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Washington 

Total 

Home Economics: 
Allegany 

Grand Total 


$2,521.25 
12,016.48 
580.00 


$2,521.25 
tl, 105.02 
580.00 


*$5,042.50 
t3,121.50 
1,160.00 


*487 
fllO 
100 


$5,117.73 
$172.00 


$4,206.27 
$172.00 


$9,324.00 
$344.00 


697 
59 


$5,289.73 


$4,378.27 


$9,668.00 


756 



* Includes $1,365 for mining classes, -with 115 enrolled, 
t Mining classes. 



THE EMERGENCY ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN MARYLAND 

Prior to the announcement late in September, 1933, that funds 
would be made available through the Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration to organize classes for unemployed adults to be taught 
by unemployed teachers, the only adult education program in Mary- 
land w^as found in the evening schools of Baltimore City and the 
vocational classes in Cumberland and Hagerstown, and the mining 
classes in Garrett. 

The first classes organized with Federal rehef aid were started in 
November, 1933, and by March, 1934, every county, except Carroll, 
had two or more instructional groups meeting regularly. The en- 
rollment in March had grown to over 16,000, of whom 11,000 were 
in the counties, nearly 4,000 in Baltimore City, and the remaining 
1,000 were in institutions. The staff in April, which was at its maxi- 
mum, included 342 teachers. 

Soon after notification of the possibility of the Federal proposals, 
the State Superintendent of Schools assigned Dr. J. D. Blackwell, 
Maryland's State Director of Vocational Education, to outline 
tentative plans for adult classes which were presented to and received 
the approval of the State and Federal relief and school authorities. 



County Evening Schools; Emergency Adult Education Program 203 



During November and December, Dr. Blackwell discussed the ap- 
proved program with school and rehef representatives of Baltimore 
City and each of the twelve counties which had County Welfare 
Boards, for these were the only counties, according to the original 
plan, eligible to participate in the fund. The representatives of each 
county called into conference included the county superintendent of 
schools, the executive secretary of the County Welfare Board, the 
county agricultural and home demonstration agent, and one or 
more high school principals and teachers. The representatives of 
Baltimore City and of each county then decided on the number and 
type of classes which best fitted their particular needs. 

In December, 1933, Federal officials announced that the privilege 
of organizing adult classes with Federal aid might be extended to all 
counties and that the classes would be open to any interested adults. 
As a result, by January, fifteen counties and Baltimore City were 
participating and by March twenty-two of the counties had an adult 
program in operation. 

Anne Arundel, Prince George's and Montgomery carried the 
most extensive programs that were put on in any of the counties. 

The total amount spent in the counties for the program from 
November, 1933, through September, 1934, was $51,610 and in 
Baltimore City $25,968. Classes at the Bowie Normal School, the 
Maryland Penitentiary, and the House of Correction cost $13,185. 
(See Table 160.) 

TABLE 160 

Expenditures for Emergency Adult Education Program Financed by Federal Funds 



Expenditures 
Nov. 1933- 
County Sept. 1934 

Total Counties $51,610.31 

Allegany 2,524.46 

Anne Arundel 7,221.48 

Baltimore 592.19 

Calvert 467.50 

Caroline 202.40 

Carroll 

Cecil 1,052.30 

Charles 1,383.06 

Dorchester 2,173.61 

Frederick 1,899.70 

Garrett 3,582.55 

Harford 1,026.30 

Howard 728.60 

Kent 2,472.69 



County 



Expenditures 
Nov. 1933- 
Sept. 1934 



Montgomery. $ 6,222.02 

Prince George's 7,074.99 

Queen Anne's 1,053.80 

St. Mary's 264.00 

Somerset 2,682.58 

Talbot 2,061.85 

Washington 3,320.87 

Wicomico 1,296.35 

Worcester 2,307.01 

City of Baltimore 25,967.80 

State Institutions 13,185.41 

Administration 354.30 



Entire State ..$91,117.82 



The number of teachers employed reached its maximum in April. 
For number employed by months, see Table 161. 

The greatest demand in the counties, especially from illiterates 
and those whose early schooling had been curtailed, came for classes 



204 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 161 

Number of Teachers Employed by Months in Emergency Adult Education Program 

No. of Teachers No. of Teachers 

Month Employed Month Employed 

1933 1934 

November 36 April 342 

December 73 May 186 

June 154 

1934 July 70 

January 246 August 73 

February 233 September 76 

March 275 



in the elementary school subjects — reading, writing, arithmetic, 
English and spelling. 

Physical education and recreation activities supervised by the 
Playground Athletic League were carried on in twelve counties and 
Baltimore City, by trained leaders who were unemployed. Several 
counties had groups studying choral and instrumental music, drama- 
tics, and art. 

Instruction in home economics dealing with food, clothing, home 
nursing, first aid, homemaking, parental education, or home decora- 
tion were organized in most of the counties. 

Nursery schools for the young children of unemployed adults and 
for training of their mothers were organized in four centers in Bal- 
timore City, in five schools in Hagerstown, and in connection with the 
department of home economics at the University of Maryland. 

Vocational classes in reading and making blue prints, drafting, 
mechanical drawing, agriculture, farm mechanics, farm accounting, 
gardening and manual training were carried on where there was a 
demand and an unemployed teacher available to conduct the classes. 

Many counties organized classes in commercial work for unem- 
ployed adults, taking up commercial arithmetic, bookkeeping, type- 
writing, shorthand, business English, commercial law and accounting. 
Those who were employed were not permitted to enroll for these 
courses. 

A few counties arranged for courses in high school subjects such 
as French and Spanish, general mathematics, algebra, biology and 
problems of America. Science and nature study were taught to 
several groups. 

Baltimore City organized its college center in February which 
gave first and second year college work to approximately 500 ap- 
proved graduates of high schools. 

The entire program indicated that there is an interest in and de- 
sire for enlightenment along many lines by the adult population 
throughout the State if the classes are made available without ex- 
pense. Whether the employed group desiring such classes would 
bear the cost of adult classes were they arranged for them as is the 
case in Massachusetts has not yet been ascertained in Maryland. 



Emergency Adult Education; Vocational Rehabilitation 205 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
Service Rendered from July 1, 1933 to June 30. 1934 

During the year 1933-34, rehabilitation service was rendered 
to 261 physically handicapped adults in Maryland. Of this number, 
73 were placed in jobs for which they had been trained; this represents 
an increase of 30 rehabilitations over the previous year. In addition 
to this group, 31 others were working on June 30, but they had not 
been employed sufficiently long to determine whether their 
jobs would be permanent — only permanent placements are reported 
as rehabilitations. Another 12 disabled persons had completed their 
training and were awaiting employment, while 99 more were pursu- 
ing courses of vocational training in preparation for jobs, and another 
46 were awaiting induction into training. Besides these 261 who 
were rendered definite service, 82 other cases were investigated and 
found not eligible for or susceptible of rehabilitation. (See Table 
162.) 

TABLE 162 



Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1934 



county 


Total 
No. of 

Cases 


Rehabili- 
tated 


In 

Employ- 
ment, 
Being 

Followed 


Training 
Completed 
Awaiting 

Em- 
ployment 


Being 
Prepared 
for 
Em- 
ployment 


Surveyed, 

Plan 
Made or 
Under 
Advise- 
ment 


Not 
Eligible 
•i*i,or l» ' 

Susceptible 


Total Counties. 


108 


23 


4 


11 


47 


23 


41 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel ... 


22 

5 


2 


1 
1 


4 
1 


1 


3 


9 
1 


Baltimore 


4 


1 






2 


1 


3 


Calvert 


1 






1 


1 


Caroline 


2 








1 


1 


1 


Carroll 


6 

3 


3 




1 


1 


1 


1 


Cecil 


1 






1 


1 


3 


Charles 


1 








1 




Dorchester 


5 


2 






1 


2 


1 


Frederick...- 


7 


1 




1 


3 


2 


4 


6 


2 






3 


1 




Harford 


4 






1 


1 


2 




Howard 


2 






2 




2 


Kent 


2 








1 


1 




Montgomery 


5 








4 


1 


5 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.... 
St. Mary's. 


2 


1 






1 


2 


3 








1 


2 




3 








1 


2 


2 


Somerset 


2 






1 


1 


1 


Talbot 


3 




1 




2 




Washington 

Wicomico 


12 


1 


1 


1 


9 




1 


6 


1 


5 




1 


Worcester 


2 


2 








3 


Baltimore City 


153 


50 


27 


1 


52 


23 


41 


Total State 


261 


73 


31 


12 


99 


46 


82 



Every county in the State and Baltimore City benefited from 
rehabilitation service during the past year, the number of cases in 
Baltimore being somewhat larger than that in the counties. (See 
Chart 29.) 



Regular and Emergency Vocational Rehabilitation Program 207 



Cooperation with Other Agencies 

Effective rehabilitation service requires the cooperation of all 
agencies interested in the education, health, and welfare of handi- 
capped individuals. Accordingly, efforts to bring about such a plan 
of cooperation in Maryland begun five years ago have been continued 
throughout the State. Both county and city welfare agencies, hos- 
pitals, labor organizations, health departments, civic clubs, and 
vocational schools have actively participated in the promotion of a 
unified rehabilitation service during the past year. 

Of particular importance has been the splendid cooperation 
rendered by industry. Factory superintendents, shop foremen, 
personnel managers, and even executives have appealed to the 
rehabilitation service for advice and assistance in the proper place- 
ment of workmen injured in their employ; and, in many instances, 
these officials have cooperated in setting up in their own factories 
training plans for disabled persons under the supervision of the 
rehabilitation service. 



Cost and Training Objectives 

The cost per case of the 73 cases rehabilitated in Maryland dur- 
ing 1933-34 amounted to $264.15. This expense was met jointty 
from State and Federal funds. By including the 43 cases already 
trained and the 99 cases pursuing definite courses on June 30, the 
cost per disabled person definitely helped by the rehabilitation serv- 
ice during the year is lowered to $89.69. 

Some of the more important job objectives in which disabled 
persons were trained or placed during 1933-34 were: 



Artificial Appliance Salesman 

Baker 

Barber 

Beauty Culture 
Butcher 
Cabinet Maker 
Clerk 

Commercial Artist 
Commercial Teacher 
Dental Mechanic 
Die ^Taker 
Electrician 
Locksmith 



Night Watchman 
Physiotherapist 
Proof Reader 
Radio Repairman 
Seamstress 
Stenographer 
Store Manager 
Social Service Worker 
Typewriter Repairman 
Telegraph Operator 
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Emergency Relief in Rehabilitation 

Effective November 8, 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief 
Commission m.ade available to the ]\Iaryland Departm.ent of Ed- 
ucation the sum of $800 per month to be used for the employment of 
case workers and the payment of training expenses for disabled per- 
sons in the State who were receiving rehef. On June 30, 1934, the 
State Rehabilitation Service had secured three qualified case workers 
and one full-time clerk, and had completed a survey of all the 
physically handicapped persons known to every welfare and reem- 



208 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ployment office in Maryland. On the basis of data secured, an emer- 
gency program was set up to meet the needs of this group who could 
not be cared for by the regular service, due to limited finances and 
personnel. 

The survey disclosed more than 5,000 persons who were listed 
in the various welfare and reemployment offices as being physically 
handicapped. A careful study of the records, however, shows that 
not more than half this number are eligible for rehabiHtation service; 
and of this eligible group, 281 were being served by the three emer- 
gency workers on June 30. (See Chart 29.) 

SCHOOL EXPENDITURES DECREASE 
School Costs for the Period from 1919-20 to 1933-34 

Total school current expenses during the period for 1919-20 
through 1933-34 were at their maximum in the county schools for 
the year 1931-32, although the county and City levies for school 
current expenses were at their maximum in 1930-31. Since these 
years there has been a decrease in total school current expenses each 
year, so that for 1933-34 in the counties they are below those of 
1928-29 and in Baltimore City below those of 1927-28. (See Table 
163.) 

It must be remembered that meanwhile the total day school 
enrollment and attendance have been steadily increasing until 
1933-34, especially in the high schools, which are the most expensive 
part of the school system. (See Table 164.) 

It is necessary to seek a year prior to the school year 1923-24 if a 
lower amount than the county levy of $4,329,816 for school current 
expenses in 1933-34 is to be found. The reduction of over $1,500,000 
in the amount levied in the counties for school current expenses for 
1933-34 under 1932-33 is explained by the increased State-aid given 
the counties for reduction of taxation and by reduction of salaries. 
It will be noted that State-aid to the counties in 1933-34 totalling 
$3,680,609 was at its maximum for the sixteen-year period shown. 
(See Table 163.) 

In Baltimore City, State-aid excluding amounts toward the 
Retirement System, has fluctuated between $946,000 and $1,086,000 
during the period from 1920-21 to 1933-34 (See Table 163.) 

School current expenses totalling $8,010,000 in the counties and 
$8,096,000 in Baltimore City, continued the tendency to be ap- 
proximately equal, which was evident for the first time after 1919-20 
in the year 1932-33. Although the current expenses are almost 
equal, the counties have over 40 per cent more children to educate 
than the City. This accounts in part for the fact that State-aid in 
the counties exceeds that in the City. (See Tables 163 and 164.) 

From 1920 to 1934 the total current expenses of public schools 
in both counties and Baltimore City increased approximately 117 
per cent. The levy in the counties increased 72 per cent, while that 
in Baltimore City increased by 138.5 per cent. The increase in 



Decrease in Expenditures for Schools 



209 



TABLE 163 

Expenditure for School Current Expenses From State and Local Funds and 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1934 





CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Year 










Ending 








Capital 


July 31, 




From State 


From Local 


Outlay 




Total 


and Federi'] 


Funds 






Funds 








Total Counties 


1919 


$3,184,351.22 


$1,230,181.60 


$1,954,169.62 


$ 311 137.08 


1920 


3'703'l53!29 


1 186 192.67 


2'516'96o!62 


485 601.23 


1921 


5[043)923.02 


l'554'693]60 


3,'489,'229.42 


929)024)08 


1922 


5'29l'l24.43 


l'545'695!85 


3'745'428.58 


1,121553. 98 


1923 


5'964'456!44 


2'026'315!58 


3'938'l40.86 


1*475*268)52 


1924 


6'475'802.93 


2'068'l86!o5 


4'407'616!88 


949*719)78 


1925 


6 743 015.08 


2 161 571.04 


4 581 444.04 


2,527*823)35 


1926 


7il43|l49.65 


2,248)399.75 


4)894*749.90 


2)602)745.09 


1927 


7[517,'728!77 


23291031. 35 


5)188697. 42 


1)023)362.25 


1928 


7'787'298!09 


°2'246'541.47 


5)540'756!62 


1)532717)90 


1929 


8il64'657!l8 


°2'322'643!82 


5'842'oi3.36 


1*773*070)68 


1930 


8'456'414 05 


■j-2'348'530.19 


6)107)883)86 


2)450)143.80 


1931 


8i852!073!43 


2!386)738."76 


6)465)334)67 


2)172)087)55 


1932 


8,892,181.36 


2,725,905.04 


6,166,276.32 


1,650,064.84 


1933 


8,485,145.77 


2,596,544.97 


5,888,600.80 


688,497.49 


1934 


8,010,424.97 


3,680,609.01 


4,329,815.96 


1,132,432.95 






Baltimore 


City* 




1919 


$2,832,543.59 


$ 671,006.78 


$2,161,536.81 


$ 38,562.29 


1920 


3,706,641.51 


713,287.02 


2,993,354.49 


60,741.25 


1921 


5,394,655.76 


1,032,541.55 


4,362,114.21 


1,267,636.20 


1922 


6,631,682.32 


1,026,972.79 


5,604,709.53 


1.417,569.15 


1923 


6,949,793.45 


1,066,100.96 


5,883,692.49 


3,301,086.21 


1924 


6,963,332.47 


1,061,111.63 


5,902,220.84 


5,336,889.06 


1925 


7,419,638.99 


1,042,479.92 


6,377,159.07 


3,224,733.82 


1926 


7,660,787.84 


1,056,893.87 


6,603,893.97 


3,484,766.86 


1927 


8,040,694.93 


1,086,496.95 


6,954,197.98 


4,200,037.45 


1928 


8,503,427.29 


tl,016,993.13 


7,486,434.16 


1,897,871.37 


1929 


8,910,245.11 


tl,037,490.92 


7,872,754.19 


633,631.71 


1930 


9,340,560.01 


995,063.18 


8,345,496.83 


1,508,678.41 


1931 


9,817,669.53 


946,023.62 


8,871,645.91 


3,658,046.55 


1932 


9,542,054.34 


985,562.39 


8,556,491.95 


2,678,922.51 


1933 


8,494,508.42 


1,083,401.42 


7,411,107.00 


1,268,158.96 


1934 


8,095,588.20 


958,666.94 


7,136,921.26 


1,087,351.10 




Entire State* 


1919 


$6,016,894.81 


$1,901,188.38 


$4,115,706.43 


$ 349,699.37 


1920 


7,409,794.80 


1,899,479.69 


5,510,315.11 


546,342.48 


1921 


10,438,578.78 


2,587,235.15 


7,851,343.63 


2,196,660.28 


1922 


11,922,806.75 


2,572,668.64 


9,350,138.11 


2,539,123.13 


1923 


12,914,249.89 


3,092,416.54 


9,821,833.35 


4,776,354.73 


1924 


13,439,135.40 


3,129,297.68 


10,309,837.72 


6,286,608.84 


1925 


14,162,654.07 


3,204,050.96 


10,958,603.11 


5,752,557.17 


1926 


14,803,937.49 


3,305,293.62 


11,498,643.87 


6,087,511.95 


1927 


15,558,423.70 


3,415,528.30 


12,142,895.40 


5,223,399.70 


1928 


16,290,725.38 


3,263,534.60 


13,027,190.78 


3,430,589.27 


1929 


17.074,902.29 


3,360,134.74 


13,714,767.55 


2,406,702.39 


1930 


17,796,974.06 


t3,343,593.37 


14,453,380.69 i 


3,958,822.21 


1931 


18,669,742.96 


3,332,762.38 


15,336,980.58 


5,830,134.10 


1932 


18,434,235.70 


3,711,467.43 


14,722,768.27 


4,328.987.35 


1933 


16,979,654.19 


3,679.946.39 


13,299,707.80 


1,956,656.45 


1934 


16,106,013.17 


4,639,275.95 


11,466,737.22 


2,219,784.05 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training schools, but 
excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund, 
t Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 
° Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



210 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



State-aid was 210 per cent in the counties and 34 per cent in the 
City. Meanwhile, attendance in the counties increased by 47.5 per 
cent and in Baltimore City the gain was 39 per cent. The difference 
between per cent of increase in cost and in number of pupils is ac- 
counted for by changes in the purchasing power of the dollar, longer 
school terms for colored schools, a larger proportion of pupils in 
high schools (the more expensive part of the school system), a 
larger proportion of trained and experienced teachers and school 
officials who command higher salaries, provision for supervision for 
elementary schools in every county, provision for transporting county 
children to consolidated elementary and high schools. (See Tables 
163 and 164.) 

TABLE 164 



Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City 1920 to 1934 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Entire 


State 


School 














Year 














Ending 


En- 


At- 


En- 


At- 


En- 


At- 


June 30 


rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


1920 


n45,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241,618 


175,312 


1921 


*149,045 


108,178 


*100,092 


81,570 


*249,137 


189,748 


1922 


n47,409 


114,190 


*101,480 


84,208 


*248,889 


198,398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


256,546 


201,867 


1924 


151,538 


117,222 


104,764 


86,540 


256,302 


203,762 


1925 


153,636 


121,665 


107,133 


89,467 


260,769 


211,132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108,280 


90,844 


263,249 


214,104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111,029 


91,925 


267,817 


218,943 


1928 


158,368 


131,439 


112,532 


94,230 


270,900 


225,669 


1929 


160,217 


131,923 


113,315 


94,731 


273,532 


226,654 


1930 


162,209 


137,481 


115,250 


98,074 


277,459 


235,555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101,064 


281,517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145,676 


119,205 


103,722 


288,169 


249,398 


1933 


172,745 


150,301 


121,374 


105,627 


294,119 


255,928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104,987 


293,678 


252,226 


Increase 














1920-34 




47,427 




2? ,487 




76,914 


% of In- 












crease 




47.5 




3P.0 




43.9 



* Duplicate? not excluded as in later years. 



Capital outlay of $2,219,784 for schools in 1933-34 was divided 
almost equally between counties and City. (See Table 163.) 

Per Cent of Aid Received from State and Federal Funds 

Because of the increase in State-aid to the counties through the 
$1,500,000 fund distributed on the basis of population according to 
the 1930 Federal census, the average per cent of aid received by the 
counties from State and Federal Funds toward current expenses 
increased from 30.6 in 1932-33 to 45.9 in 1933-34. Aid to Baltimore 



Increase in School Attendance; State Aid 



211 



City, excluding City and State contributions to the retirement 
system amounted to 11.9 of the 1933-34 current expenses, in con- 
trast with 12.8 per cent for 1932-33. The State and Federal aid in- 
cluded 28.8 per cent of the school current expenses of the entire 
State in 1933-34 as against 21.7 per cent in 1932-33. (See Table 165.) 



TABLE 165 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State 
and Federal Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1934 







Amount Received for Cur- 


Per Cent of Current Ex 


pense 






rent Expenses from 
J 


Disbursements received 


from 
















1 

04 


cn 




Total 










«- 3 C3 


N 






Disbursements 






c 




|1 


3 


County 


for Current 


' otate and 


(_/Ounty and 


-a 3 






5 o 


Expenses 


Federal 


Other 


§^ 






>>u 




Aid 


Sources 


tate 
eral 


tate . 
Fund 
ing I 
tion 


tate 
tion 


lount 
othe 




















Total Counties 


$8,010,424.97 


$3,680,609.01 


$4,329,815.96 


45 


9 


42.1 


3.8 


54.1 


Somerset 


184,796.81 


138,008.68 


46,788.13 


74 


7 


51.2 


23.5 


25.3 


Garrett 


272,936.50 


190,381.50 


82,555.00 


69 


8 


36.5 


33.3 


30.2 


Calvert 


92,170.54 


62,602.80 


29,567.74 


67 


9 


47.0 


20.9 


32.1 


Charles 


161,509.72 


106,466.83 


55,042.89 


65 


9 


47.8 


18.1 


34.1 




187,261.91 


117.353.20 


69,908.71 


62 


.7 


44.1 


18.6 


37.3 


St. Mary's 


111,554.94 


69,070.92 


42,484.02 


61 


9 


55.4 


6.5 


38.1 




252,496.59 


143,053.63 


109,442.96 


56 


.7 


44.4 


12.3 


43.3 


Worcester 


198,169.22 


100,362.94 


97,806.28 


50 


.6 


47.8 


2.8 


49.4 


Carroll — 


374,784.99 


189.475.60 


185,309.39 


50 


6 


40.9 


9.7 


49.4 




273,944.35 


130,469.76 


143,474.59 


47 


.6 


46.4 


1.2 


52.4 


Queen Anne's 


151,075.45 


71.737.44 


79,338.01 


47 


.5 


45.4 


2.1 


52.5 




157,077.53 


73,423.11 


83,654.42 


46 


7 


46.7 




53.3 


Talbot 


178,671.62 


81,725.58 


96,946.04 


45 


.7 


45.7 




54.3 


Harford 


306,874.50 


139,422.51 


167,451.99 


45 


4 


45.4 




54.6 


Prince George's 


560,896.68 


254,296.82 


306,599.86 


45 


3 


45.3 




54.7 


Washington 


596,656.33 


255,888.02 


340,768.31 


42 


9 


42.9 




57.1 


Kent 


158,701.29 


67,828.94 


90,872.35 


42 


.7 


40.4 


2.3 


57.3 


Cecil 


261,651.55 


110,037.42 


151,614.13 


42 


.1 


42.1 




57.9 


Frederick 


503,330.49 


211,527.95 


291,802.54 


42 





42.0 




58.0 


Baltimore.. 


1,090,974.70 


442,215.64 


648,759.06 


40 


.5 


40.5 




59.5 


Anne Arundel.. 


522,227.92 


205,522.40 


316,705.52 


39 


.4 


39.2 


.2 


60.6 


Allegany 


811,775.85 


315,722.45 


496,053.40 


38 


.9 


38.9 




61.1 


Montgomery 


600,885.49 


204,014.87 


396.870.62 


34 


.0 


34.0 




66.0 


Baltimore City 


t8,077,897.29 


t958,666.94 


7,119,230.35 


11 


.9 


11.9 




88.1 


State 


$16,088,322.26 


$4,639,275,95 


$11,449,046.31 


28 


.8 


26.9 


1.9 


71.2 



* Includes all state and federal aid due for the year 1933-34, whether received after July 31, 
or not. 

t Excludes payments of $842,360 for Teachers' Retirement System toward which the State 
paid $472,550. 



Through receipt of the Equalization Fund, which brings about a 
distribution of State school funds on the basis of need, the per cent 
of aid available toward current expenses varied from 34 per cent in 
Montgomery County to 75 per cent in Somerset. State and Federal 
aid varied between 50 and 75 per cent of the total current expenses 
in Somerset, Garrett, Calvert, Charles, Caroline, St. Mary's, Dor- 
chester, Worcester and Carroll Counties. (See Table 165 and Chart 
30.) 

The average of 4 per cent received by the counties for the Equaliza- 
tion Fund in 1933-34 is smaller than in previous years, because 



212 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 30 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1954 



Received from CZI 



Covin ty Average 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Charles 

Caroline 

St. Maiy's 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Carroll 

V/icomico 
Queen Anne' s 
Howard 
Talbot 
Harford 

Prince George's 

Washington 

Kent 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Baltimore City 

State 




I State and Federal Funds Excluding 

1 Equalization Func 

2 Equalization Fund 

] County Fimds and Other Sources 
40 60 80 



100 



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receipt of funds from the $1,500,000 distributed to reduce county 
taxation lessened the requirements from the EquaHzation Fund. In 
thirteen counties, the Equalization Fund represented from 1 to 33 
per cent of the school current expenses. Baltimore City and most 
of the counties at the bottom of the list receiving the smallest share 
of State and Federal aid, provided for more than the State minimum 



Proportion of State and Local Aid; Distribution of Tax Dollar 213 



requirements with respect to salaries, number of teachers, number 
of grades offered in the elementary course, supply of books, materials, 
and expenses for operation and maintenance. (See Table 165.) 

HOW THE SCHOOL CURRENT EXPENSE TAX DOLLAR IS SPENT 

Of every dollar spent in the counties for school current expenses in 
1933-34, the payment of salaries to principals and teachers required 
68.1 cents, a reduction of 2.1 cents under the preceding year because 
of cuts in salaries and increase in the number of pupils per teacher. 
AuxiUary agencies, the term covering amounts spent for transporting 
pupils to school, health and library services and facilities, used 11.4 
cents of every dollar, an increase of .6 cents over the year preceding. 
Heating and cleaning buildings required 7.2 cents of every dollar, 
an increase of .4 cents. For books, materials and ''other costs of 
instruction," 3.7 cents of every dollar were used, a gain of .2 cents 
over 1933. Repairs took 3.2 cents, an increase of .9 cents, accounted 
for by the contribution in materials and supervision made by county 
school boards to take advantage of the C. W. A. workers assigned 
to work on school repairs from November 1933 to March 31, 1934. 

CHART 31 



HOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 
IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1954 




* Fixe(: charges and tuitio* to adjoining counties. 



214 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For general control or administration and supervision to see that the 
remainder of the school dollar was spent efficiently, 3.1 and 1.8 
cents, respectively, were used, each showing a decrease of .1 of a cent 
under the previous year. (See Tabie 166 and Chart 31.) 

TABLE 166 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1934 



Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 



COUNTY 


General Control 


1 Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 

Capital 

Outlay 


County Average 


3.1 


1.8 


68.1 


3.7 


7.2 


3.2 


11.4 


1.5 


12.4 


Allegany 


2.3 


1.5 


71.1 


5.7 


7.7 


2.1 


8.5 


1.1 


14.4 




2.7 


1.5 


69.2 


1.8 


7.0 


2.0 


14.6 


1.2 


10.8 


Baltimore 


2.6 


1.5 


72.0 


2.1 


8.0 


2.7 


8.6 


2.5 


3.7 


Calvert 


5.3 


3.7 


50.8 


2.4 


5.3 


1.5 


30.5 


.5 


1.9 


Caroline 


3.4 


2.1 


64.8 


2.9 


7.1 


1.4 


16.1 


2.2 


1.2 


Carroll 


2.8 


.8 


63.6 


4.2 


6.9 


2.4 


17.5 


1.8 


4.0 


Cecil 


3.0 


1.5 


68.3 


5.4 


6.4 


4.6 


9.4 


1.4 


3.6 


Charles 


3.9 


2.4 


59.7 


4.4 


6.9 


2.6 


19.0 


1.1 


2.9 


Dorchester 


3.8 


2.4 


65.0 


2.9 


7.3 


4.2 


13.5 


.9 


.2 


Frederick 


2.7 


1.7 


65.5 


4.3 


6.2 


4.0 


13.3 


2.3 


2.4 


Garrett 


4.0 


1.9 


62.2 


3.1 


4.1 


1.6 


20.0 


3.1 


1.7 


Harford 


2.8 


2.1 


74.0 


3.5 


6.2 


5.8 


4.9 


.7 


3.7 


Howard 


4.6 


2.0 


63.3 


3.1 


6.1 


5.0 


11.6 


4.3 


2.0 


Kent 


4.9 


2.6 


58.5 


3.1 


7.8 


7.0 


15.4 


.7 




Montgomery 


2.9 


1.9 


67.8 


4.0 


9.5 


3.6 


8.8 


1.5 


32.2 


Prince George's 


2.7 


1.6 


71.9 


5.2 


7.1 


5.7 


5.7 


.1 


14.3 


Queen Anne's 


5.0 


2.3 


58.9 


2.9 


6.0 


1.5 


23.2 


.2 


1.0 


St. Mary's 


6.2 


3.2 


57.2 


2.5 


4.3 


2.8 


22.9 


.9 




Somerset 


4.1 


1.9 


71.2 


3.4 


5.5 


1.7 


11.2 


1.0 




Talbot 


5.1 


2.3 


62.8 


3.7 


8.1 


1.9 


13.2 


2.9 


.7 


Washington 


2.1 


1.5 


75.9 


3.8 


6.9 


2.0 


6.8 


1.0 


.3 


Wicomico 


3.9 


2.1 


65.4 


4.5 


7.8 


6.2 


8.7 


1.4 


*61.6 


Worcester 


4.0 


1.8 


62.8 


3.2 


8.5 
9.9 


3.6 


14.8 


1.3 
.3 




Baltimore City. 


3.3 


1.4 


77.7 


2.3 


2.6 


2.5 


11.9 


State 


3.2 


1.6 


72.9 


3.0 


8.5 


2.9 


7.0 


.9 


12.1 



* Includes amounts inadvertently omitted from report of preceding year. 



Among the counties the proportion of each tax dollar for school 
current expenses required for teachers' salaries varied from 51 cents 
in Calvert to 76 cents in Washington County. But the proportion 
spent for auxiliary agencies was at the maximum in Calvert County, 
30.5 cents, while in Washington County it was just under 7 cents, 
third from the minimum. Calvert has consolidated most of its white 
schools with provision of transportation and increase in the number 
of pupils per teacher, while Washington County still continues to 
have a number of small one-teacher schools. (See Table 166.) 

General control or administration required only 2.1 cents of each 
dollar in Washington County which is one of the larger school sys- 
tems, while in St. Mary's, one of the smallest public school systems, 
6.2 cents were needed for this purpose. For supervision Carroll 



Expenditure of the School Tax Dollar; Cost per Pupil 



215 



County which employed only one supervisor of white elementary 
schools when it was entitled to three, spent only .8 cents, while 
Calvert spent 3.7 cents of each dollar for supervision, because its 
small number of white elementary teachers, 20, required the services 
of a supervisor. For books and materials of instruction, Anne Arundel 
allowed only 1.8 cents in each school current expense dollar, but at 
the opposite extreme, Allegany spent 5.7 cents for these tools of the 
teacher. (See Table 166.) 

Heating and cleaning buildings took only 4.1 cents of each dollar 
in Garrett, while they required 9.5 cents in Montgomery. Fuel in 
Garrett is nearby and inexpensive and the many one-room schools 
are kept clean by teachers and pupils at little expense. Montgomery 
has many large modern buildings with central heating plants which 
require the services of trained janitors for their proper upkeep. Re- 
pairs took only 1.4 cents of every school current expense dollar in 
Caroline, while in Kent 7 cents were used for this purpose in con- 
nection with an extensive program of civil works which benefited the 
schools. (See Table 166 and also Table 172, page? 222 to 223.) 

Fixed charges and amounts paid for children attending school in 
adjoining counties amounted to only .1 of a cent in Prince George's 
which took care of most of its own children, while Howard County 
which has a large number of its residents attending school in ad- 
joining counties needed 4.3 cents of every dollar for these purposes. 
(See Table 166.) 

The average for Baltimore City differed from the averages for the 
counties, particularly in the greater proportion spent for teachers' 
salaries, which are on a much higher basis, and the smaller per cent 
devoted to auxiliary agencies, since the transportation of pupils 
to school at public expense, except for handicapped children, is not 
a problem in the City. A smaller proportion of the tax dollar was 
spent for books and materials and repairs in the City, but a larger 
proportion was needed for operation, i. e., heating and cleaning 
buildings. (See Table 166.) 

Per Cent for Capital Outlay 
The per cent of combined current expenses and capital outlay 
used for capital outlay, which averaged 12.4 per cent, varied from 
to 61.6. The latter figure for Wicomico included capital outlay for 
preceding years which had inadvertently not been reported. (See 
Table 166.) 

COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL DECREASES 
There has been a consistent downward trend in cost per county 
day school pupil since 1931 when it was $56.44. The amount in 1934 
was $48.74, a decrease of 13.6 per cent from 1931. The reduction 
under 1933 is $3.15. Every county spent less per pupil in 1934 than in 
1931 and all except Frederick had a smaller per pupil cost in 1934 
than in 1933. The reductions from 1933 to 1934 ranged from 32 
cents in Talbot to $6.81 in Garrett. (See Table 167.) 



216 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Costs varied from $40 per pupil in Somerset to over $56 in Kent 
and Montgomery. The proportion of colored pupils, of high school 
pupils, of pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils to 
teachers, the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the propor- 
tion of pupils transported to school, the salary schedule for teachers, 
all affect the total average cost. In general the county having more 
one-teacher schools, a small number of pupils per teacher, a greater 
proportion of pupils in high school, and an enriched curriculum is 
likely to have higher costs per pupil. (See Table 167.) 



TABLE 167 

Cost Per Day-School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1931, 1932, 1933 and 1934 



County 


tl931 


tl932 


tl933 


tl934 


Decrease 

1934 
underl933 


County Average...... 


$56.44 


$55.51 


$51.89 


$48.74 


$3.15 


Kent 


01. 10 


Oi.io 


oo.iy 


00. 00 


l.Oo 


Montgomery 


68.29 


65.96 


59.17 


56.51 


2.66 


Carroll 


68.75 


66.71 


60.82 


55.40 


5.42 


Cecil 


60.84 


58.07 


57.38 


55.05 


2.33 


Garrett 


69.17 


66.86 


61.22 


54.41 


6.81 


Queen Anne's 


57.55 


61.34 


59.01 


53.92 


5.09 


Allegany 


61.45 


60.37 


55.97 


52.15 


3.82 


Talbot - 


54.86 


56.26 


51.79 


51.47 


.32 


Howard 


56.02 


54.25 


51.87 


50.98 


.89 


Caroline 


57.13 


57.37 


54.15 


49.58 


4.57 


Frederick 


52.88 


50.99 


49.03 


49.15 


M2 




56.05 


53.06 


50.26 


49.10 


1.16 


Baltimore — 


58.05 


55.98 


50.03 


48.20 


1.83 


Dorchester 


54.21 


51.20 


50.68 


46.69 


3.99 


St. Mary's 


49.59 


51.50 


49.09 


45.79 


3.30 


Anne Arundel ..- 


53.72 


52.87 


49.47 


45.59 


3.88 


Worcester 


53.36 


51.42 


49.36 


44.95 


4.41 


Wicomico 


46.42 


48.83 


46.45 


44.70 


1.75 


Charles 


47.86 


47.80 


46.03 


44.64 


1.39 


Calvert - 


47.94 


48.96 


47.07 


44.44 


2.63 


Prince George's — 


51.55 


52.31 


49.87 


44.01 


5.86 


Washington 


51.31 


51.01 


47.41 


43.68 


3.73 


Somerset 


45.75 


45.72 


44.57 


39.96 


4.61 



t In making this calculation, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for even- 
ing schools have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury and Bowie 
Normal Elementary Schools have been eliminated. 

* Increase 

Cost per Pupil for General Control Decreases 

The average cost per county pupil for general control has steadily 
decreased from a maximum of $1.92 in 1930 to $1.53 in 1934, a 
total decrease of 39 cents or over 20 per cent. The decrease from 
1933 to 1934 was 15 cents. (See Table 168.) 

Every county, except Talbot, Howard, Charles, Frederick and 
Baltimore, showed decreases from 1933 to 1934 in general control 
costs per pupil, the largest decreases appearing in Calvert, Queen 



Cost per County Day School Pupil; Total and for General Control 217 



TABLE 168 
Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 













Decrease 












Decrease 


COUNTY 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1934 


COUNTY 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1934 












under 












under 












1933 












1933 




$1 .81 


$1 68 


$1 


53 


$ .15 




$1 


97 


$1 79 


$1 70 


$ 09 












Cecil 


1 


87 


l!78 


l!66 


!l2 


St. Mary's 


3.21 


3.29 


2 


86 


.43 


Montgomery 


2 


11 


2.02 


1.65 


.37 


Kent 


2 . 84 


2 . 92 


2 


76 


. 16 


Somerset 


1 


89 


1 . 83 


1 . 65 


. 18 


Queen Anne's 


3.44 


3.28 


2 


69 


.59 


Carroll 


2 


09 


1.77 


1.55 


.22 


Talbot 


2.77 


2.62 


2 


64 
44 


*.02 


Harford 


1 


63 


1.47 


1.37 


.10 


Howard 


2.48 


2.39 


2 


*.05 


Frederick 


1 


22 


1.26 


1.33 


*.07 


Calvert 


3.53 


2.95 


2 


34 


.61 


Anne Arundel . .. 


1 


64 


1.33 


1.30 


.03 


Garrett 


2.64 


2 24 


2 


23 


.01 


Baltimore 


1 


43 


1.28 


1.29 


*.01 


Wore jster 


1.94 


l!90 


I 


79 


.11 


Prince George's 


1 


74 


1.63 


1.19 


.44 


Dorchester 


1.80 


1.80 


1 


78 


.02 


Allegany 


1 


44 


1.35 


1.18 


.17 


Charles 


1.68 


1.42 


1 


75 


*.33 


Washington 


1 


23 


1.15 


.91 


.24 


Wicomico 


1.96 


1.94 


1 


73 


.21 


















Baltimore City. . 


2 


96 


2.24 


2.25 


*.01 














Entire State 


$2 


29 


$1.91 


$1.83 


.08 



* Increase. 



Anne's, Prince George's and Montgomery. In Talbot the increased 
cost per pupil resulted from a decrease in number belonging, since 
total costs for general control decreased. In Howard, Charles, 
Frederick and Baltimore Counties office expenses and printing and 
advertising cost more in 1934 than in 1933. In Charles, more was 
paid to Board members and for legal services. Other costs of general 
control were higher in Frederick, Howard and Baltimore Counties 
in 1934 than in 1933. 

Large decreases in general control costs resulted from changes 
in the administrative setup in the following counties in 1934. In 
Calvert no attendance officer was employed; in Prince George's 
there was no assistant superintendent; in Montgomery expenses for 
legal services were much lower in 1934 than in 1933; and in Queen 
Anne's the attendance officer acted also as supervisor of colored 
schools, which reduced the amount charged to the attendance 
service. 

Costs per pupil for general control varied from 91 cents to $2.86, 
the large counties appearing at the bottom of the list and the small 
counties at the top. The same administrative and financial duties 
must be carried on whether a county be large or small. The smaller 
counties could undoubtedly care for a large increase in pupils with- 
out having to spend a much larger amount for general control than 
they do at present. (See Table 168 and Table XXVI, page 310.) 

Comparative Cost per Pupil in White Elementary and White High Schools 

The 1934 cost per county pupil in white high schools, $76.21, was 
1.72 times the cost per county white elementary school pupil, $44.36. 
The reduction from 1933 to 1934 in cost per white elementary pupil 
was 5.25 per cent while in high schools it amounted to 7.45 per cent. 
The salary costs for high school teachers were greater than for ele- 
mentary teachers, and the increase in ratio of pupils to teachers was 
greater for high than for elementary schools. (See Chart 32.) 



218 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The cost per county white pupil for salaries was $31.07 for white 
elementary and $56.05 for white high school pupils. The difference 
is due to the higher salary schedule for high school teachers and the 
lower ratio of pupils to teachers in high school. (See Chart 32.) 

Auxiliary agencies required the next largest amount, $5.87, for 
the average county elementary and $8.36 for the average county 
high school pupil. The former amount was 4 cents higher and the 
latter 28 cents lower than for the preceding year. There are fewer 
high than elementary schools, which means that a larger proportion 
of high than of elementary pupils live long distances from school and 
therefore require transportation. (See Chart 32 and Table 176.) 

CHART 32 

1934 COST, EXCLUDING GEUERAL CONTROL 
PER COOIITY PUPIL BELONGING 

In White In White 

Elementary Hi^ Schools 

Schools 

I 76.21 

i 44.36 




a Supervision. 

b Books, materials and other costs of instruction. 

The average cost of heating, cleaning and repairing buildings 
was $4.95 for the average county white elementary and $7.94 for the 
county white high school pupil. The small sections in many high 
schools using rooms of ordinary size, make the cost of building 
operation and maintenance higher per high than per elementary 
school pupil. These amounts were in advance of those last year in 
large part because of expenditures for cooperation with the C. W. A. 
program. (See Chart 32.) - 



Cost per Fupil in White High an d Elementary Schools and in All T\tes 219 



o u 



M ■ «£ i£ CM O tr- fO 



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siooqos 



siooqDS 
XJBjuauiaj3 



?c — ft d ~ — t> ~ ;c t> 



siooqog 
XJBjuamaia 

IIV 



L'j i^' x" N IX ^' w" d — — — t-' t>' ■ 

« a 



siooqDs 
papBJO 



^ ;c (T. (T. c: jc L': L-r -rr — X t- 

. : C C:~ X X N t- ST: C<I t> 

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i-';Tj'Xc;xt:~x-<?->?''r-^ice^o(NC-^c-i---rrL.-;ro 
c<i d d d la -r" d d c-' t-" t> d d (n t-' d d d d d 



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jaqoBaX-OMX 



siooqas 
jaqosax-auQ 



- I.N1 w.- i- t.. O; X X fC X X o t> — o 

r N ;c o o -^^ "5 TT X i» in to -"t o -v^ c> c; 
rji c4 d d ^ d ■<!" d d CO* 06 x* d d d d ■<r d d 



m o uo c- c; 
m C5 o o — 



c oc X c c; ^ . . 
d (N t-^ X — d d d x' — c; 
t-o^cot^nooxt-xocixx 

(8 — 



— d t>: d ^' d d c^j X t-" — d X 

C5 or or =r-. X X ;S O X 



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SuTSuojaa lidrVtj jad ^.803 



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S 



220 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For books, materials and other instructional costs per white 
pupil, $1.41 was the total for elementary and $3.86 the amount for 
high schools. The amount per white elementary school pupil was 
five cents above that in 1933, but for white high school pupils it was 
26 cents below. The number of books used and their size and ex- 
pense is greater for high than for elementary pupils. (See Chart 32.) 

The county supervision of white elementary schools cost $1.06 
per pupil in 1934, a reduction of 19 cents under 1933. Except for 
Baltimore, Montgomery and Anne Arundel Counties, which have 
county supervisors of their high schools, the counties show no cost 
for high school supervision since the limited supervision given is 
supplied by the staff of the State Department of Education. (See 
Chart 32.) 

An analysis of the cost per pupil in individual counties for white 
elementary schools is given on pages 61 to 64, 66, 72, and for white 
high schools on pages 130 to 138. For colored schools, per pupil 
costs are taken up on pages 174 to 176. 

FEDERAL AID FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1933-34 from the Federal Govern- 
ment under the Smith Hughes and George Reed Acts was $89,544, 
approximately 8.7 per cent less than for the year preceding. Of this 
amount a maximum of $35,497 was allocated to agriculture, $42,907 
to industrial education and home economics, and $11,140 to teacher 
training and supervision. The amount of Federal funds actually 
available was $82,512, which meant that $7,032 was returned to the 
Federal Treasury. It was not possible to use the entire amount be- 
cause there are definite requirements for the use of a specified portion 
of the funds for part-time and continuation classes in industry. 
Only a limited number of Maryland employers cooperate with the 
schools in giving this type of training. 

Of the $82,512 actually received from Federal funds, $29,858 was 
expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $24,877 for salaries 
of teachers of trade and industrial subjects, $13,616 for salaries of 
teachers of home economics, and $14,161 for administration, super- 
vision, and teacher-training in these branches. 

Vocational work was further aided in 1934 by State appropria- 
tions amounting to $9,415 for administration and supervision of work 
in agriculture, home economics and industrial arts. In addition, there 
were expenditures for vocational work from county funds and from 
State funds for high school aid and equalization aggregating $59,181, 
and from the University of Maryland totaling $7,506. The total 
amount spent for salaries for the vocational program for the Mary- 
land counties in 1934 including Federal funds was $148,532. For the 
vocational salary expenditures in the various counties see Tables 
105 and 159, pages 133 and 202. 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education 



221 



The Vocational Program in Baltimore City 

The 1934 expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational 
education in Baltimore City were $127,062, below those of the year 
preceding by $1,428. The city supported the salaries for vocational 
work to the extent of $116,981, while the Federal reimbursement 
totaled $10,081. {See Table 170,) 

Over 83 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational work 
in Baltimore City was paid to teachers in the four day vocational 
schools which enrolled 1,627 boys and girls at a salary cost per pupil 
of $65.26. These schools have a six hour school day of which one 
half is spent in the school shop and the remaining half is given to 
class instruction in related and unrelated subject-matter. (See 
Table 170.) 

The Boys' Vocational School has increased from an enrollment 
of 74 and a teaching staff of 8 in 1919 to an enrollment of 750 and a 
teaching staff of 35 in 1934. The Girls' Vocational School for which 
the first report was available in 1926 started with 30 pupils and 2 
teachers. In 1934 it had 450 enrolled and 23 teachers. The School of 
Printing organized during 1923-24 began with 42 boys and 2 teachers 
and in 1934 had 88 enrolled and 5 teachers. The Colored School, 
opened in 1925-26 with 154 pupils and 9 teachers, enrolled 563 pupils 
with a staff of 20 teachers in 1934. 



TABLE 170 

Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 1, 1934 











Enrollment 


Vocational 














Education 




From 


From 








Salary 


Type of School 


City 


Federal 


Total 






Cost per 




Funds 


Funds 




Boys 


Girls 


Pupil 












Enrolled 


Day Vocational 


$106,183.04 




$106,183.04 


1,129 


498 


$65.26 


Part-time 












Industrial 


3,818.64 


$3,818.64 


7,637.28 


18 


60 


97.91 


General 








Continuation 


2,697.00 


2,697.00 


5,394.00 




128 


42.14 


Evening 






Industrial 


2,540.41 


1,824.09 


4,364.50 


627 


42 


6.52 


Evening Home 








Economics. 


1,741.50 


1,741.50 


3,483.00 




796 


4.38 






Total 


$116,980.59 


$10,081.23 


$127,061.82 


1,774 


1,524 


$38.53 



The continuation classes, started in 1926-27 with an enrollment 
of 265 and 2 teachers, had 128 enrolled and a staff of 3 teachers in 
1934. Their work is done in four department stores and with em- 
ployees of the McCormick Company, distributors of spices. Ex- 
penditures decreased from $8,184 in 1933 to $5,394 in 1934. (See 
Table 170.) 



222 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There was a decrease in the expenditures for evening industrial 
work and a corresponding increase in those for evening home econo- 
mics. (See Table 170.) 

Administration, Supervision, and Teacher Training in Vocational Education 
Administration, supervision and teacher-training in agriculture 
in 1934 required expenditures of $13,423. Toward this total the State 
contributed $4,366, the University of Maryland $3,200, and Federal 
funds $5,857. Toward $9,132 spent for supervision and teacher 
training for trades and industries, the State expended $2,310, the 
University of Maryland $2,483, and Federal funds contributed 
$4,339. Of a total expenditure of $8,528 for home economics, $2,739 
came from State funds, $1,823 from the University of Maryland, 
and $3,966 from Federal sources. (See Tahte 171.) 

TABLE 171 



Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 1, 1934 



Subject 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 
Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Indust 

Home Economics 

Total..... 


$4,365.72 
2,310.20 
2,738.93 


$2,726.30 
1,924.79 
2,212.41 


$3,199.93 
2,483.03 
1,823.05 


$3,130.58 
2,413.67 
1,753.75 


$7,565.65 
4,793.23 
4,561.98 


$5,856.88 
4,338.46 
3,966.16 


$9,414.85 


$6,863.50 


$7,506.01 


$7,298.00 


$16,920.86 


$14,161.50 



SCHOOLS BENEFITED BY CIVIL WORKS PROGRAM 

Between November 1933 and March 1934 a program involving 
federal aid to provide work for the unemployed made it possible for 
the counties and Baltimore City to do considerable work in the re- 
pair of school buildings. The federal government through the relief 
administration paid those who did the work, but funds for super- 
vision and materials had to come from county and City levies. The 
value of federal aid was reported as nearly $414,000 in the counties 
and as over $329,000 in Baltimore City, making a total of nearly 
$743,000. 

More than 504 white and 239 colored schools in the counties wer^ 
improved in sanitation, roadways, grading, painting, carpentry 
work, weather stripping, landscape gardening, and other ways. 
In Baltimore City 92 schools received these benefits and also mural 
decorations. Among the counties the value of work done varied from 
$2,000 in Caroline to nearly $50,000 in Frederick and Washington 
Counties, {^ee Table 112,) 

In analyzing the cost of repairs per white elementary and high 
school pupil, it was indicated on pages 62 and 134 that the increases 
shown were explained by the county contributions to take advantage 
of the civil works program financed with federal funds. Ordinarily 



Vocational Education Costs; C. W. A.; Transportation 223 



repairs are among the first things to be postponed when funds for 
current expenses are curtailed. The federal program made it possible 
to put many of the schools in excellent condition and prevent deterior- 
ation. (See Table 172) 

TABLE 172 

Civil Works Projecrs Aflfecting Schools: Number of Schools Benefited; Type of 
Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid November 1933 to March 1934 





No 


of 


5 


1 


2 








X 


















Schools 
Benefited 


rojec 




f Bu 
unds 








a; 

— > 


.T5 


c 
"S. 




cordi 


















o o 






a o 






a 




05 




CO 


Estimated 


COUNTY 






£ 






















>. 


u 


Value of 




White 


TJ 

O 

"o 

O 


'c 


Painting 


Alteratio 
ings and 


Grading 


Repairs 


New Buil 
and Addi 


Construe 
Roads an 


Playgrou 
Athletic : 


Weathers 


Curbing 


Checking 


Shrubber 


Art Proj« 


Federal 
Aid 


Total Counties 


504 


239 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


$413,791 


Allegany 


15 










X 




















39,805 


Anne Arundel..._ 


a5 


a2 




X 




X 




X 
















30,000 


Baltimore 


30 
8 


5 


X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 




X 








32,950 


Calvert 


8 




X 


X 








X 














6,544 


Caroline...^ 




1 














X 














2,000 


Carroll 




29 


9 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















23,276 


Cecil 


27 


7 


X 






X 




















7,298 


Charles 


11 


27 


X 


X 






X 


















4,150 


Dorchester 


17 


5 


X 




X 






X 






X 










3,570 


Frederick 


35 


21 


X 


X 


X 


X 




















47,331 


Garrett . . 


35 




X 


; X 


X 


X 


X 


















13,564 


Harford 


26 


7 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















13,027 


Howard 


24 


9 


X 


X 


X 




X 








X 










16,265 


Kent 


44 


19 


X 


X 






X 


















12,647 


Montgomery 


40 


3C 


X 


X 


X 


X 










X 




bx 


X 




14,896 


Prince George's 


30 


17 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 










18,878 


Queen Anne's 


19 


18 


X 






X 






X 


X 












7,449 


St. Mary's 


18 


6 


X 


X 


X 


X 




















3,675 


Somerset .. 


3 




^ 


X 




X 




X 
















5,912 


Talbot 


14 


18 




X 


X 




X 


















16,983 


Washington . . 


17 




X 




X 


X 




















49,435 


Wicomico 


28 


c 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 










25,690 


Worcester 


29 


21 






X 






















18,446 


Baltimore City 




2 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






X 






cx 


X 


X 


329,079 


Entire State . .. 


835 


























$742,870 



a A large number of schools painted are not included, 
b Cataloging libraries. 

c Checking police school census; records of buildings and grounds. 



TRANSPORTATION, A GROWING COUNTY PROBLEM 
In 1933-34 the counties transported over 42,000 pupils to school 
at county expense. Although 1,933 more pupils were carried in 1934 
than in 1933, the increase in the transportation bill paid by the public 
in taxes was only $5,275, making the total cost of this function 
$863,549 in 1934. In 1910 when four counties were spending $5,210 
to transport pupils, no one dreamed that consolidation of schools 
would be a part of the school program of every county by 1926-27 
and that the cost would be over $373,000. The great advance in 
transportation came with the recognition that its cost should be 
considered an element in the minimum program for the purpose of 



224 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

calculating the equalization fund. Counties would have hesitated to 
eliminate small schools and reduce the number of teachers, offsetting 
the reduction in teachers' salaries in part by the added cost of trans- 
portation, had there been no way of giving special consideration to 
transportation as a part of the cost of the minimum program. (See 
Table 173.) 

The cost per pupil transported has shown a steady decline since 
1926 when it was $29.57, the amount in 1934 being $20.44. This is a 
reduction of 88 cents per pupil from the 1933 figure. (See TabU 173.) 

TABLE 173 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910-1934 



Year 


Public 
Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


Cost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


$30.59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


27.88 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


27.45 


1929 


t512,385 


23 


18,928 


27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 


26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


29,006 


25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


35,019 


23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


40,308 


21.32 


1934 


863,549 


23 


42,241 


20.44 



* Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



Of the 42,241 county pupils transported at pubhc expense, 31,025 
were carried to elementary and 11,216 to high schools. There was 
an increase of 1,436 in elementary and 497 in high school pupils 
transported at public expense. Calvert was the only county in which 
the number of both elementary and high school pupils transported 
with public funds decreased. In Frederick, Queen Anne's, and 
Talbot there was a reduction in the elementary pupils carried and a 
gain in high school pupils transported. In six counties — Baltimore, 
Garrett, Washington, Worcester, Kent and Somerset— more ele- 
mentary pupils and fewer high school pupils were transported in 1934 
than in 1933. In the 13 remaining counties the number of high and 
elementary pupils transported increased. (See Table 174.) 



Growth in Transportation Costs and Pupils Transported 225 

Approximately half of the counties decreased costs fcr trans- 
portation under 1933, and in all except two counties the decrease 
in cost accompanied an increase in the number transported. A 
number of counties rerouted buses or reduced the contract price 
in order to bring about a more efficient and less expensive 
transportation load. (See Table 174.) 

TABLE 174 



Maryland Pupils Transported in 1934 at County Expense 





Pupils Transported 


Public Expenditures 
for Transportation 


COUNTY 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






School 


School 




School 


School 


Total Counties.. 


42,241 


a31,025 


11,216 


$863,548.94 


$622,517.34 


$241,031.60 


Baltimore 


5,311 


4,169 


1,142 


80,230.81 


65,128.86 


tl5,101.95 


Anne Arundel.... 


3,828 


a 2,928 


900 


73,689.35 


51,582.09 


22,107.26 


Frederick 


3,002 


2,733 


269 


66,010.55 


58,102.05 


t7,908.50 


Carroll 


3,285 


2,372 


913 


64,580.26 


47,229.54 


17,350.72 


Allegany 


2,892 


2,274 


618 


56,055.91 


44,633.75 


11,422.16 


Garrett...- 


1,584 


970 


614 


53,413.95 


32,837.27 


20,576.68 


Montgomery 


2,653 


2,086 


567 


45,905.79 


39,963.92 


15,941.87 


Washington 


1,810 


1,266 


544 


36,961.54 


26,138.88 


10,822.66 


Queen Anne's.... 


1,176 


782 


394 


*34,589.96 


22,629.53 


11,960.43 


Dorchester 


1,620 


1,094 


526 


33,627.25 


22,275.31 


11,351.94 


Caroline... 


1,731 


1,104 


627 


30,040.00 


19,224.00 


10,816.00 


Charles 


1,348 


934 


414 


29,920.60 


17,586.38 


12,334.22 


Prince George's 


1,713 


al,284 


429 


29,677.69 


21,521.45 


8,156.24 


Worcester 


1,429 


1,016 


413 


29,125.20 


21,015.57 


8,109.63 


Calvert. 


889 


614 


275 


28,007.19 


18,868.12 


9,139.07 


St. Mary's 


842 


495 


347 


25,100.12 


13,028.74 


12,071.38 


Cecil 


1,404 


916 


488 


24,261.15 


15,801.41 


8,459.74 


Kent 


828 


511 


317 


23,581.77 


14,643.43 


8,938.34 


Talbot 


910 


615 


295 


23,229.44 


16,736.42 


6,493.02 


Wicomico 


1,412 


900 


512 


22,868.70 


13,973.18 


8,895.52 


Somerset 


1,003 


722 


281 


20,733.25 


13,709.82 


7,023.43 


Howard 


801 


558 


243 


17,981.60 


12,474.14 


t5,507.46 


Harford 


770 


682 


88 


13,956.86 


13,413.48 


t543.38 



a Includes 57 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at state expense, 
26 from Anne Arundel and 31 from Prince George's. 
* Includes $4,440.38 for cost of 4 new buses. 

t Pupils contribute in addition toward cost of high school transportation. 



Five counties transported fewer than 900 pupils — Harford, 
Howard, Kent, St. Mary's and Calvert. Six transported over 2,600 
pupils — Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Frederick, Allegany and 
Montgomery. Transportation expenditures ranged from $i4,000 
in Harford to over $80,000 in Baltimore County. (See Table 174.) 

In addition to the amounts shown as transportation expenditures, 
Baltimore, Frederick, Montgomery, Howard and Harford Counties 
required each high school pupil to pay from $10 to $30 per year to- 



226 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ward the expense of his transportation. In all other counties the 
pupils were transported free of charge. (See Table 174.) 

Cost per Pupil Transported 

In the average county it cost just slightly over $20 per year to 
transport an elementary pupil in 1934, a decrease of 59 cents under 
the 1933 cost. The corresponding 1934 amount per high school pupil 
was $21.49, a decrease of $1.57 under 1933. The high school cost 
excludes the amounts paid by parents in the five counties making a 
charge for transportation service. The average distance travelled 
by high school pupils is much longer than by elementary pupils 
since the number of high schools available is much smaller. (See 
Table 175.) 

TABLE 175 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School 
at Public Expense in 1934, Compared with 1933. 



County 



County Average. 

Garrett 

Calvfert 

Queen Anne's 

Kent_ 

Talbot.. 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Washington 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Harford 

Allegany.... 

Montgomery 

Somerset... 

Charles 

Anne Arundel... . 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Prince George's.. 

Baltimore 

Wicom>ico 



Cost to Public 
per Pupil Trans- 
ported to Elemen- 
tary School 



1933 


1934 


$20.69 


$20.10 


37.51 


33.85 


30.29 


30.73 


26.96 


*28.94 


27.84 


28.66 


23.49 


27.21 


29.40 


26.32 


22.71 


22.36 


20.87 


21.26 


21.38 


20.68 


20.82 


20.65 


20.98 


20.36 


20.99 


19.91 


20.91 


19.67 


21.73 


19.63 


18.21 


19.16 


20.39 


18.99 


21.61 


18.83 


18.16 


17.77 


19.60 


17.41 


20.38 


17.25 


18.50 


17.18 


15.32 


15.62 


16.50 


15.53 



County 



County Average. 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Frederick 

Kent 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel 

Howard 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Washington 

Worcester 

Prince George's.. 

Carroll.. 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Caroline. 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Harford 



Cost to Public 

per Pupil 
Transported to 
High School 



1933 


1934 


$23.06 


$21.49 


35.89 


34.79 


35.58 


33.51 


33.52 


33.23 


21.38 


*30.36 


27.33 


29.79 


t29.72 


t29.40 


29.92 


28.20 


33.58 


24.99 


25.58 


24.56 


t22.51 


t22.66 


25.14 


22.01 


24.12 


21.58 


17.79 


19.89 


23.71 


19.64 


19.98 


19.01 


21.50 


19.00 


20.69 


18.48 


16.64 


17.37 


20.43 


17.34 


19.62 


17.25 


tl3.96 


tl3.22 


tl9.24 


tlO.48 


t4.06 


t6.17 



* Includes cost for 4 new school buses. 

t Pupils transported to high school pay part of the cost of transportation. 

All except seven counties decreased the cost per elementary pupil 
transported, and all except six the cost of transporting high school 



Cost per Pupil Transported; Per Cent of Pupils Transported 227 



pupils. Queen Anne's was the only county showing an increased 
cost for both high and elementary pupils due to the fact that the 
cost of four new buses was charged against the expenses of 1934, 
The comparative costs in 1933 and 1934 are shown in Table 175. 

The cost per elementary pupil transported ranged from less than 
$16 in Wicomico and Baltimore Counties to over $30 in Calvert and 
Garrett. Garrett uses a number of private cars which transport 
small numbers of children, making the cost per pupil transported 
high. Calvert uses a motor boat which is an expensive form of trans- 
portation. Baltimore and Montgomery Counties own a large pro- 
portion of the busses which they use. (See Table 175.) 

The range in high school costs is from less than $17 per pupil 
in Harford, Montgomery and Baltimore Counties, all of which 
require high school pupils to contribute to the cost of transportation, 
to over $30 per high school pupil transported in Queen Anne's, 
Calvert, Garrett and St. Mary's. St. Mary's and Calvert have only 
two high schools for white pupils which means long distances travelled 
by their busses. Garrett uses many small private cars which bring 
pupils to the busses using the main highways and Calvert has motor 
boat transportation which is expensive. The cost of new busses 
affects costs in Queen Anne's. (See Table 175.) 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The county pupils transported included 29,974 white elementary 
pupils, 27.8 of the total, 10,536 white high school pupils, 34.5 percent 
all county white high schools, and 1,731 colored pupils, 5.9 per 
cent of the county colored pupils. Calvert and Charles transported 
over 60 per cent of their white elementary pupils. Both of these 
counties have practically completed their consolidation programs. 
At the opposite extreme, Washington and Harford, with a number of 
one-teacher schools still in existence, carried less than 16 per cent of 
their white elementary pupils at county expense. (See Table 176.) 

St. Mary's and Calvert transported over 90 per cent of their white 
high school pupils. Since in these counties the population shows 
little concentration, a large proportion are transported to the two 
high schools which serve each of these counties. On the other hand, 
Harford and Frederick, both of which charge high school pupils who 
are transported, carried only 6 and 14 per cent, respectively, of their 
pupils to high school. It will be noted that, with the exception of 
Howard, in counties charging fcr high school transportation the per 
cent of high school pupils transported is either lower than or approx- 
imately the same as the per cent of elementary school pupils trans- 
ported. The concentration of population in cities and towns in Alle- 
gany County makes unnecessary the transportation of more than 
18 per cent of the white pupils to elementary and high schools. 

Sixteen counties transported colored pupils to school, the per cent 
transported varying from .4 of 1 per cent to over 20 per cent in Cecil 
and Caroline. Plans are maturing for the transportation of colored 
pupils in Wicomico which will leave but five counties which do not 
transport colored pupils. (See Table 176.) 



228 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 176 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1934 









White 


























Colored 




COUNTY 






















Elementary 




High 












Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


X\J\j€H tXklKX xVVt:l<tgtr . . ..... 


29,974 


27 


8 


10,536 


34 


5 


*1,731 


5. 


9 


Carroll 


2,327 


47 


8 


883 


57 


7 


75 


17. 


9 


Caroline 


1,032 


49 


4 


44S 


55 


.4 


250 


25. 


6 


v^ucTdi i 1 1 1 1 it; o . , . ..... 


737 


49 





329 


61 


2 


110 


14. 


1 




517 


65 


9 


203 


91 







14 


1 


Charles 


910 


61 


3 


368 


71 





70 


4. 


1 


Anne Arundel 


2,902 


47 


3 


900 


49 





*26 






St. Mary's 


413 


39 


6 


347 


100 





82 


7 




Garrett 


970 


24 


4 


614 


63 


2 








Worcester 


1,010 


46 


4 


412 


53 


4 


7 




4 


Dorchester 


1,045 


34 


4 


404 


47 


3 


171 


10 


5 


Frederick 


2,671 


36 





269 


13 


8 


62 


6 


5 


Cecil 


854 


26 


5 


445 


38 


8 


105 


22 


5 


Kent 


453 


32 





276 


51 


8 


99 


10 


6 


Howard 


558 


28 


2 


243 


47 


4 








Talbot 


615 


35 


.5 


295 


40 


1 






Montgomery 


2,013 


27 


2 


497 


30 


8 


143 


7 


9 


Baltimore 


3,898 


23 


.8 


1,142 


25 


4 


271 


14 





Wicomico 


900 


25 


.1 


512 


39 


.4 








Somerset 


722 


31 


.9 


281 


41 


.7 






Allegany 


2,266 


18 


.4 


606 


18 


.3 


20 


5 


6 


Prince George's 


1,253 


16 


.0 


429 


20 


.2 


*31 






Washington 


1,253 


11 


.3 


544 


23 


.0 


13 


4 


4 


Harford 


655 


15 


.7 


88 


6 


.5 


27 


3 


1 



* Includes 26 pupils from Anne Arundel and 31 pupils from Prince George's transported to the 
Bowie Normal Elementary School at State Expense. 



Number of Schools to which Transportation was Provided 

Transportation was provided to 29 more schools in 1934 than in 
the year preceding, bringing the number in 1934 to 460. Of these 48 
were white one-teacher schools, 77 were two-teacher schools, and 
145 were graded elementary schools. There were 114 schcols having 
both elementary and high school pupils to which pupils were trans- 
ported and 27 schools having only white high school pupils. Trans- 
portation was provided tc 49 county colored schools. (See Table 177.) 

Frederick and Dorchester were the only counties showing a re- 
duction in the number of schools to which pupils were transported. 
The greatest increases from 1933 to 1934 appeared in Garrett, Bal- 
timore and Dorchester Counties. (See Table 177.) 

Number and Type of Vehicle Used for Transportation 

In the fall of 1934 the counties used 791 motor buses for trans- 
portation of which 72 were owned by the counties and 719 were 
owned by contractors. In addition, there were 90 private cars used 
to transport small numbers of pupils or to bring children from wside 
roads to the main road to meet the buses. There was also 1 motor 
boat and there were 4 horse-drawn vehicles. Of the 72 county owned 



Pupils Transported; Schools Having Transportation; Vehicles 229 



TABLE 177 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation was Provided at County Expense 

Year Ending July 31, 1934 



COUNTY 



Total Counties. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick. 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's... 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



White 

Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



145 

13 
19 
12 
2 
3 
6 
4 
1 
4 
18 
4 



White Schools 



Having 
Both High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 



114 
a9 



Having 
High 
School 
Pupils 
Only 



Colored 
Schools 



Total 
Number 
of 

Different 
Schools 



460 

28 
27 
89 

9 
19 
25 
21 

8 
26 
35 
37 
13 

7 
14 
28 
17 
19 
11 

9 

9 
28 
19 
13 



Baltimore 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Washington. 



*To Elementary Only 
2 



a Includes Greene Street and Cresaptown Junior High Schools and Bruce Junior-Senior High 
School. 

b Includes Brunswick Junior-Senior High School. 

c Includes Bethesda-Chevy Chase and Takoma-Silver Spring Junior-Senior High Schools, 
d Includes South Potomac and Woodland Way Junior High Schools. 



buses, Montgomery had 31, Baltimore ana Harford Counties 13 each, 
Garrett 6, Calvert and Queen Anne's 4 each, and Carroll one. 
Prince George's owned the bodies of the 24 cars in use. Of the private 
cars used for transporting pupils 26 were in Queen Anne's and 25 in 
Garrett. 

The total distance reported in October 1934 as covered one way 
by the 791 motor buses and the motor boat was 9,615 miles, an 
average distance of 12.15 miles per motor vehicle. The 90 private 
cars had a mileage one way of 311, an average of 3.5 miles, while the 
4 horse-drawn vehicles, with a total of 13 miles travelled one way, had 
an average of 3.3 miles. In addition the counties paid for the trans- 
portation of 130 pupils on public conveyances such as trains, electric 
cars and public buses. 



230 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



lO T-^ OO ^ y-* CC y-( Oi to ^ ^ ^ 

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Capital Outlay 1933-34 by Types of Schools; Total 1920 to 



1934 



<N-«<<t>!?scoai00oeor-iNi<o-<i<o^oooo'^(NO 
mcoirtc£)c^oaji-ic^ooo50'to«ot>oooocot-o 

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93,470 
1,501 




1,308 
1,834 
440,072 


1,087,351 


2,219,784 


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232 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CAPITAL OUTLAY 

Capital outlay in the counties in 1934 totalled $1,132,443, a part 
of which was due to inclusion of the capital outlay of Wicomico 
County inadvertently omitted the preceding year. Part of the 
capital outlay in Montgomery and Prince George's was possible 
through the use of funds made available by the PubHc Works Ad- 
ministration. Allegany, Anne Arundel and Baltimore were the only 
other counties in which the capital outlay exceeded $16,000. (See 
last column in Table 178.) 

The major part of the capital outlay, $802,696, was for white 
high schools with $295,293 for white elementary and $33,135 for 
colored schools. Most of the funds used for white elementary schools 
were for graded schools, although Garrett spent $1,548 for a one- 
teacher school and Baltimore and Anne Arundel spent $2,140 and 
$1,666 for two-teacher schools. Montgomery invested $153,603 in 
graded schools. Wicomico's new high school cost $426,216, and 
Montgomery and Allegany each invested over $130,000 in high school 
buildings. (See Table 178.) 

Of the total 1934 capital outlay of $1,087,351 in Baltimore City, 
$499,163 was for white junior high schools, $468,370 for white ele- 
mentary, and $113,852 for colored elementary schools. (See Table 
178.) 

The capital outlay for the period 1920 through 1934 in the counties 
totaled $22,514,113. The maximum, $5,486,157, was the capital 
outlay of Baltimore County, while Allegany was second with 
$2,660,152, and Montgomery third with $2,657,864. Kent, Queen 
Anne's, and Calvert were the only counties with a capital outlay 
under $100,000. (See last column in Table 179.) 

The capital outlay from 1920 to 1934 inclusive for Baltimore City 
aggregated $35,026,121, making the grand total for the State 
$57,540,234. (See Table 179.) 

SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING, SEPTEMBER, 1934 

In September, 1934, 20 of the 23 counties reported school bonds 
outstanding totaling $16,009,000. This represented about 71 per cent 
of the total school capital outlay in the counties from 1920 to 1934. 
The net amount outstanding in Baltimore City totaled $26,850,653, 
bringing the State total to $42,859,653. (See Tables 179 and 180.) 

There was a reduction in school bonds outstanding in all counties 
except Montgomery and Prince George's, both of which counties 
took advantage of P. W. A. funds in carrying on school construction. 
In Montgomery the school bonds outstanding in 1934 totaled 
$3,032,300, an increase of $471,000 over 1933, while in Prince 
George's the 1934 total of $1,455,500 was an increase of $265,000 
over 1933. (See T^/'/e 180.) 

In comparing the last column in Table 179 with the first column 
in Table 180, it will be evident that Montgomery and Frederick 
are the only counties in which the bonded indebtedness for schools 



Capital Outlay 1920 to 1934; School Bonds Outstanding 



233 



TABLE 180 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, as of September, 1934 



COUNTY 



School 
Bonds 
Outstanding 
September, 
1934 



1934 Assessable 
Basis Taxable 
at the 
Full Rate 
for County- 
Purposes 



Assessable 
Basis Back 
of Each 

Dollar of 
Indebtedness 



Per Cent that 
Indebtedness 
for Bonds is of 
Total County 
Basis 



Schools cTotal Schools cTotal 



Total Counties .... a$16,009,000 $920,397,449 

Allegany a2,000,000 76,553,354 

Anne Arundel 1,256,833 48,559,901 

Baltimore 3,849,667 174,396,896 

Calvert 70,200 5,737,320 

Caroline 63,000 14,556,621 

Carroll 35,760,802 

Cecil 110,000 37,098,582 

Charles 97,000 9,801,166 

Dorchester 320,000 21,094,649 

Frederick 1,221,000 64,030,120 

Garrett 17,610,953 

Harford 112,500 51,803,625 

Howard..._ 159,000 17,748,685 

Kent 6,000 16,195,027 

Montgomery 3,032,300 88,043,164 

Prince George's.... 1,455,500 64,941,768 

Queen Anne's 41,000 16,145,225 

St. Mary's 8,566,074 

Somerset, 26,500 11,617,664 

Talbot 275,000 20,576,082 

Washington 1,213,500 71,738,429 

Wicomico 418,000 27,788,598 

Worcester 282,000 20,032,744 

Baltimore City . .. b26,850,653 1,250,561,333 

Entire State ab$42,859,653 $2,170,958,782 



$57 


$14 


1.7 


7.2 


38 


11 


2.6 


9.4 


39 


11 


2.6 


8.8 


45 


14 


2.2 


7.5 


82 


17 


1.2 


6.0 


231 


33 


.4 


3.0 




76 




1.3 


337 


73 


.3 


1.4 


101 


56 


1.0 


1.8 


66 


24 


1.5 


4.1 


52 


20 


1.9 


5.0 




63 




1.6 


460 


62 


.2 


1.6 


112 


19 


.9 


5.2 


2,699 


18 




5.5 


29 


6 


3.4 


17.7 


45 


10 


2.2 


9.9 


394 


88 


.3 


1.1 




43 




2.3 


438 


40 


.2 


2.5 


75 


29 


1.3 


3.5 


59 


10 


1.7 


9.8 


66 


18 


1.5 


5.5 


71 


24 


1.4 


4.1 


47 




2.1 




51 




2.0 





a Voted but still unissued $525,000 additional. 

b $10,000,000 additional authorized by legislature and subject to referendum. 

c Adapted from columns 1, 3 and 4 in Table 24, page 85 of William Paul Walker's "Certain Finan- 
cial Aspects of Local Government in Maryland." These totals are included as column 4 in Table 
184. Total bonded indebtedness is shown not only for counties, but also for cities, incorporated towns 
and villages, districts and such agencies as the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission and the 
Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission within the borders of the individual 
counties. 

exceeds the school capital outlay for the period from 1920 to 1934 
inclusive. In Prince George's the school bonded indebtedness is 
about 90 per cent of the school capital outlay. 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate back of each dollar 
of school indebtedness is $57 in the counties and $47 in Baltimore 
City. In Montgomery there is only $29 back of each dollar of school 



234 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

indebtedness, in Allegany and Anne Arundel $38 and $39, 
respectively, in Baltimore and Prince George's County $45 and in 
Frederick $52. These counties are the larger counties adjacent to 
Washington or Baltimore or containing the cities of Cumberland 
and Frederick which have had the greatest growth in both elementary 
and high school population. (See third column of Table 180.) 

Expressed in another way, the school bonded indebtedness 
represents 3.4 per cent of the assessable basis in Montgomery County 
2.6 per cent in Allegany and Anne Arundel, 2.2 per cent in Baltimore 
and Prince George's Counties, and 2.1 per cent in Baltimore City. 
(See fourth column. Table 180.) 

The bonded indebtedness for all purposes of each county and its 
various parts including incorporated cities, towns, villages, districts, 
and commissions, such as the Washington Suburban Sanitary Com- 
mission and the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning 
Commission which function in Montgomery and Prince George's,* 
has been used to obtain the assessable basis back of each dollar of 
total bonded indebtedness. The average for the counties is $14 and 
the range is from $6 in Montgomery, $10 in Prince George's and 
Washington, $11 in Allegany and Anne Arundel, to over $60 in Har- 
ford, Garrett, Cecil, Carroll, and Queen Anne's. (See fourth column, 
Table 180.) 

If the 1934 total bonded indebtedness for schools, roads, and all 
other purposes for each county and incorporated areas within its 
boundaries is expressed as a percentage of the assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes, the average for the 
counties is 7.2 per cent with a variation from less than 2 per cent in 
Queen Anne's, Carroll, Cecil, Garrett and Harford, to over 7 per cent 
in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Allegany, Washington, Prince George's 
and Montgomery, the percentage for Montgomery being 17.7. (See 
sixth column. Table 180.) 

Although the bonded debt of incorporated places in a number of 
cases includes self supporting debt on account of public enterprises, 
such as provision for water supply or sewers, which will be partly 
or wholly paid for on a charge or rental basis rather than by tax 
levy, this amount of indebtedness has been included in the total used 
in obtaining the figures given in the fourth and sixth columns of Ta bl e 
180. 

Many people feel that the bonded debt for non-revenue producing 
purposes should not exceed a given percentage of the assessable 
basis. If the same percentage were adopted for all counties, the 
assessable basis should bear the same relation to actual property 
value in all of the units in the State, which is probably not now the 
case. Counties in which the bonds outstanding represent a high 
percentage of assessable basis may have to consider curtailment 
of expenditures for which bonds are issued to those which can be 
financed on a pay-as-you-go policy from the levy. 



* As reported by WilMam Paul Walker in "Certain Aspects of Local Government in Maryland." 



School and Total Bonds Outstanding 



235 



It is considered good public policy to limit the term of a bond 
issue to the life cf the improvement it pays for. Most of the counties 
have issued serial bonds for schools maturing in from 15 to 30 years, 
but Montgomery and Frederick have issued some bonds which do 
not mature for close to 40 years. In some cases these bonds cover 
deficits for current expenses or for annual interest and principal pay- 
ments, or there has been a refunding which extends the life of the 
bonds years beyond the terms for which they were originally issued. 

GROWTH IN BONDED INDEBTEDNESS REPORTED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

Some idea of the growth in bonded indebtedness may be obtained 
from the statistics recently included in Wealth, Public Debt, and 
Taxation,^ which compares total and per capita net bonded in- 
debtedness of counties together with the cities, towns, villages and 
districts within their borders for 1912, 1922 and 1931. Bonded 

TABLE 181 

Total and Per Capita Net Bonded Indebtedness of Counties, Cities, Towns, 
Villages and Districts 1912, 1922, 1931 and 1934 

(Totals Are Expressed in Thousands) 



County including In- 
corporated Ciiies, 
Towns, Villages and 
Districts 



Total Counties 

County Cities^ Towns, 
Villages and Districts 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince Goegre's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 

State Government 

Entire State 



NET BONDED INDEBTEDNESS 



Tot AT. 


Per Capita 


1912a 


1922a 


1931a 


1934b 


1912a 


1922a 


1931a 


$2,859 


$7,893 


$39,886 


$34,007 


$3.78 


$10.82 


$47.88 


3,027 


11,022 


25,767 


31,942 








1,163 


4,326 


6,626 


7.156 


17.83 


60.18 


82.11 


722 


693 


4,224 


4;297 


18.26 


15.09 


73.85 


20 


150 


13,906 


12,894 


.15 


1.93 


104.48 


4 


53 


475 


341 


.34 


5.44 


49.85 


136 


206 


555 


440 


6.72 


11.02 


31.92 


124 


239 


588 


469 


3.65 


6.97 


16.20 


184 


687 


548 


509 


7.73 


29.07 


20.92 


50 


42 


174 


174 


3.05 


2.32 


10.76 


291 


511 


1,027 


882 


10.08 


18.33 


38.30 


1,201 


1,550 


3,150 


3,167 


22.69 


29.51 


57.48 


126 


255 


301 


279 


6.04 


12.94 


15.13 


140 


226 


740 


833 


5.01 


7.64 


23.13 


25 


295 


975 


926 


1.55 


18.62 


60.19 


71 


205 


985 


888 


4.20 


13.66 


69.16 


270 


2,060 


13,293 


15,414 


8.28 


57.77 


157.03 


214 


1,401 


6,259 


6,446 


5.61 


30.99 


43.46 


112 


266 


266 


184 


6.65 


16.63 


18.26 


59 


181 


223 


200 


3.47 


11.23 


14.68 


200 


216 


347 


288 


7.52 


8.80 


14.84 


175 


587 


930 


721 


8.89 


32.06 


50.00 


123 


4,169 


7,378 


7,096 


2.41 


66.92 


110.28 


195 


186 


1,670 


1,521 


6.98 


6.51 


52.52 


281 


411 


1,013 


824 


12.68 


18.34 


46.85 


46,326 


79,910 


164,317 




80.63 


104,84 


201.99 


7,334 


22,129 


31,198 




5.56 


14.90 


18.99 


59,546 


120,954 


261,168 




44.76 


81.43 


158.28 







a Adapted from "Wealth, Public Debt and Taxation" Financial Statistics of State and Local 
Governments, Bureau of the Census, Dept. of Commerce, 1932, page 800. 

b .Adapted from Wm. Paul Walker's, "Certain Financial Aspects of Local Government in Mary- 
land, ■' columns 1, 3 and 4, Table 24, page 85. 



236 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

indebtedness of the counties has increased from $2,859,000 in 1912 
to $7,893,000 in 1922, and to $39,886,000 in 1931. The increase for 
incorporated places and districts within the counties has not been 
quite so rapid, from $3,027,000 in 1912 to $11,022,000 in 1922, and 
$25,767,000 in 1931. 

Much of this increase has been required by the increase in popula- 
tion, but a considerable ? mount is due to the growth in demand for 
better roads, better school buildings, high school facilities, etc. The 
per capita bonded indebtedness cf the 23 counties, exclusive of that 
of the incorporated units within their borders, has increased from 
$3.78 in 1912 to $47.88 in 1931. fSee fifth column, Tabie 182.) 

For the counties and the units within their borders, bonded in- 
debtedness per capita in 1912 ranged between less than one dollar 
in Baltimore and Calvert Counties to over $22 in Frederick. In 
1931 the corresponding low points were under $20 in Charles, St. 
Mary's, Somerset, Garrett, Queen Anne's and Carroll, and the high 
points over $100 in Baltimore, Washington and Montgomery 
Counties. (See last column in Table 181.) 

For Baltimore City, the State Government, and all units in the 
State, data are shown at the bottom of Table 181. The figures for 
1934 in this table in the fourth column have been adapted from the 
study of William Paul Walker* and were used as the basis for the 
statistics included in the fourth and sixth columns of Table 180. 

School Bonds Authorized and Issued Since 1929 Reporf 

In the 1929 report on pages 248 and 249 information was given 
regarding school bond issues from 1918 to 1929. For authorization 
and issues of 1931, 1933 and 1935, and of 1929 for which information 
was incomplete in the earlier report. Table 182 has been prepared. 

There were authorizations by the 1935 legislature of bond issues 
of $75,000 in Dorchester, of $170,000 in Kent fcr which a referendum 
is required, of $981,000 and of not more than $850,000 in Mont- 
gomery, the former amount including $561,000 specifically for school 
purposes, ana of $165,000 in Prince George's. An amount of 
$10,000,000 previously authorized for schools in Baltimore City was 
reauthorized. 

The special session of the legislature in 1933 authorized issues of 
$525,000 in Allegany and $175,000 in Carroll, but the latter authori- 
zation received an unfavorable referendum. A general authorization 
for the issue of bonds was made in chapter 30 by the special session 
of the legislature in 1933 so that the counties could take advantage 
of federal funds made available, but Queen Anne's, Somerset, 
Garrett, Caroline, Carroll and Frederick were exempted from the 
provisions of this legislation. 



* Adapted from columns, 1, 3 and 4 of Table 24, page 85 in "Certain Financial Aspects of Local 
Government in Maryland" by Wm. Paul Walker. 



Total Bonded Indebtedness; Recent Authorizations for School Bonds 237 



TABLE 182 

Information Regarding School Bond Issues Since 1929 Report 





ve Year 




Authorized 
islature 


of Issue 


o 

3 


Final Pay- 
f Principal 


nterest 


COUNTY 


lati^ 


•ter 


CO 


c 

3 


*o 




"o 






ta. 


O >> 


o 


<u 




a; 






ct 




£ 


cd 


£ E 


ca 






O 




< 


Q 


(2 


Pi 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery.. 



Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Baltimore City.. 



'1933 

1929 

1931 

^1933 

1931 

1929 
1931 
1935 

1931 
1931 

1931 

1929 

1931 
1935 



1931 
1931 
1933 
1933 
*1933 
1935 

1935 



1931 
1935 



1929 
1931 
1931 

1929 
1929 
1933 

1929 
1931 

1929 
1935 



48 
203 
505 

60 

143 

71 
493 
524 

216 
224 

349 

213 

316 
569 



193 
108 
162 
544 
30 
541 

587 



234 
420 



86 
300 
317 

281 
282 



196 
31 



243 
121 



525,000 $ 
tl,000,000 
45,OOoj 
175,0001 

23,0001 

I 

25,000! 
100,000 
75,000 

tl86,OOo' 
124,000 

150,000 

80.000 



100,000 
170.000 



78,000 
a722.000 
300,000 

89,000 
b300,000 



525,000 
986,000 
45,000 

X 

23,000 

25,000 
100,000 
75,000 

186,000 
124,000 

X 
X 



1934 
1931 
1931 

1931 

1929 
1931 
1935 

1931 
1931 



Referendum req uired 

11/36 



78,000 
722.000 
300,000 
89,000 
300,000 



c561,000 Not yet issued 
Not yet issued 



750,000 to 

850,000 

275,000 
165,000 



20,000 
20,000 
20,000 

150,000: 
471,000 
55,000 

t300,000 
110,000 



275,000 
Not yet issued 



20,000 
20,000 
Not issued 

150,000 
471,000 
Not issued 



300,000 
110,000 



tl, 500,000 903,000 
10,000,000 ireferendum req 



1931 
1931-33 
1933-35 

1934 

1934 
1935-37 

1935-37 



1933 



1929 
1931 



1930 
1930 



1929 
1931 



1935 
uired 



1940- 1964 
1931-1960 
1933-1947 

1938-1960 

1948-1949 

1941- 1958 
1938-1958 

1946-1956 
1941-1950 



1938-1954 

1934- 1959 

1935- 1962 
1935-1959 
1935-1939 

1935 
1940-? 

1940-? 



-1963 
2 to 30 yrs. 
after issue 

1931-1940 
1938-1942 



1935-1954 
1935-1954 



1936-1943 
1944-1946 



1936-1970 



3^% 

4H% 

4M% 

4H% 
5% 
4% 

4% 
4k % 



Not over 
5% 

4,1^ 7c 
4H&5% 

5M7' 

Not over 

e% 

Not over 
6% 



Not over 
5% 



5% 
5% 



4M% 



4H% 
4^% 

4% 
Not over 

5% 



X Unfavorable referendum. * Special session. 

a Total issue $2,144,000 for general county purposes. t Refunding previous school bond issue? 
b Included in $561,000 provided by Chapter 541, 1935. t Favorable referendum, 
c Total issue $981,000; $491,000 for refunding principal payments on preceding bond issues for 
schools due in 1935, 1936 and 1937; $70,000 for current expense "deficits in 1933 and 1934. 



238 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

The value of school property in the counties showed an increase 
of $150,000, bringing the total in 1934 to ever $25,500,000. In Bal- 
timore City a re-appraisal of all school property brought the value to 
over $44,000,000, an increase of $3,300,000 over the year preceding. 
(See Table 183.) 

The value per county pupil enrolled was $149, more by $2 than in 
1933. There has been a steady increase in value per county pupil 
from $68 in 1922 to $149 in 1934. In Baltimore City the value per 
pupil enrolled of $347 was $12 more than in 1933 and compared with a 
corresponding amount of $103 in 1922. (See Table 183.) 



TABLE 183 
Value of School Property, 1922-1934 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 
















Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 


Mary- 


Counties 


Baltimore 








City 


land 




City 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236,638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


19-24 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


69,541,401 


25,501,303 


44,040,098 


233 


149 


347 



For the entire State the average value of property in 1934 per 
pupil enrolled of $233 compared with $250 reported as the average 
for the United States in 1932. At that time Maryland ranked 27th 
among the 48 states, counting the state having the highest valuation 
first. (See Table 183 and page 71 in Statistics of State School 
Systems, 1931-32.) 

In the counties the school property used by white pupils was 
valued in 1934 at $24,050,493 and by colored pupils at $1,450,810. 
These figures showed an increase of $153,113 for white schools and 
a decrease of $2,550 fcr colored schools. The value per white pupil 
belonging was $177 and per colored pupil $53. 

Only a few counties showed increase in the value of property used 
by white pupils — Allegany, Calvert, Carroll, Cecil, Frederick, Mont- 
gomery, and Wicomico. Ten counties showed small decreases, in 
most cases due to omitting the value of one-teacher schools given up 
during the year. These were Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Charles, 
Dorchester, Garrett, Harford, Queen Anne's, Washington and 
Worcester, {^ee TabUlM.) 



Value of School Property, Total and Per Pupil 



239 



The property value of county schools used by colored pupils 
showed increases from 1933 to 1934 in Calvert, Charles and Prince 
George's, and decreases in Baltimore, Dorchester and St. Mary's 
Counties. (See Table 184.) 

TABLE 184 



Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1934 



rOTTNTY 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


V alue 
Per 
Pupil 


v alue 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties 


$24,050,49o 


lOD,010 


JJ>1 / 7 


!l)l,4o0,ol0 


27,340 


a» CO 

$53 


Allegany 


o,z7o,54o 


1 K OQA 

10,Zy4 




bJ ,^Zo 


o48 


1 ib 


Anne Arundel 


1,292,250 


T OO O 

/,8oo 


loo 


1 1 C CAA 
110,000 


O A A r 

0,005 


OO 

38 


Baltimore 


5,o92,700 


20,607 


2d2 


OfTO OAA 

ZOO, 200 


1 A A r: 

l,90o 


133 


Calvert 


120,725 


969 


125 


33,450 


1,105 


30 


Caroline 


358,000 


2,836 


126 


43,500 


927 


47 


Carroll 


505,925 


6,325 


80 


15,700 


405 


39 


Cecil 


579,795 


4,301 


135 


16,900 


448 


38 


Charles 


248,100 


1,965 


126 


86,175 


1,650 


52 


Dorchester 




3 808 




66 100 


1 fOOif 


49 


Frederick 


1,366,100 


9,210 


148 


62^250 


936 


67 


Garrett 


306,300 


4,885 


63 








Harford 


680,100 


5,412 


126 


34,600 


827 


42 


Howard 


316,600 


2,434 


130 


17,500 


551 


32 


Kent 


174,900 


1,906 


92 


18,010 


900 


20 


Montgomery 
PrinceGeorge's 
Queen Anne's.. 


*2,766,000 


8,876 


312 


106,050 


1,749 


61 


1,601,100 


9,778 


164 


170,050 


3,001 


57 


229,650 


2,032 


113 


20,350 


771 


26 


St. Mary's 


118,250 


1,358 


87 


21,550 


1,078 


20 


Somerset 


309,650 


2,854 


108 


39,750 


1,758 


23 


Talbot..... 


428,000 


2,436 


176 


47,100 


1,016 


46 


Washington ... 


2,100,050 


13,313 


158 


44,900 


301 


149 


Wicomico 


874,600 


4,708 


186 


134,600 


1,535 


88 


Worcester 


455,550 


2,865 


159 


42,350 


1,535 


28 


Baltimore City 


t37,676,976 


90,863 


415 


t6,363,122 


26,338 


242 


State 


61,727,469 


226,873 


272 


7,813,932 


53,678 


146 



* Excludes $179,000, value of new buildings and land not in use in 1934. 

t Excludes $668,191 for administration buildings and warehouses and $2,072,003 for work in pro- 
gress on white schools and $628,243 for work in progress on colored schools. 



The value of school property per white pupil belonging ranged in 
the counties from $63 in Garrett to $312 in Montgomery. Only 
four counties — Montgomery, Baltimore, Allegany and Wicomico — 
had an average value above the county average. Four counties — 
Kent, St. Mary's, Carroll and Garrett — had a valuation per white 
pupil of under $100. Garrett has the largest proportion of its teachers 
in small buildings of wood which, tf course, is the most inexpensive 



240 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 33 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE 
PER WHITE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 1932 
Co, Average $175 



326 
269 
215 
198 
173 



Montgomery 
Baltimore 
Allegany 
Wicomico 
Talbot 
Anne Arundel 86 
Pr. George's 175 
Worcester 156 
Washington 
Frederick 
Dorchester 
Cecil 
HoT/ard 
Charles 
Caroline 
Harford 
Calvert 
Queen Anne' s 116 
Somerset 106 
Kent 86 
St. diary's 99 
Carroll 98 
Garrett 74 



Balto. City 380 386 
State 258 281 



161 
145 
146 
121 
136 
132 
125 
127 
107 




* Complete revaluation of buildings explains increase. 

type of construction. These buildings have no auditoriums or 
special rooms or corridor space or central heating plants or fire- 
proof construction, which are a necessary part of a large modern 
school building. (See Table 184 and Chart 33.) 

The value of school property per county colored pupil belonging 
ranged from $20 in St. Mary's and Kent to $176 in Allegany. A 
number of the counties at the bottom of the list rented buildings for 
which no value was included. (See Ta bl e 184 and Chart 25, page 179. ) 



Balto. School Property; School Attendants from Outside County 241 



The valuation of school property of $415 per white pupil and $242 
per colored pupil belonging in Baltimore City is much higher than 
that found in any county, largely due to greater expense of sites, the 
necessity for fireproof construction, the provision for special facilities, 
corridors, auditoriums, play space, and central heating plants in 
practically all city buildings. (See Table 184 and Charts 33 and 25, 
page 179.) 

COUNTY RESIDENTS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY 
The number of pupils attending school in a county other than that 
of their residence decreased by 54 to 1,453 in 1934. The chief change 
resulted from the reduction of 65 in the number attending Allegany 
and Washington County schools from West Virginia. 



TABLE 185 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During School 

Year 1933-34 



Counties or State prom Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
School in Adjoininc. Counties 



1453 

186 
55 
23 



>. 
c 
rt 
b£ 

s 
< 

26 


c 
S 
< 

C 
C 
< 

85 


o 1 Baltimore 


> 
U 

6 


c 
31 


"o 
U 
21 


O 
8 


1 
HZ 

Ct] 

o 

38 


0) 

u 
o 
Q 

51 


^ 1 Frederick 


t 

03 

o 

154 
98 


no 
o 

19 


13 

? 
o 
W 

167 


c 

0) 

2 


0^ 1 Montgomery 


o 1 Prince George's 


c 

C 

< 

c 

<D 
0) 
3 

74 


'>> 

28 


0) 
0) 

6 

o 
72 

31 


o 

58 


o » 1 Washington 


o 

£ 

o 

4 


\~ 

c 

16 


g 5 1 Pennsylvania 


.a 

c 
'3 

u 

> 

V. 

64 
55 


i g 1 Delaware 1 
























47 






8 
























9 












14 






















































































51 
















8 


















22 






11 












127 






33 




10 






















































9 




































12 




28 




























































3 












7 


















1 












48 






7 
6 




13 




































8 




22 


10 
70 














































5 


















5 
























5 


















51 


















1 


















11 






7 
80 


























63 




6 








16 




































31 














2 












58 


























22 












































































6 








































15 




































33 


























22 


1 




















































































31 




.... 


2 










"i 
9 




118 




















































3 


9 
47 


5 
















































































3 


























1 2 


10 









81 
181 
9 
40 
3 
63 
27 
10 
102 
57 
18 
165 
91 
22 
6 
15 
56 

■33 
118 
21 
56 
15 



Baltimore County had 209 of its children in schools outside its 
limits. Of these, 118 attended Baltimore City colored junior and 
senior high schools at the expense of Baltimore County in Heu of 
organizing several small colored high schools in the county, and 70 



242 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



attended Howard County schools. Frederick sent 174 pupils outside 
its boundaries, the majority attending Carroll County schools. 
Howard sent 167 pupils to Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
and Montgomery. Garrett had 154 of its children in schools of 
Allegany County and adjoining states. (See Ta ble 185.) 

Allegany, Carroll, Prince George's, Baltimore City and Howard 
Counties educated the largest number of pupils who were not resi- 
dents of their counties. (See Table 185.) 

Equalization Fund counties make no tuition charge to adjoining 
counties which send pupils to their schools. Other counties charge 
for tuition 60 per cent of the cost per pupil belonging in white and 
colored elementary and high schools for the preceding year. All 
counties pay a capital outlay charge per pupil of $20 in white high, 
$15 in white elementary, $10 in colored high, and $7.50 in colored 
elementary schools. 

LEVIES WITHIN COUNTIES FOR 1934-35 

County levies for 1934-35 in nineteen counties and in four counties 
for the calendar year 1935 totalled $10,775,913, an increase of less 
than $47,000 over the year preceding. Increases in total levy ap- 
peared in seven counties — Allegany, Anne Arundel, Frederick, 
Howard, Talbot, Wicomico and Worcester. (See Table 186.) 

County Levies for School Current Expense 

Except for school current expenses and school capital outlay, 
which showed increases for the 23 counties as a group, other items in 
the levy, i. e., for school debt service, roads, and ''other county" 
purposes showed decreases. The increase in the county levy for school 
current expenses totalled nearly $193,000 and for capital outlay 
$71,000. The amount for debt service apparently decreased by 
$91,000 but actually increased by $39,000 because funds from sources 
other than the county levy were used to offset charges for interest 
and principal in Montgomery County. (See Tab I e 186.) 

The levy for school current expenses showed increases or remained 
stationary in all counties except Baltimore, Calvert, Garrett and St. 
Mary's, which showed decreases. In Garrett this was due to decrease 
in assessable basis. The greatest increases were found in Montgomery 
and Allegany. (See Table 186, column 2.) 

County Levy for School Debt Service and Capital Outlay 

The levy for school debt service increased in Carroll and Wor- 
cester, and decreased by considerable amount in Montgomery, 
Frederick and Prince George's, but the decrease in Montgomery was 
more apparent than real as explained by note h. (See Table 186, 
column 3.) 

For school capital outlay, there was some increase in Baltimore 
County, which levied $56,000, and also in Harford, Carroll and 
Charles. (See Table 186, column 4.) 



County Levies: Total, Schools, Roads, "Other" Purposes 243 



TABLE 186 
County Tax Budgets, 



1934-35 



COUNTY 



Total Counties .. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline.,.^ 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick.^ 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery.. 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total 
County 
Levy 



abed 

$10,775,913 

1,189,885 

*954,280 
*2,317,401 
63,719 

al52,530 
491,234 
310,677 
89,028 
250,574 

*773,744 
179,471 

*473,295 
208,822 

bl61,382 

h867,728 
617,855 

dl40,016 
c78,654 
131,454 
186,906 
630,946 
292,271 
214.041 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



schools 



Current 
Expenses 



ce 

$4,372,136 

509,666 
*31 5,837 
*594,095 
26,900 
70,000 
198,642 
162,102 
46,417 
100,000 
g*306,800 
82,782 
*183,500 
85,509 
75,756 
444,771 
332,675 
680,556 
c35,969 
55,760 
96,499 
341,538 
131,362 
95.000 



Debt 
Service 



$1,004,883 

tl 58,688 
*93,935 
*292,164 
t6,374 
til, 723 
17,150 
tl0,250 
t7,787 
124,270 
n58,388 
658 
*tl7,500 
til, 155 
t6,450 
ht67,820 
t60,548 
t7,100 



t2,693 
tl3,450 

89,780 
t20,810 
k26.190 



Capital 
Outlay 



$111,291 



*1,500 
*56,000 
1.100 



13,992 
10,000 
4,350 



*5.700 



*13,500 
1.000 



2,974 
440 
735 



Total 



*$5,488,310 



668, 
*411, 
*942, 
34, 
81, 
229, 
182, 
58, 
124, 
'=g370, 
83, 
*214, 
97, 
82, 
h512, 
393, 
e87, 
c38, 
58, 

no, 

431, 
152, 
121, 



354 
272 
259 
374 
723 
784 
352 
554 
270 
888 
440 
500 
664 
206 
591 
223 
656 
943 
893 
684 
318 
172 
190 



Roads 
Bridges 

and 
Ferries 



$979,029 

133,575 
*136,531 
*464,773 
600 



25,190 
2.000 



*40.662 



420,000 
13.256 



h 

42,442 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



abf 

$4,308,574 

387,956 
*406,477 
^•910,369 
28,745 
a70,807 
236,260 
126,325 
30,474 
126,304 
*g362,194 
96,031 
*138,795 
97,902 
b79,176 
h355,137 
182,190 
f52,360 
39,711 
72,561 
76,222 
199,628 
140,099 
92,851 



* For calendar year 1935. 

t Paid directly by County Commissioners. 

a Excludes $56,000 for outstanding notes to carry items included in preceding levies. 

b Excludes $52,000 for notes payable against which uncollected taxes are allocated. 

c E.xcludes $4,213 estimated receipts from liquor license fees and tongers' licenses. 

d Excludes $13,171 to be expended from uncollected taxes. 

e Excludes $3,731 to be paid in addition from uncollected taxes. 

f Excludes $9,440 to be expended from uncollected taxes. 

g $36,720 due on 1934 school levy not shown for schools, but included with other county purposes. 

h The total interest on school bonds is $123,817.50, and for bond redemption $75,000, a total of 
$198,817.50, but funds from other sources have been used to offset this amount by $130,998. This is 
also the case with interest and redemption of county bonds for roads and other purposes. 

k All except $5,000 paid by County Commissioners. 

County Levy for Roads, Bridges and Ferries 

Twelve of the counties made no county levy for roads, bridges, 
and ferries. These counties included five — Charles, Dorchester, 
Garrett, Kent and Somerset — which had levied some amount for 
these purposes the preceding year. There were also decreases under 
the amount levied for roads the year preceding in Calvert, Carroll, 
Cecil, Howard and Prince George's. The only counties which in- 
creased the county levy for roads were Anne Arundel, Baltimore, 
Frederick, and Harford. (See next to last column in Table 186.) 

County Levy for "Other" County Purposes 

For "other" county purposes, the only counties which showed in- 
creased levies from 1934 to 1935 were Allegany, Anne Arundel, 
Dorchester, Frederick, St. Mary's, Talbot, Wicomico and Wor- 
cester. (See last column Table 186.) 



244 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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% Levied In County Boundaries for Schools; Assessable Basis 245 



Levy in Incorporated Cities, Towns and Villages Within Counties 

If to the levy in the counties is added the amounts levied by 
incorporated towns, cities, villages, districts and commissions, it is 
possible to obtain the total levied for government in these areas, ex- 
clusive of costs of State and federal government. The total re- 
ported for 1934-35, $2,233,000, was nearly $20,000 below that for 
the preceding year. Increases worth mentioning appeared for Anne 
Arundel, Frederick, Harford, Kent, while decreases were found for 
Montgomery and Wicomico. (See column 2, in Ta hie 187.) 

Per Cent Levied for School Current Expenses 

The per cent which school current expenses were of the combined 
levies in counties and other units within the county borders was 33.6 
per cent for the 23 counties, an increase from 32.2 per cent the year 
preceding. The lowest percentages appeared in Baltimore and 
Anne Arundel Counties, 25.6 and 28.6 respectively, while the highest 
were found in Queen Anne's and Charles, 51.5 and 49.5 per cent, 
respectively. (See column 6 in Table 187.) 

Increases in per cent of levy used for operating schools appeared 
for all counties, except Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Frederick, St. 
Mary's, Talbot, Worcester and Dorchester. Calvert, Howard, and 
Montgomery showed a much larger proportion of all levies devoted 
to school current expenses in 1934-35 than for the preceding year. 
(See Table 187.) 

Per Cent Levied for All School Purposes 

A similar increase appears if the levy for school debt service and 
capital outlay is combined with that for school current expense to 
show the percentage levied for all school purposes. For the counties 
as a group, it was 42.2 in 1934-35 compared with 40.9 per cent the 
year before. (See column 8 in Table 187.) 

Among the counties the per cent levied for all school purposes 
ranged from 35.3 in Somerset, 36.8 in Frederick, and 37.3 in Anne 
Arundel to between 51.6 and 62.4 per cent in Cecil, Prince George's, 
Calvert, Queen Anne's and Charles. (See Table 187.) 

Except for Baltimore County, the same counties showed decreases 
in per cent levied for all school purposes as reported them for school 
current expenses, and similarly the same counties having large in- 
creases in per cent devoted to school current expense showed them 
for all school purposes. 

CHANGES IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 
The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county purposes in- 
creased in the counties from 1933 to 1934 by $1,402,000. The total 
for the counties in 1934 was $3,408,000 below the peak assessable 
basis in 1932. About one-half of the counties showed increases and 
the remainder decreases from 1933 to 1934. (See Table 188.) 



246 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department op Education 



TABLE 188 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 



Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1925 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


Total Counties 


$661,724 


$726,064 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$923,203 


$923,705 


$918,995 


$920,397 




69,886 


75,718 


78,837 


80,715 


80,971 


78,856 


76,459 


76,553 


Anne Arundel 


30,692 


36,956 


44,565 


47,544 


48,553 


49,014 


48,953 


48,560 




104,232 


124,971 


139,232 


157,654 


167,242 


170,164 


171,129 


174,397 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,623 


4,935 


5,305 


5,560 


5,665 


5,70i 


5,737 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,616 


14,761 


15,283 


15,156 


14,830 


14,549 


14,557 


Carroll 


33,382 


34,183 


35,636 


39,875 


36,265 


36,198 


36,030 


35,761 


Cecil 


23,189 


24,700 


25,628 


30,408 


36,392 


36,819 


36,924 


37,098 


Charles 


8,394 


8,854 


9,315 


9,938 


10,103 


9,851 


9 802 


9 801 


Dorchester ... 


18,987 


19,628 


20,439 


21,918 


22,'l88 


21,944 


21, '508 


21,'095 


Frederick 


51,248 


54,941 


57,655 


65,234 


64,670 


63,928 


63,139 


64,030 


Garrett 


16,303 


19,556 


18,903 


21,653 


20,838 


20,242 


17^953 


17,611 




28,580 


29,487 


29,561 


39,763 


51,149 


51,779 


52,981 


51,804 


Howard 


15,670 


15,682 


16,539 


18,063 


18,666 


18,714 


17,935 


17,749 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14,955 


16,162 


16,138 


16,153 


16,208 


16,195 


Montgomery 


45,503 


50,676 


60,239 


77,889 


84,580 


86,155 


87,185 


88,043 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


33,651 


37,776 


42,878 


59,312 


63,301 


64,331 


65,264 


64,942 


14,793 


15,024 


14,803 


16,692 


16,247 


16,378 


16,033 


16,145 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,825 


7,809 


8,289 


8,590 


8,692 


8,660 


8,566 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,307 


11,972 


12,392 


12,055 


11,963 


11,568 


11,618 


Talbot 


16,927 


17,524 


18,048 


20,478 


21,534 


20,509 


20,560 


20,576 




62,570 


68,281 


72,867 


72,908 


75,322 


73,569 


72,600 


71,738 


Wicomico 


20,394 


21,379 


21,109 


25,092 


26,487 


27,019 


27,661 


27,788 


Worcester. 


16,579 


17,580 


18,284 


20,941 


21,196 


20,932 


20,190 


20,033 


Baltimore City.... 


.... 902,208 


1,083,959 


1,230,198 


1,255,978 1,351,403 


1,307,756 


1,290,943 


1,250,561 


State 


$1,563,932$1,810,023$2,012,169$2,139,486$2 


,274,606$2,231,461$2,209,938$2,170,958 



* Includes reassessment figures. 

Five counties — Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Montgomery and 
Wicomico — are the only ones which have shown a consistent in- 
crease in assessable basis year by year, from 1923 to 1934. Baltimore 
County increased from 1933 to 1934 by $3,268,000 and Montgomery 
by $858,000. 

Carroll and Garrett had their maximum basis in 1928, Worcester 
in 1930, Charles, Dorchester and Washington in 1931, Anne Arun- 
del, Howard and St. Mary's in 1932, Harford and Prince George's, 
in 1933, following which there was a decline through 1934. 

Allegany and Frederick at the peak in 1929, and Caroline and 
Somerset in 1928, declined each year therafter until 1933, but showed 
an increase in 1934. Talbot was at its maximum in assessable basis in 
1931, but after decreasing in 1932 has shown an increase in 1933 and 
again in 1934. Kent and Queen Anne's at their peak in 1929 and 1928, 
respectively, have shown fluctuations up and down since those years. 
(See Table 188.) 

The greatest decreases from 1933 to 1934 appeared in Washington 
County, $862,000, Dorchestier $413,000, Anne Arundel $393,000, 
Garrett $342,000, Prince George's $322,000, and Carroll $269,000. 
(See Table 188.) 

Baltimore City had its maximum assessable basis in 1931, since 
which date it has lost over $100,000,000 to 1934, the loss from 1933 
to 1934 being $40,000,000. (See Table 188.) 



Changes in Assessabce Basis in Counties 



247 



FEDERAL REPORTS ON ASSESSED VALUATION IN 1912, 1922 and 1931 

The recent report on "Wealth, Public Debt, and Taxation "a 
contains comparative data on total and per capita assessed valuation 
for the counties for 1912, 1922 and 1931. Although the 1931 figures 
do not check closely with our own obtained through the State Tax 
Commission, it is probably desirable fcr school officials to be cog- 
nizant of these figures which are likely to be quoted more or less 
frequently. 

TABLE 189 



Total and Per Capita Assessed Valuation of AH Property Subject to the General 
Property Tax 1912, 1922 and 1931a 

(Totals expressed in thousands) 



COUNTY 


Assessed Valuation of All 
Property Subject to 
General Property Tax 


Per Capita Assessed 
Valuation 


Rank 

in 
1931 


1921 


1922 


1931 


1912 


1922 


1931 


Total and Average 


$511,658 


$629,412 


$1,018,956 


$676 


$868 


$1,217 




Allegany 


39,142 


63,841 


85,501 


600 


888 


1,059 


12 


Anne Arundel 


21,353 


26,012 


53,680 


540 


566 


938 


16 


Baltimore 


159,045 


119,373 


222,413 


1,199 


1,535 


1,671 


2 


Calvert 


3,136 


3,789 


5,675 


303 


389 


596 


21 


Caroline 


11,304 


13,865 


15,72] 


560 


743 


904 


17 


Carroll 


24,073 


33,120 


38,604 


709 


965 


1,068 


11 


Cecil 


15,866 


23,632 


39,330 


668 


1,001 


1,501 


4 


Charles 


5,927 


7,042 


10,056 


362 


390 


622 


20 


Dorchester 


14,003 


18,134 


23,117 


485 


650 


862 


18 


Frederick 


30,812 


43,869 


62,386 


582 


835 


1,138 


10 


Garrett 


11,871 


15,512 


20,458 


568 


788 


1,028 


14 


Harford 


19,916 


27,951 


49,789 


712 


943 


1,556 


3 


Howard 


11,180 


15,639 


20,420 


694 


988 


1,260 


5 


Kent 


10,618 


13,243 


17,161 


626 


881 


1,205 




Montgomery 


20,844 


39,203 


98,930 


639 


1,100 


1,917 


1 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


17,585 


33,079 


66,496 


461 


732 


1,055 


13 


10,688 


13,135 


16,815 


635 


821 


1,154 


9 


St. Mary's 


5,051 


6,158 


8,736 


297 


382 


575 


22 


Somerset 


8,088 


10,194 


12,299 


304 


414 


526 


23 


Talbot 


12,978 


15,705 


22,669 


661 


858 


1,219 


6 


Washington 


35,980 


53,504 


79,517 


704 


859 


1,189 


8 


Wicomico 


12,598 


19,069 


27,151 


448 


669 


854 


19 


Worcester 


9,600 


14,343 


22,032 


433 


639 


1,019 


15 


Baltimore City 


723,800 


1,056,084 


1,742,630 


1,260 


1,386 


2,142 




Entire State 


1,235,458 


1,685,496 


2,761,586 


929 


1,135 


1,674 





a See "Wealth, Public Debt and Taxation," Financial Statistics of State and Local Governments 
1932, page 801. 



The assessable basis in the counties increased from $511,658,000 
in 1912, to $629,412,000 in 1922, and to $1,018,956,000 in 1931. 
Meanwhile, because of annexation by Baltimore Citv, county popula- 
tion decreased from 756,000 in 1912 to 725,000 in 1922, but increased 
to 836,500 in 1931. This has made the per capita assessed valuation 
in the counties $676 in 1912, $868 in 1922 and $1,216 in 1931. (See 
Table 189.) 



248 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Counties which have shown more than a doubhng in total assessed 
valuation from 1912 to 1931 are Allegany, Anne Arundel, Cecil, 
Frederick, Harford, Montgomery, Prince George's, Washington, 
Wicomico and Worcester, and also Baltimore City. (See Table 189.) 

Counties which have shown more than a doubling of per capita 
assessed valuation from 1912 to 1931 are Cecil, Harford, Mont- 
gomery, Prince George's and Worcester. The developments at 
Ccnf wingo, the growth around Washington due to the war and post- 
war activities, and changes at Ocean City probably explain the great 
increases in per capita valuation in these five counties. (See Table 
189.) 

In 1912 and in 1922, St. Mary's was lowest and Baltimore County 
highest among the counties in per capita assessed valuation. In 
1931, Somerset had the lowest per capita valuation and Montgomery 
the highest among the counties, Baltimore County taking second 
place. Baltimore City in 1912 and 1931 had a higher per capita as- 
sessed valuation than any county, but in 1922 it was exceeded by 
Baltimore County. (See Table 189.) 

Items Making Up 1934 Assessable Basis in Maryland 

For the twenty-three counties as a group, all of the types of 
property valued in the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for 
county purposes in 1934 increased over 1933, except railroad rolling 
stock and ordinary business corporations. The total county assess- 
ment of $920,397,000 showed an increase of $1,402,000, or .15 of 1 
per cent, over 1933, of which $1,627,000, or .2 of 1 per cent, was 
the increase in real and tangible personal property, $712,000, or 3 
per cent, was the increase in stock of domestic share corporations 
owned by residents of the counties, and $17,000, c r 43 per cent, was 
the increase in personal property of non-stock corporations. These 
increases were offset by decreases of $264,000, or 3.5 per cent, in 
value of railroad rolling stock in the counties, and of $670,000, 
3.6 per cent, in the property of c rdinary business corporations. (See 
Table 190.) 

In Baltimore City there was a decrease in all elements making up 
the assessable basis, amounting to $38,743,000, or 3.2 per cent, in real 
estate and tangible personal property, $30,000, or 6 per cent, in 
railroad rolling stock, $1,365,000, or 5.5 per cent in ordinary business 
corporations, $138,000, cr .3 of 1 per cent in domestic share corpora- 
tions, and $106,000, or 20 per cent in personal property of non-stock 
corporations and distilled spirits. 

Of the total basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes, 
95 per cent represented real and tangible personal property assessed 
by the county commissioners and Baltimore City officials, leaving 
but 5 per cent for assessment by the State Tax Commission. (See 
Table 190.) 

Ten counties increased the assessment of real estate and tangible 
personal property from 1933 to 1934. Allegany alone had an increase 
in railroad rolling stock. Eight counties— Allegany, Anne Arundel, 



Assessable Basis 1912 to 1931; Items Included 1934 



249 



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250 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Caroline, Carroll, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot and Worcester 
had an increase in the total assessment of ordinary business corpora- 
tions. Twelve counties registered an increase in county owned shares 
of domestic share corporations from 1933 to 1934. (See Table 190.) 

TAX RATES FOR 1934-35 

The county tax rates for school current expenses, obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1934-35 by the 1934 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate fcr county purposes, averaged 47.5 cents for 
the twenty-three counties. Rates ranged from less than 36 cents in 
Baltimore and Harford Counties to over 65 cents in Anne Arundel 
and Allegany. The levy of 42 cents in St. Mary's was supplemented 
by sufficient receipts from tongers' and liquor licenses to make the 
total received equivalent to a 47-cent school current expense rate. 

TABLE 191 

Ccunty School Tax Rates and Total Couniy Rates, 1934-35 



County 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel+... 

Carroll+ 

Prince George's.. 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's*.. . 

Howard 

Caroline"*" 

Somerset* 

Frederick... 

Washington 

Worcester* 

Charles* 

Dorchester* 

Wicomico* 

Garrett* 

Calvert* 

Talbot 

Kent* 

Cecil 

St. Mary's* 

Harford... 

Baltimore 



tl934-35 County School Tax Rate for 

SCHODL 



Current 
Expenses 



$ .475 

.666 
*.651 
.556 
.512 
.505 
.499 
.482 
.481 
.480 
*.479 
.476 
.474 
.474 
.474 
.473 
.470 
.469 
.469 
.468 
.437 
t.420 
*.354 
*.341 



Debt 
Service 



$ .109 

.207 
M93 
.048 
.093 
.077 
.044 
.063 
.080 
.023 
*.091 
.125 
.131 
.079 
.115 
.075 
.004 
.111 
.065 
.040 
.028 



*.034 
M67 



Capital 
Oi tlay 



$ .012 



'.003 
.039 



.005 



.004 
^009 



.044 



.019 
.004 



.027 
.035 

^026 

^032 



Total 



$ .596 

.873 
*.847 
.643 
.605 
.582 
.543 
.550 
.561 
.507 
*.579 
.601 
.605 
.597 
.589 
.548 
.474 
.599 
.538 
.508 
.492 
.455 
*.414 
*.540 



X Obtained by dividing figures in county levy by 1934 assessable basis taxable at full rate for county 
purposes. 

+ P.eceived equalization fund in 1933-34. 
* Calendar year 1935. 

t Excludes receipts from liquor and tongers' licenses. 

Excludes in all counties, except Baltimore and Calvert which have no incorporated towns having 
levies, the levy in incorporated towns and districts making additional separate levies. 



CouxTY Tax Rates 1934-35; White Parent-Teacher Associations 251 

Cecil levied 43.7 cents for school current expenses. The remaining 
counties levied 47 cents or more. 

All of the counties except Caroline, Calvert, St. Mary's and 
Baltimore showed increases for 1934 over 1933 in the school current 
expense tax rate. Increases of 5 cents or more appeared for Howard, 
Montgomery, Anne Arundel and Allegany. 

For school debt service the 1934 rate of 10.9 cents appeared as 
one cent lower than for 1933. Only five counties, Anne Arundel, 
Carroll, Howard, Worcester and Dorchester, showed an increase 
in the rate for school debt service, and only in Worcester and Carroll 
was the increase as much as two cents. 

For school capital outlay the average rate of 1.2 cents was .8 of 1 
cent higher than for the year preceding. But nearly half the counties 
did not levy for capital outlay. In eVery county which did levy for 
capital outlay, the tax in 1934 was higher than that levied the year 
before. Charles, Carroll, St. Mary's, Baltimore, Cecil and Harford 
levied from 2.6 to 4.4 cents for school capital outlay. Carroll and St. 
Mary's have no bonds outstanding for school purposes. Cecil and 
Harford are using extra revenue available from taxation of Cono- 
wingo. (See Table 191.) 

Total published county tax rates which averaged $1.17, ranged be- 
tween 78 cents in Queen Anne's and $1.82 in Anne Arundel. Six 
counties — Caroline, Baltimore, Allegany, Frederick, Washington 
and Anne Arundel, were the only ones which shewed increases in the 
county rate, the increases ranging from 1 to 25 cents. Decreases 
ranged between 2 and 40 cents, the greatest decreases appearing 
in Calvert. Cecil, Charles and Queen Anne's. (See last column in 
Table 191.) 

The county tax rates shown in the last column do not include 
additional rates paid by incorporated towns, districts, commissions, 
etc., except that the read taxes in the various districts in Anne Arun- 
del are averaged and included in the total shown. (See Table 191.) 

TABLE 192 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1934 

Parent-Teacher Associations 



in White Schools 

Year Number Per Cent 

1924. __ 490 30.8 

1925. __ 623 40.6 

1926... 638 42.8 

1927 _ 649 45.1 

1928..._ 617 45.4 

1929 588 45.8 

1930 576 47.7 

1931 613 54.7 

1932. 571 56.2 

1933..._ 556 59.1 

1934..._ 530 58.5 



252 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent-teacher associations were found in 1934 in 530 
white schools, 58.5 per cent of the total number. Largely because of 
school consolidation, the number of schools having parent-teacher 
associations decreased by 26, but the percentage was lower by only 
.6 of 1 per cent. The great increase in the proportion of schools hav- 
ing P. T. A.'s is shown by a comparison of the percentage for 1924, 
30.8, with that for 1934, 58.5 per cent, {^ee Table 1^2.) Encourage- 
ment of the organization of parent-teacher associations has been 
given because through them the aims and needs of public education 
may be interpreted to parents who are naturally interested in the 
improvement of the schools which their children attend. 

In 1934 the counties ranged all the way from having parent- 
teacher associations in every white school to having them in only 
one- twelfth of the white schools. Baltimore County was the only 

CHART 34 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS, 1953 and 1934 



County 



Number 
1933 1934 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 34 



556 
67 



Frederick 
Kent 
Calvert 
Caroline 
Montgomery 
Howard 
Wicomico 
Charles 
Allegany 
Pr. George's 41 
Talbot 13 
Somerset 19 
Worcester 11 
Queen Anne's 16 



45 
20 

7 
21 
41 
18 
30 

8 
47 



Harford 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Washington 

St. Mary's 



29 
18 
20 
17 
17 
15 
2 




61.9 



60.0 
54.9 
42.1 




White P. T. A.'s; Receipts from Other Than County Funds 253 



one which had an association in every school. Baltimore, Anne Arun- 
del and Frederick had the distinction of having P. T. A/s in over 90 
per cent c f the schools. Three counties only, Garrett, Washington and 
St. Mary's had associations in fewer than 20 per cent of their schools. 
(See Chart 34.) 

Howard, Worcester and Kent made the greatest gains from 1933 
to 1934 in the proportion of white schools having parent-teacher 
associations. On the other hand, Caroline, Talbot, Queen Anne's, 
Cecil and Dorchester showed the greatest reduction from 1933 to 
1934 in the per cent of white schools with such organizations of par- 
ents and teachers. (See Chart 34.) 

In the white elementary schools only 34.9 per cent of the one- 
teacher schools had associations in contrast with 62.6 per cent of 
the two-teacher, and 83.5 per cent of the graded schools. Curiously 
enough it was the one-teacher schools which showed a slight increase 
in per cent having parent-teacher associations, while the larger 
schools had percentages lower by 2 or 3 points. (See Tal?te 193.) 

TABLE 193 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 
School Year 1933-34 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY FUNDS 

Six counties sent in reports of the receipts and expenditures of 
their white schools from other than county funds. Somerset was 
added to the list of five counties, Baltimore, Caroline, Dorchester, 
St. Mary's and Washington, which have been reporting for a period 
of years, since the blanks were set up in 1929-30. In the six counties, 
the amount of money handled totaled over $181,000 in 1933-34, in- 
dicating the wisdom of some sort of financial accounting if only for 
the protection of those responsible for taking care of the funds. (See 
r^/'/ecr 194 and 195.) 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for a third or 
more of the funds received in all of the counties reporting, except 
St. Mary's and Somerset. P. T. A.'s were an important source of 
receipts in Baltimore and Somerset Counties, especially. In St. 
Mary's and Washington Counties, in which there were few P. T. A.'s, 
little money was received from this source. Sales brought in large 
amounts in Baltimore, Caroline, Somerset, and Washington Counties. 
Washington derived about 10 per cent of its receipts from dues which 
did not play as important a part in raising money in the other re- 
porting counties. (See Table 194.) 



White Schools Having 

One Teacher 

Two Teachers 

Three or More Teachers 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
Number Per Cent 



132 34.9 
114 62.6 
269 83.5 



All Elementary 



515 



58.4 



254 1934 



Report of 



Maryland State Department of Education 



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256 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Since receipts from cafeterias were the major source of gross 
receipts, one would expect to find a considerable part of the net 
receipts expended for the improvement of cafeterias. Baltimore 
County devoted almost a third of its net receipts to this purpose, 
while Washington County spent about 10 per cent for this purpose. 
It is possible that the cost of cafeterias in the other counties equalled 
the gross receipts. Washington County used over 31 per cent of its 
net receipts from other than county funds for improvement of 
buildings and grounds. Physical education activities absorbed from 
7 to 43 per cent of the net receipts from sources other than the 
county in the six counties reporting. 

The importance of improving the school libraries was recognized 
in all of the counties. Washington used nearly one-eighth of its net 
receipts on regular classroom instruction. Small amounts were 
spent to bring about improvement in various other phases of school 
activities as may be seen in Table 195. 

That the levy is not supplying funds sufficient to give the schools 
many things that they need is attested by the willingness of those 
interested in making available additional money. When these 
amounts contributed to individual schools are summarized they 
amount to a considerable sum. (See Tables 194 and 195.) 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in the 
State minimum salary schedule depends on size of teaching staff and 
years of experience. Since 1932-33 there has been no provision for 
salary increments due to experience, and reductions of 13 per cent 
on salaries from $2,500 to $2,999, of 14 per cent on salaries of $3,000 
to $3,599, and of 15 per cent on salaries over $3,600, have been used 
in calculating State aid, which is two-thirds of the minimum State 
salary schedule. Counties, however, may pay salaries above those 
in the minimum salary schedule and in 1933-34 salaries ranged from 
$2,557.80 in five counties to $5,100 in Allegany and $7,200 in Balti- 
more County. (See r^A/d- XXVI, page 310.) 

There were nine counties with fewer than 150 teachers, five having 
from 150 to 199 teachers and nine with mere than 200 teachers. 
Several counties which would have had more than 200 teachers had 
they not carried forward a policy of school consolidation and trans- 
portation have replaced the additional problems of a large teaching 
staff with those of the transportation service. 

The changes in staff which occurred at the end of 1933-34 resulted 
from the appointment of Mr. B. C. Willis, Principal of the Catons- 
ville High School, to the superintendency of Caroline County 
after the retirement of Mr. E. M. Noble, who had ably served the 
county as superintendent for 29 years since August 1905, and the 
appointment of Mr. Raymond S. Hyson, Principal of the Franklin 
High School, Reisterstown, Baltimore County, as superintendent of 
Talbot County to replace Mr. Thomas G. Pullen, Jr., who was ap- 



Other Than County Funds; County School Administration 257 

pointed State Supervisor of High Schools in the office of the State 
Department of Education to fill the vacancy created by the death 
of Mr. W. K. Klingaman. 

Superintendents' Conferences 

Conferences of county superintendents, normal school principals 
with the staff of the State Department of Education were held on 
September 25, 1933, January 25-26, and April 27, 1934. 

On September 25, 1933, there was analysis and discussion of the 
decision of the Court of Appeals in cases 29, 30 and 31, April term, 
1933, filed June 21, 1933, in which the County Board of Education 
of Washington County appealed from the decision of the Circuit 
Court in the cases against Grace A. Cearfoss, Valeria Jones and Julia 
A. Hino.* 

A. Points Settled by the Decision. 

1. Authority of the State Board of Education to decide all "disputes and 
controversies" does not confer upon that Board power to determine purely- 
legal questions. 

2. A teacher under contract is not required to submit to the County Super- 
intendent or to the State Board a question of right or liability arising under 
contract, but may go directly to the Court. 

3. A County Superintendent has the power to "explain the true intent and 
meaning of the School Laws," but this does not give him authority to 
adjudicate the meaning and effect of contracts into which his Coanty 
Board has entered with teachers. 

4. Questions which do not involve an administrative dispute but raise a 
point of the interpretation of law and contracts, may be referred to the 
Courts for decision. 

B. Points Injerred in the Decision. 

1. That the contract with a teacher contemplates a normal continuing un- 
determined tenure after two years of service, unless the teacher is notified 
of charges of immorality, misconduct in office, insubordination, incom- 
petency or willful neglect of duties, and is given a right to be heard by the 
Board of Education. 

2. The fact that a teacher withdrew her funds and membership from the 
Retirement System during a period of urgent need when her salary had 
ceased, did not affect her contractual relationship then in dispute. 

3. Abandonment of certain courses, consolidation of schools, reduced en- 
rollment and the like, which reduce the number of positions for which 
teachers are required, may abrogate any claim of the teacher for payment 
of service not needed. 

4. A teacher has a right to demand causes for dismissal. The court then may 
determine whether the defense is based upon ground? which, under the 
laws, are within the exclusive jurisdiction of the public school authorities. 
In such event, the teacher would be referred to the Board of Education 
lor the method of redress which the statutes provide. 

5. The Court refused to sustain demurrers of the defendant that there 
were inconsistencies as to salaries, particular capacity in which the teacher 
was to be employed, and the place in which she was to perform her duties. 

6. Objection that there was no actual contract submitted in evidence was 
over-ruled because it was proved that the plaintiff had served continuously 
for the defendent for several years after the contract was said to be 
signed. Performance accepted implies a contract. 

7. The Court refused to reverse the opinion of the lower court on the ground 
the teacher did not have a duly renewed certificate at the time she signed 

* See The Daily Record, Baltimore, Friday, June 23, 1933. 



258 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the contract, but which was later cured, or that there were inconsistencies 
in dates mentioned, or that the actual contract was not submittal. 

8. The consolidation of a school does not necessarily void the contract of a 
teacher. Services must be unnecessary and thus make too many teachers 
for the consolidated school. 

9. That the request of trustees for the transfer of a teacher without proven 
charges does not justify the dismissal of a teacher. 

10. A teacher's contract need not be witnessed. 

11. By not citing objection to the terms of a standard teacher's contract, 
the court appeared to accept all its clauses as valid. 

Other matters discussed at the September 25th meeting were: 

A legal form of dismissal to meet the requirements of the decision 
of the Court. 

Report of the Committee on Certification 
The Bulletin for the teaching of Elementary Science 
The State-wide testing program in reading and arithmetic 
Problems connected with transportation of pupils: 
County ownership of busses vs. contracts with 

individuals and /or companies 
Policies in connection with school bus insurance. 

At the conference held January 25, 1934, members of county school 
boards were invited to join with county superintendents, the normal 
school principals, and State Department staff in discussion of com- 
mon problems. 

Pupil classification as revealed in a comparison of grade distribution, 
overageness, and survival of boys and girls through the grades and high 
school for October, 1921, and November, 1933, showed the extraordinary 
progress which had occurred. A similar comparison of the results of tests 
in reading given in 1921-22 with those given in the fall of 1933 indicated 
that despite the fact tht a larger proportion of pupils were being promoted 
at the later than at the earlier date a much larger proportion of pupils were 
doing satisfactory school work at the later date. Various ways of attacking 
these problems which result in improvement of instruction were presented 
by members of the staff of the State Department of Education. (See page 
79.) 

What are the pertinent curriculum values today? Should the so-called 
newer subjects, such as music, health and physical education, industrial 
arts, home economics and agriculture be eliminated, reduced, maintained, 
or increased? These questions were discussed by Dr. Weglein, members 
of the State Department staff, and Mr. Unger. 

The following day the group of board members and superin- 
tendents were joined by the county supervisors of white elementary 
schools at the Towson Normal School to hear Dr. Charles H. Judd 
of Chicago University present ''Problems concerning Public Educa- 
tion in a Depression. Dr. Judd pointed out the changes forced on 
the schools by the fact that millions of children who in the latter 
part of the nineteenth century left school early because they were 
needed in industry are now remaining in school because industry 
has no place for them. The upper grades and high schools are having 
to adapt their work to meet the needs of this growing group whose 
parents look to the schools to provide opportunities for their children 
until industry is ready to give them work. 

The group heard a discussion of Dr. Bagley's article, "The Task 
of Education in a Period of Rapid Social Change," in which em- 



Conferences of County Superintendents and Attendance Officers 259 

phasis is placed on the importance of passing on the stable, enduring, 
abiding values of the culture and traditions of the past and of not 
expecting teachers to take the lead in developing a new social order. 

The teaching cf science in the elementary school was presented by 
Dr. Judd in the afternoon. 

At the meeting held on April 27, 1934, the county superintendents 
discussed the advisability of increasing the length of the normal 
school course to four years in order that prospective teachers may 
be given a broader subject-matter background in elementary sub- 
ject-matter fields, including the social studies, literature, science and 
economics. 

Conference of County Attendance Officers, March 5, 1934 

Mr. Thompson, who in September, 1933, added to his duties as 
State Supervisor of Special Education and Vocational Rehabilitation, 
the work cf advising with superintendents and attendance officers 
on school attendance problems, presided over his first conference 
with school attendance officers on March 5, 1934. Since the organiza- 
tion cf county welfare boards, the development of county social 
welfare programs, and the administration of the civil works program 
were all of vital interest in the solution of many school attendance 
problems, advantage was taken of the opportunity to have a joint 
meeting of executives of the county and State relief administration 
with the attendance officers. 

Mr. Harry Greenstein, Director cf the State Relief Administra- 
tion, gave the history and present status of the development of the 
emergency relief program in the counties of the State. He explained 
that county welfare boards were only set up as the counties realized 
tl e need for a county relief program and described the method of 
selecting members of boards, and of the executive secretary and 
county aides who were secured through examinations given by the 
State Employment Commission. 

He brought out the necessity for local financial support for the 
social welfare program and the part that attendance officers can 
play in bringing cases to the attention of the relief authorities and in 
developing social-mindedness on the part of citizens. The rehef 
program is only successful if it aids in sending to school well nourished 
children who have some security in their homes. 

Miss Anita J. Faatz, State Supervisor of Social Welfare, indicated 
that a county permanent welfare program will need to take care of 
cases not only resulting from unemployment and the depression, but 
also dependent children, widows, families in which the father is 
permanently incapacitated, and the aged. The Board of State Aids 
and Charities is attempting to set up standards of child care for 
boarding homes and institutions which can operate only if they 
hold a Ucense from the Board. 

Dr. George H. Preston, Commissioner of Mental Hygiene, indicated 
that the attendance officer must weigh the factors in the child, school, 
and home environment to determine which are most easily modifiable 



260 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

in bringing about improvement in school attendance for truants. 
The school system can avoid creating insecurity by giving each child 
acceptable ways of being conspicuous. By reducing undue appre- 
hension before tests and examinations, the school system can help. 
The attendance officer by treating a truant without suspicion and 
by making him feel he will give him a chance and get behind him may 
counteract a feeling of insecurity in the child. Consistency in the 
treatment cf children by parents and school tends to a feeling of 
security. 

Dr. Knox has organized a series of Mental Hygiene Clinics for the 
counties under the sponsorship of the various County Health Officers, 
in which pyschiatrists on the staffs at Phipps, Springfield, Spring 
Grove, Sheppard Pratt, and the Mental Hygiene Clinic are cooper- 
ating. Attendance officers can arrange with health officers to have 
children, their parents and records ready, when the clinics are held 
in each county two or three times a year. See pages 43 to 44. 

Miss Mary Wootton, State Supervisor of Special Permits, Bureau 
of Labor and Statistics, outlined ways in which the N. R. A. codes 
affected children cf ages 14 to 16 years holding employment cer- 
tificates. It had brought about return of many children to school 
since its aim was to spread employment among adults and release 
children to continue their education. Where the family was depend- 
ent on the earnings of children, relief authorities were expected to 
supplement the family income. A survey was being made through 
C. W. A. of 1,200 Baltimore City children between 14 and 16 hold- 
ing employment certificates to find out the effect of N. R. A. Miss 
Wootton seemed to think that ratification of the National Child 
Labor Amendment or strengthened attendance and child labor laws 
would be needed to replace ti e codes when they expire in 1935. 

Miss Everett reported that the depression had not affected school 
attendance because of the aid given by social agencies. In Harford, 
attendance was seriously reduced by scabies and impetigo and by 
poor attendance of children cf 6 not yet under the compulsory at- 
tendance law. 

Miss Ethel Miller, executive of the Garrett County Welfare 
Board, described the way in which she cooperates with the attendance 
officer in cases which he brings to her attention. 

Mr. Frankhn D. Day, superintendent of Queen Anne's County 
schools, traced the history of enforcement of school attendance since 
1916, when the compulsory school attendance law was made State- 
wide and since 1922 when each county had an attendance officer. 
Education of teachers in new attitudes if the child's difficulty is dis- 
like of school, becoming the child's friend if the child needs a sense of 
security, persuading or requiring parents to carry out their respon- 
sibilities, have all become the work of the attendance officer. In 
Queen Anne's, the attendance officer has taken a very large part in 
the social welfare program of the county. 



Attendance Officers' Conference; Certification 261 



Dr. Janney, Health Officer of Anne Arundel County, brought out 
the overlapping in the work of the health, school attendance, and 
social welfare program. He thought less attention should be paid to 
the enforcement part and more to the social welfare end of the work. 
If the Health Department can't keep children in school, they can't 
keep up with their work. Illness is the greatest cause of absence and a 
large part of it is preventable. If a child is kept healthy in school, 
he is likely to become a healthy adult. 

The attendance officers discussed many phases of their social 
welfare wcrk, of their method of acquainting P. T. A.'s with 
what they are doing, of their need of professional training, of 
the need of having recognition in various professic-nal groups 
in the community, of the need of more officers in large counties, of 
their difficulty with parents and physicians in getting rid of skin 
diseases, of methods cf accounting for attendance when busses do 
not run in bad weather, cf improved case records for problem cases. 

THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUxVTIES* 
Number of Certificates 

The number of certificates of the various kinds which have been 
issued during the period from December 1 to November 30 in the 
years 1933-34, 1932-33, and 1921-22 are shown in Table 196. 



TABLE 


1S6 








Number 


of Certificates Issued 




December 


1 to November 30 


Grade of Certificate 










1921-22 


1932-33 


1933-34 


Administration and Supervision 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


1 


2 


Elementary Supervision . _.. 


9 


4 


3 


Supervision Special Subjects.. 








1 


Helping Teacher 


10 








Attendance Officer 





3 


2 


High School 








Principal 


7 


3 


11 


Academic 


157 


78 


115 


Special 


30 


39 


61 


Vocational 


24 


9 


10 


Non-Public 





36 


35 


Elementary 








Principal 


43 


15 


7 


Advanced First Grade 





172 


328 


First 


370 


102 


85 


Second 


325 








Third 


214 








Non-Public First 





4 


4 



The administrative and supervisory staffs in the counties are now 
comparatively stable. The number of certificates issued in recent 

* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



262 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

years to these officials is therefore small and the slight variations are 
not significant. The figures for the high school teachers' certificates 
issued in 1932 and 1933 reflect, fcr the most part, the smaller turn- 
over in the teaching staffs as compared with 1921-22, notwithstanding 
a large increase in the total number of high school teachers in the 
State between 1921 and 1932 to take care of the greatly augrnented 
high school enrollment. The increase in the number of academic cer- 
tificates (37) and in the special certificates (22) is chiefly due to the 
fact that sorne elementary grades were absorbed in new junior high 
school organizations and the teachers already appointed to these 
classes met the requirements for high school teachers' certificates. 
The first full classes from the three-year courses at the normal schools 
completed their course in 1934 and this fact accounts for the con- 
siderable jump in the number of advanced first grade certificates 
issued. The number of first grade certificates issued is diminishing, 
since these are issued only to teachers now in the service who qualify 
by means of additional training and to colored teachers. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional certificates issued during each of the 
last eleven years, including 1934-35 up to March 1, 1935, is given in 
Table 197. The steady decrease in these figures through 1933-34 will 
be noted except during certain years when a more complete check of 
the certification than had previously been made took place, with a 
resultant rise in the number of provisional certificates issued to 
teachers who had formerly taught without certificates. For the high 
schools the slight increase in 1927-1930 was due to the increases in 
the high school staff necessary to care for the additional high school 
enrollment. For 1934-35 there was little change from the preceding 
year in the number of high school teachers holding provisional 
certificates, but for elementary schools the number increased from 
4 to 10. i^eTabLem.) 

TABLE 197 



Provisional or Elementary Certificates 
Issued for 





YEAR 


Elementary 
School Teachingf 


High School 
Teachingf 


1923-24 




276 


225 


1924-25 




316 


184 


1925-26 




175 


132 


1926-27 




214 


104 


1927-28 




268 


108 


1928-29 




72 


110 


1929-30 




35 


112 


1930-31 




25 


92 


1931-32 




15 


82 


1932-33 




7 


56 


1933-34 




4 


46 


1934-35 




10* 


45* 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to March 1, 1935. 



Certification in the Counties; Medical Examinations 263 
Additional New Certificate Regulations 

On Nov. 24, 1933, the State Board of Education revised By-law 52 
to read as follows: 

"County boards of education may at their discretion establish kinder- 
gartens, subject to such regulations as such boards may formulate, with the 
approval of the State Board of Education; provided, that the kindergarten 
teachers shall hold kindergarten certificates issued by the State Super- 
intendent of Schools on the basis of graduation from a four-year high school 
course, or the equivalent, and from a Ihrcc-ycar {or, in the case oj teachers in 
serv>ice in Jlaryland on Noi'ember 24, 1953, a two-j/ear) kindergarten-primary 
course in a standard normal school, or the equivalent, the certificate to be 
valid for three years and to be renewable on evidence of successful experience 
and professional spirit; and provided, further, that sufficient funds are 
specifically appropriated in the annual school budget of the county board 
of education for the teachers' salaries and for the maintenance of said 
kindergartens. " 

Upon recommendation of the Certificate Committee and the 
Superintendents, the State Board passed the following regulations at 
the meeting held Friday, May 25, 1934. 

" In the evaluation of credits for an Advanced First Grade Certificate, 
a Maryland first grade life certificate held by a teacher in service in a 
Maryland county in September, 1933, shall be considered the equivalent 
of a first grade certificate based on four years of standard high school 
training and two years of normal school work. " 

"In the evaluation of credits for a first grade certificate, a Maryland 
second grade life certificate held by a teacher in service in a Maryland county 
in September, 1933, shall be considered the equivalent of a second grade 
certificate based on four years of standard high school work and one year 
of normal school training." 

"A life certificate held by a teacher not in the service in September, 
1933, shall, like any other certificate issued in the past, be good for only 
what it represents in scholastic and professional preparation." 

By-law 55 

"No white applicant shall be admitted or readmitted into the teaching 
s>ervice in the county elementary schools of Maryland after June 1, 1935, 
unless the applicant qualifies for an Advanced First Grade Certificate." 

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone medical examinations conducted by physi- 
cians especially appointed for this purpose. For the numbers ex- 
amined, accepted, and rejected during the six years the regulation 
has been in force, see Table 198. 

TABLE 198 

Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical Examinations 



Year Number Accepted Number Rejected Total 

1929- 30 910 7 917 

1930- 31 872 13 885 

1931- 32 754 18 772 

1932- 33 495 8 503 

1933- 34 383 9 392 

1934- 35* 480 9 489 



♦ Up to March, 1935. 



264 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR WHITE STUDENTS 
All 1934 Graduates Completed Three Year Course 

All of the 185 county and 111 city graduates cf Towson, Frost- 
burg, and Salisbury normal schools in 1934 completed the three-year 
course which, as a result of 1931 legislation was required of all normal 
school entrants in September 1931. The number of courty students 
graduated in 1934 was smaller than for any year from 1923 to 1932. 
The very limited number of graduates in 1933 was made up of seniors 
of the two-year course in 1932 or of graduates of preceding years 
who returned for a third year of work especially planned for them. 
(See Table 199.) 

Because 20 of the county and 7 of the city 1934 graduates had 
previously been reported as graduates of the three-year course, the 
total number of normal school graduates from the counties from 
1920 to 1934, inclusive, was 3,596 and from the city from 1925 to 
1934, inclusive, was 1,278. (See Table 199.) 

TABLE 199 



White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920 to 1934 







Towson 


















Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 


year 








burg 


bury 


Counties 




Total 


Baltimore 


Counties 












City 










1920 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 : 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


ab49 


a25 


b24 


tl5 


tl9 


t58 


1934 


tl99 


till 


t88 


t45 


t52 


tl85 


Total 1920 to 1934 


*3,506 


*1,278 


*2,228 


*848 


*520 


*3,596 



a Includes 22 who completed the three-year course, 
b Includes 9 who completed the three-year course, 
t Graduates of the three-year course. 

* Excludes duplicates who completed both the two-year and the three-year course. 
% Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course. 



Number of 1934 Graduates Who Secured Positions 

Of the 1934 graduates the number and per cent who had obtained 
positions by February 1935 is summarized in Table 200. 

Compared with other institutions of higher learning, the normal 
schools showed a high percentage of placement in teaching positions 
for the 1934 graduates. Nearly 83 per cent of the county and 76 
per cent of the City graduates of Towson obtained positions. For 
Frostburg and Salisbury, 53 and 58 per cent, respectively, secured 



Graduates of Normal Schools and Their Placement in Positions 265 



appointments as teachers in Maryland schools. Of those who were 
not placed, 6 and 12, respectively, returned to Towson and Frost- 
burg for the fourth year of work. (See Table 200.) 

TABLE 200 

Number and Per Cent of 1934 White Normal School Graduates Who Obtained 
Teaching Positions in Maryland 



Teaching Returned Not 

in for Teaching 

School Maryland Fourth Year 

No. Per No. Per No. Per 

Cent Cent Cent 

Towson 

County 72 82.8 5 5.7 10 11.5 

City 85 75.9 1 .9 26 23.2 

Frostburg - 24 53.3 12 26.7 9 20.0 

Salisbury 30 57.7 22 42.3 



Total ... 211 71.3 18 6.1 67 22.6 



The counties and types of schools in which graduates of the three 
normal schools secured positions are shown in Table 201. The re- 
duction in the number of one-teacher schools in the counties is re- 
vealed in the proportion of placements in these schools compared with 
graded schools. At Towson 18 per cent of those placed took positions 
in one-teacher schools whereas 71 per cent went into schools having 
three or more teachers. At Salisbury the corresponding percentages 
were 33 and 54. At Frostburg which serves Garrett and Washington 
which still have a large number of one-teacher schools and Allegany 
which has a policy of appointing all inexperienced teachers in the 
one-teacher schools, 67 per cent went into one-teacher schools and 
29 per cent into graded schools. For the three normal schools, the 
one-teacher schools employed 31 per cent and the graded schools 
59 per cent. 

The Towson graduates received placements in Queen Anne's and 
in every county on the western shore — except Garrett and St. Mary's. 
Frostburg graduates were placed in Allegany, Garrett, Washington, 
Carroll and Prince George's. Salisbury graduates were appointed 
in all counties except the three at the extreme western part of the 
State, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Howard and Queen Anne's. (See 
Table 201.) 

Baltimore, Prince George's, Washington and Harford employed 
the largest numbers of normal school graduates. Five Eastern Shore 
counties and St. Mary's each employed only 1 graduate in 1934-35. 
(See Table 201.) 

Of 88 county graduates from Towson in 1934, 62 or 71 per cent, 
received positions in their home counties. At Frostburg, 16 or 36 
per cent of the 45 graduates secured positions in their home counties, 
while this was the case for 21 or 41 per cent of the Salisbury graduates. 
In the three schools as a group 54 per cent of the county graduates re- 
turned to teaching positions in their home counties. (See Table 202.) 



266 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 201 

Distribution of 1934 Normal School Graduates by Coumy Placement 
and Type of School 





TOWSON 


FROST- 
BURG 


SALISBURY 


GRAND 
TOTAL 


y^KJ UIN 1 X 


[ One-Teacher 


j Two-Teacher 


1 Graded 


Total 


One-Teacher 


1 Two-Teacher 


1 Graded 


1 Total 1 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


Total 1 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 




13 


8 


51 


72 


16 


1 


7 


24 


10 


4 


16 


30 


39 


13 


74 








al5 






b21 




22 




1 






1 


7 






7 








8 






Anne AnindGl 






5 


5 




















5 




1 


1 


17 


19 


















1 


1 


17 
















1 


1 




2 






Car roll 


1 




2 


3 




1 


1 


2 


1 




2 


3 


2 


1 


5 


CeciL 


















1 




1 




1 




Charlp«5 




1 


3 


4 












2 


2 




1 


5 




















1 






1 


1 








1 




4 


5 












3 


3 


1 




7 












3 




1 


4 










3 




1 




2 


2 


4 


8 










1 




1 


2 


3 


2 


5 




1 


1 




2 
















1 


1 






















3 






3 


3 












3 


3 












1 
2 


1 






4 




1 




8 


9 






4 


5 




1 


3 


2 


1 


14 




2 






2 


















2 




St. Mary's 


















1 






1 


1 
























1 




1 




1 






















1 




1 

8 






Washington 


3 


2 


3 


8 


' 5 




1 


6 








2 


4 




















1 




*4 


*5 


1 






Worcester 




















1 


1 






Private Schools 




1 


2 


3 
















1 


2 


Baltimore City: 

Teaching 




85 


85 






















85 


Not Teaching 








a27 






















Entire State: 

Teaching 


18 


8 


136 


157 


16 


1 


7 


24 


10 


4 


16 


30 


39 


13 


159 










a42 






b21 




22 





































126 
58 

R 

5 
19 
2 
8 
1 
6 
1 
8 
4 
10 
2 
3 
4 
17 
2 
1 
1 
1 
14 
*5 
1 



85 
a27 



211 
b85 



* Includes one teaching in high school. 

a Includes five county graduates and one city student who returned for fourth year of course, 
b Includes 12 graduates who returned for fourth year of course. 



The counties which needed more normal school graudates than 
these from their own county were Prince George's, Carroll, Charles, 
Kent, Montgomery and Washington. (See Table 202.) 

Baltimore City employed 76 per cent of its own graduates and 1 
county graduate. (See Table 202.) 

Normal School Enrollment 

In the fall of 1934, the total enrollment at the three State normal 
schools, including 425 from the counties, was lower than it had been 
at any time since 1920. At Towson, the City enrollment of 178 was 
the lowest on record and the county enrollment of 193 exceeded 
the enrollment of 1920 only. At Frostburg, the enrollment of 124 



Placement of Normal School Graduates in Teaching Positions 267 



0) o 



1 I 



ill! :c0&)ao 



i > I 



• i 



ii 



total 


rned 
ich in 

nne 
nty 


Per 
Cent 




53.8 


25.8 
71.4 
65.6 


;oo.-<o©oooooooooeot>oo« 
iooa500o©oooooooi"«ooo-«j' 

:00 O X irt O irt O O O C O ^ O U5 1-1 


75.0 


61.8 




3 S b 3 


No. 




a> 


00U3 ^ 
* 






00 




moj; auiaio^ 


s 


00 






<o 



-I 

op 



E 

O to 



a 

ills 



UIOJJ SUIUIOQ 



13 cO c 



T3— . 



X;ano3 qoBg 
raojj auiuio^ 



^ 1 



e 

-o — 

Esse 
3 S o 3 



mojj Uuiuio^ 



o -"f ;o 

o ^'u3 

o <o 



r 



a ct V 



O C 9] 

, : . ; : p a; c- ^ 



I 
t 
I 

d 

o 

o 



a) « 
o 73 

H ? 



268 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



was exceeded from 1922 to 1930, inclusive, and also in 1932. At 
Salisbury the fall 1934 enrollment of 108 was only lower in 1925 
and 1932. (See Tabic 203 and ChartZ^.) 



TABLE 203 
Enrollment ai State Normal Schools 



Fall 




Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


of 


City 


County 




County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 



The small total enrollment in the fall of 1934 is the cumulative 
result of the decrease in size of the freshman classes since the fall of 
1932, partly because a smaller proportion of graduates received 
teaching positions as a result of retrenchment policies due to reduced 
school budgets in City and counties, and partly because of the in- 
crease of tuition and residence fees which went into effect in the fall 
of 1933, after the serious cuts in the State school budget. The 
freshman class entering e?ch normal school in the fall of 1934, how- 
ever, showed an increase over the very small entering class of 1933. 
This increase was undoubtedly due to the fact that most graduates 
of 1933 and a large proportion of those of 1934 received appoint- 
ments. See also pages 89 and 90. 

The Freshman enrollment was probably affected also by the 
federal aid first made available in April 1934 through the college 
student aid program of the Emergency Relief Administration. Each 
normal school could expect to receive a fund which permitted a pay- 
ment of $15 per month per student to 12 per cent of the enrollment for 
the preceding year for work to be done in connection with the school 
or tne community. The three normal schools for white students 
received $10,226.28 from September 1934 to May 1935 inclusive. 
During the nine months, the average number receiving aid was 68 
at Towson, 15 at Frostburg, and 44 at Salisbury. The average 
amount received per student by the average number aided was $100 
at Towson, $113 at Frostburg, and $38.50 at Salisbury. 



Normal School Total Enrollment and by Classes 



269 



It is interesting to find an increased enrollment even though the 
county freshmen entering in 1934 were required to enroll for a four- 
year course. A three-year course had been required of the freshmen 
entering in 1931, 1932 and 1933. (See Table 204.) 

TABLE 204 

Distribution of Normal School Enrollment by Classes Fall of 1934 
Towson Frost- Sails- Total 



Class City County burg bury County State 

Freshmen 72 55 39 55 149 221 

Juniors 24 45 25 22 92 116 

Seniors 3-year a79 a84 b46 c5 135 214 

Seniors 4-year* 4 8 14 26 48 52 

Total Enrollment 179 192 124 108 424 603 

Resident students 4 109 54 44 207 211 

Day Students 175 83 70 64 217 392 

Elementary School 30 223 200 132 555 585 



* Three year graduates who have returned for fourth year, 
a Includes 7 City and 2 County two-year graduates, 
b Includes 3 two-year graduates. 

c Includes 3 two-year Salisbury graduates and 2 from other schools. 

As a result of the organization of the four-year course ChapteiL554 
of the laws of 1935 was enacted changing the name of a StafeNor- 
mal School offering a four-year course to State Teachers College, 
and changiilg~TTie title of tlie principal of such an institution to 
president by amending Section 236 of Article 77, the State School 
Law. 

It will be noted that no sophomore class was enrolled in the fall 
of 1934 and, as a result of the limited numbers who entered as fresh- 
men in the fall of 1933, the junior class was very small. There were 
two groups of seniors, those who enrolled in the fall of 1932 and were 
completing the three year course, and a small number of the 1934 
three-year graduates, who did not secure positions, who returned for 
the fourth year of work organized specifically for their benefit. (See 
Table 204.) 

The distribution of enrollment by normal school, class, and county 
is shown in Table 205. Calvert and Kent had no seniors enrolled in 
the fall of 1934. Anne Arundel, Howard, and Queen Anne's had no 
juniors enrolled. Since there were no sophomores enrolled, there 
will be no graduates or only a very limited number in 1937. Caroline, 
Kent and St. Mary's had no freshmen enrolled in the fall of 1934. 
(See Table 205 and Chart 35.) 

Baltimore City will have a very small number graduating in 1936 
as only 25 were enrolled in the junior class. The freshman class of 
72 which will graduate in 1937 will net supply the 100 graduates 
who Dr. Weglein reports are needed normally to fill vacancies and 
take care of new positions in the City. These figures indicate that 



270 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



00 «o 

IM 



; <-H N .-H IM 00 



w © 

B 
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moj^ I o 



uauio^ eo 



uauiOTV^ 



11 



uauio^y^ CO 



«£> 1-1 N N lO 



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uatuo^ 



uaj^ 



uauio^ Tf 



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5 rt Sx: o £ rt rt o a; o-d § rtj^jTjO 15 



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272 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



normal school entrants from Baltimore City who graduate and pass 
the professional examinations are practically certain of securing 
positions and suggest that vocational counsellors will find it advisable 
to direct into the elementary school field many of those high school 
graduates who are interested in preparing for teaching. (See Table 
205 and Chart^b.) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Normal Schools Fall of 1934 

A survey of the high school preparation of the freshmen who en- 
tered normal schools in the fall of 1934 indicates that from 86 to 89 
per cent cf these who entered Towson and Salisbury had taken the 
academic or college preparatory course. At Frostburg just under 80 
per cent had taken the academic course in high school. The general 
course was taken by four per cent cf the City and 9 per cent of the 
county freshmen at Towson, by 15 per cent at Frostburg, and by 6 
per cent at Sahsbury. (See Ta ble 206.) 

TABLE 2C6 
1934 Normal School Entrants 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep. 
General... 


86.1 
4.2 
8.3 

1.4 


87.3 
9.1 
1.8 

1.8 


79.5 
15.4 
5.1 


89.1 
5.5 
3.6 

1.8 


Commercial 
Technical.Voca- 
tional, 

Unclassified... 
Total 




72 


55 


39 


55 







Per Cent from Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Third of 










Class 


Towson 












Frost- 


Salis- 








burg 


bury 




City 


County 






Upper 

Middle 

Lower 

Unclassified. 


86.1 
12.5 
1.4 


56.4 
34.5 
9.1 


53.8 
30.8 
12.8 
2.6 


43.6 
40.0 
14.6 
1.8 


Total 






72 


55 


39 


55 



At Towson, 86 per cent of the City and 56 per cent of the county 
freshmen came from the upper third of their high school classes. 
At Frostburg and Salisbury the corresponding figures were 54 and 44, 
respectively. The lower third of their high school classes were 
represented by 1 per cent of the City and 9 per cent of the county 
freshmen at Towson, 13 per cent at Frostburg, and 15 per cent at 
Salisbury. Compared with the preceding year, these figures showed 
an increase in the per cent from the lower third of the class and a 
decrease in the per cent from the upper third, except for Frostburg, 
which showed a gain of nearly 8 per cent in the freshmen from the 
upper third of their high school class. (See Table 206.) 

Among 30 teacher-training institutions in 22 states which gave the 
same 1934 Psychological Examination to its Freshmen, the Mary- 
land State Normal School at Towson ranked second and Frostburg 
ranked twenty- third.* 



=^ See the Educational Record, April, 1935. 



Status of Normal School Freshmen; Withdrawals; Faculty 273 



Withdrawals of Freshmen Who Entered in September, 1933 
The freshmen classes which entered the normal schc ols in Septem- 
ber, 1933, were unusually small. Except for Salisbury, the number 
and per cent which withdrew were smaller than in previous years. 



TABLE 207 

Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1933, Who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily Before September, 1934 





Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 




City 


County 


burg 


bury 


Freshman Enrollment, Sept. 1933.... 


28 


48 


26 


33 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer 










and Death 


1 


1 






Withdrawals by Request. 


2 


4 


2 




Voluntary Withdrawals 


1 




1 


11 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request .... 


7.4 


8.5 


7.7 




Per Cent of Voluntary Withdrawals 


3.7 




3.8 


33.3 


Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 


11.1 


8.5 


11.5 


33.3 



Two City and 4 county freshmen at Towson and 2 at Frostburg 
who entered in the fall of 1933 were asked to withdraw. There were 
also voluntary withdrawals cf one City student at Towson, of one at 
Frostburg, and of 11 at Salisbury, who had entered as freshmen in 
the fall of 1933. The withdrawals represented -11 per cent of the 
City and 8.5 per cent of the County freshmen enrollment at Tow- 
son, of 11.5 per cent at Frostburg, but of 33.3 per cent at Salisbury. 
(See Tabte 207.) 

Faculty at the Normal Schools 

The chief change in the faculty at the Salisbury Normal School 
occurred through the resignation of the principal. Dr. William J. 
Hollo way, in the fall of 1934. His work was taken over by Mr. 
T. J. Caruthers, who was not only acting principal but continued as 
normal school instructor and principal of the elementary school. 
The death cf Dr. Edna Marshall in the spring of 1933 was an irrepar- 
able less to the Salisbury Normal School which was inadvertently 
not mentioned in the 1933 annual report. A part-time instructor in 
physical education for men was added to the staff at Salisbury. An 
instructor of English with two assistants ran the library and a 
stenographer was added to assist the registrar ana acting principal. 
(See Table 208.) 

At Towson the chief changes between October, 1933 and 1934, 
occurred in the reduction of county and City training centers by 3 
and 6, respectively, making ^he number 11 and 18. The office staff 
was reduced by a half-time assistant. (See Table 208.) 



274 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



At Frostburg the plan put in effect after the drastic budget cuts of 
having several instructors take leave of absence for a semester in 
1933-34 was discontinued because full-time service was necessary 
to carry the schedule. The office staff was reduced by a half-time 
assistant. (See Table 208.) 

TABLE 2C8 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1934 

Position Towson Frostburg Salisbury Total 

Principal 1 l b b2 

Instructors 26 8 bc8 bce42 

Library 4 2 c3 c9 

Campus Elementary School 9 6 bd4 bdl9 

Training Centers: 

County 11 1 5 17 

Baltimore City 18 18 

Office Staff a7 1.5 2 10.5 

Dormitory Staff 4 2 el e7 

a Two who work half-time are counted as one full-time member of the staff. 

b Acting principal who is a normal school instructor and principal of the elementary school is in- 
cluded only among instructors at Salisbury. 

c The librarian who is also instructor in English is excluded from instructors and included under 
library at Salisbury. 

d Includes as instructor in the campus school one who teaches physical education to men in the nor- 
mal school. 

e Social director also teaches home economics, but is not included among the instructors. 

Due to the reduced enrollment and the changes in requirements 
of the rearranged courses, Towson gave up its two-teacher training 
center in Harford County and one of its centers in Baltimore County. 
This left all of its county training work with 11 teachers in 5 schools 
of Baltimore County; The City work was done with 18 teachers in 9 
schools. The campus school continued with a principal and 8 
teachers. 

Frostburg had one training center in a one-teacher school in Alle- 
gany Coimty and six teachers in the campus elementary school. 

Salisbury continued 4 training centers in Wicomico County and 
one in Somerset County, and 4 teachers in the campus elementary 
school. (See Table 209.) 

TABLE 209 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1934 



Normal School at 
Towson 



Frostburg. 



Salisbury. 



County Cooperating 

.Baltimore County 

Baltimore City 

Campus School 

.Allegany County 

Campus School 

.Wicomico 

Somerset 

Campus 



Number of 
Schools 

5 
9 
1 

1 
1 

4 
1 
1 



Number of 
Teachers 

11 
18 
8 

1 

6 

4 
1 
4 



Normal School Faculty; Costs, Total and Per Student 275 



Total and Student Corts at the Normal Schools 

Because of the two factors, drastic budget cuts involving de- 
creases in salary, staff, and all other costs, and decreased enrollment, 
especially at Towson, current expenditures at the normal schools 
in 1933-34 were considerably below amounts spent for a number of 
years preceding. At Towson, $51,000 less, at Frostburg, $10,000 
less, and at Salisbury, $5,000 less was expended than for the preced- 
ing year. The current expenses in 1933-34 at Towson totaled 
$210,000, at Frostburg, $61,000, and at Salisbury $66,000. (See 
Table 210.) 

To meet the reduction in State budget appropriations it was 
necessary in the fall of 1933 to increase tuition and residence fees to 
students. Tuition fees per student were increased from $20 to $100 
and residence fees from $180 to $216. This explains the increase in 
receipts from fees over the preceding year. In 1933-34 Towson's 
fees totaled $79,000 compared with $42,000 the year preceding, 
Frostburg's increased from $9,000 to $21,500, while at Salisbury, fees 
grew from $12,500 in 1932-33 to nearly $24,000 the following year. 
(See Table 210.) 

State appropriations for current expenses dropped at Towson 40 
per cent from $219,500 in 1933 to $131,000 in 1924. At Frostburg 
the reduction was 35.5 per cent from $62,000 in 1933 to nearly $40,000 
in 1934, while at SaUsbury the decrease was 29 per cent from $59,000 
to nearly $42,500. {See Table 210.) 

The average number of normal school students at Towson dropped 
from 503 in 1932-33 to 450 in 1933-34, the resident students showing 
a reduction of 21 to 162. At Frostburg the total student body de- 
creased by 6, but the resident group increased by this number. At 
Salisbury the total number of normal school students increased by 
16 and the resident group by 11. (See Ta ble 210.) 

Leaving out of consideration the training school enrollment who 
represented 35 per cent of the combined normal and elementary 
school enrollment at Towson, 63 per cent at Frostburg, and 59 per 
cent at Salisbury, the total cost of instructing a normal school 
student at Towson was $331, at Frostburg $398, and at Salisbury 
$375. The total cost of boarding a student at Towson was $378, at 
Frostburg $278, and at Salisbury $289. This made the total cost of 
instruction and dormitory for a resident student $709 at Towson, 
$676 at Frostburg, and $664 at Salisbury. (See Table 210.) 

Fees paid for tuition averaged $100 at Towson, $99 at Frostburg, 
and $79 at Salisbury, the latter amount being low because some fees 
remained unpaid. Toward dormitory expenses, the average payment 
per student was $210 at Towson, $181 at Frostburg, and $183 at 
Salisbury. (See Table 210.) 

This left the cost to the State for instructing a student $231 
at Towson, $299 at Frostburg, and $294 at Salisbury. It must be 
remembered, however, that the total costs of instruction for the large 
numbers of children in the elementary training schools are charged 



276 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Normal School Costs, Total and Per Student; Inventories 277 

against the normal school students. If these elementary children 
were in county schools, they would be a direct cost to the State in 
the Equalization fund in Wicomico County and possibly in Allegany. 

The cost to the State for tyoardlng a resident student was nearly 
$168 at Towson, $97 at Frostburg and $106 at Salisbury, making the 
cost to the state of Instructing and housing a resident student 
practically the same at the three schools, $398 at Towson, $396 at 
Frostburg, and $400 at Salisbury. The high cost per student resident 
in the dormitory at Towson compared with the other two schools 
offset the low cost of instruction there compared with Frostburg and 
Salisbury. 

The 1934 cost to the State per normal school student was con- 
siderably lower at all the schools than for some years past. At Tow- 
son costs per student to the State were at their peak in 1933, while at 
Frostburg, 1932 showed the highest student costs to the State, and 
Salisbury had highest instruction costs per student to the State in 

1932 and highest dormitory costs per student to the State in 1933. 

Inventories of ^he Normal Schools 

The inventories at Towson and Frostburg Normal Schools showed 
increases from 1933 to 1934 of $15,734 and $9,659, respectively, the 
increases at Towson appearing in buildings and equipment and at 
Frostburg almost entirely in land. Since the figures for Salisbury re- 
ported in previous years were incorrect, the inventory as corrected by 
the State auditor is included for September, 1934. The cost of the 
building at SaHsbury totaled just under $700,000, approximately 
$118,000 less than the amount reported for 1933. On the other hand, 
the cost of equipment, nearly $81,000 reported for 1934, was ap- 
proximately $32,000 more than the inventory figures given in the 

1933 report. (See Table 211.) 

TABLE 211 

Inventories of the Norma! Schools, September, 1934 



Towson Frostburg Salisbury- 
Land and Improvements $112,492 $33,338 $17,516 

Buildings 1,156,500 354,718 699,082 

Equipment 203,674 22,541 80,896 

Livestock 815 



Total $1,473,481 $410,597 $797,494 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The value and importance of the Teachers' Retirement System 
to the school children of Maryland in making it possible to retire 
teachers too old and sick to give the type of efficient service demanded 
is inestimable. The satisfactory attitude in the classroom which is 
found when teachers are not harassed and worried about their future 
security certainly makes for an environment in which children can 
benefit from the instruction offered. 



278 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its seventh year of 
operation received contributions from county teachers to the amount 
of $245,583, a decrease of $27,133 under the amount contributed 
during 1932-33, the reduction being explained chiefly by decreases in 
salaries. In October, 1934, 4,824 county teachers, 94.5 per cent of 
the entire teaching staff, were active members of the system. (See 
Table 212.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in the 
Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 86.7 per 
cent in Wicomico, to 100 per cent in Kent. Twelve counties had over 
95 per cent of their teachers enrolled in the Retirement System. 
Contributions from 180 members in the State Department of Educa- 
tion, the Normal Schools, and the four State schools for handicapped 
and delinquent children iDrought the total contributions for 1933-34 
to $262,225. {^ee Table 212.) 

During 1933-34, in addition to annuity payments of $6,909 from 
their own contributions, over $143,000 was paid in the form of 
pensions from State funds to members retired with credit for service 
rendered prior to August 1, 1927. On July 31, 1934, there were 258 
members receiving this form of allowance, of whom 210 had been 
retired because they were at least 60 years of age, and 48 had been 
retired on account of disability. Further payments of $74,583 were 
made to teachers retired in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 
447 of the Laws of 1920 on an annual pension of $400. At the end of 
the year 1933-34, there were 178 former teachers receiving the $400 
pension. 

The Retirement System during 1933-34 paid $15,835 for ordinary 
death benefits upon the deaths of members in active service, and 
returned to the beneficiaries or estates of deceased members ac- 
cumulated contributions amounting to $11,884. Benefits paid under 
the optional forms of retirement allowances totaled $10,339 provided 
by State funds and $647 provided by the retired teachers. Teachers 
who resigned from active service and terminated their membership 
in the system withdrew $54,748, which amount covered their con- 
tributions with accrued interest thereon. 

During the year 1933-34, the Board of Trustees increased the 
value of its investments for the Retirement System by $923,328. 
The total holdings in securities on July 31, 1934, had a par value of 
$2,942,000. An appraisal of the securities of the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System made by the State Auditor through the cooperation of 
Theodore Gould and Company showed that the bonds held on 
July 31, 1934, had a market value of $3,106,435. The amortized 
book value of these holdings was $2,986,666. The Board of Trustees 
considers the soundness of the investments indicated by this ap- 
praisal exceedingly gratifying. 



Maryland Teachers' Retirement System 



279 



TABLE 212 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1934, Number 
and Per Cent of October, 1934. County Teaching Staff Who are Members in 

Active Service 



Members 

Amount Contrib- in Active Service 
COUNTY OR INSTITUTION uted Year Ending October, 1934 

July 31, 1934 Number Per Cent 

County: 



Allegany 


$ 


27,181.46 


456 


97.9 


Anne Arundel 




14,263.93 


293 


90.2 


Baltimore 




35,859.16 


524 


92.7 


Calvert 




2,288.49 


59 


96.7 






^ ^IR 1 9 
0,0 ( D. 




y4.o 


Carroll 




10,545.82 


235 


97.9 


Cecil 




8,279.58 


153 


96.8 


Charles 




4,363.25 


108 


95.6 


Dorchester 




7,255.38 


176 


96.2 


Frederick 




15,218.37 


309 


96.6 


Garrett 




7,485.16 


146 


94.2 


Harford 




9,901.41 


199 


92.1 


Howard 




4,351.69 


97 


93.3 


Kent 




4,828.53 


100 


100.0 


Montgomery 




18,940.16 


357 


96.7 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 




18,229.27 


389 


97.5 




4,398.65 


88 
83 


94.6 


St. Mary's 




2,986.99 


95.4 


Somerset 




6,315.39 


152 


98.7 


Talbot 




4,906.49 


114 


91.9 


Washington 




19,190.46 


ob / 


89.3 


Wicomico 




7,724.81 


170 


86.7 


Worcester 




5,492.21 




92.1 


Total Counties 


$245,582.78 


4,824 


94.5 


Normal School: 










Towson 


$ 


5,154.48 


44 




Frostburg 




1,318.55 


16 




Salisbury 




1,202.01 


17 




Bowie... 




747.41 


13 




Department: 










State Department of Education 


$ 


2,908.39 


23 




Md. Public Library Advisory Commission 
Md. Teachers' Retirement System 




306.40 


2 






195.11 


3 




Other Schools: 










Md. Training School for Boys 


$ 


1,780.70 


22 




Montrose School for Girls 




451.44 


5 




Rosewood State Training School 




739.93 


10 




Md. School for the Deaf 




1,838.24 


25 




Total Schools and Departments. 




$16,642.66 


180 




Grand Total 


$262,225.44 


5,004 





State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $76,838 for 1934, in addition to the 
proceeds of a State bond issue of $380,000*, covered the normal 
contribution and the accrued liability contribution of the State of 



♦ See Sectien 6 of Chapter 311 of the lawi of 1933. 



280 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Maryland on account of the county members of the Maryland State 
Teachers' Retirement System. The bonds have been received, but the 
appropriation of $76,838 for 1934 and of $229,529.50 for 1933 is 
still due and to be paid. The law provides that the State shall con- 
tribute to the City of Baltimore an amount equal to what would be 
required if the teachers of Baltimore City were members of the Mary- 
land Teachers' Retirement System instead of belonging to the Re- 
tirement System available to all employees of the City of Baltimore. 
This amount was $472,550 for 1934. In addition, an appropriation of 
$10,000 was made to meet the expenses of administration of the State 
Retirement System. 

The total State appropriation for the Teachers' Retirement 
System for 1935 is $991,901, which includes $350,000 to be obtained 
from an issue of State bonds.f This amount takes care of $483,956, 
as the State's share towards the Baltimore City Retirement System. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent the 
Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physiciars at the normal 
schools give a thorough physical examination to all graduates who are 
planning to take positions in the Maryland counties. All entrants 
into the service who have not had such examinations are required 
to visit the physician in each county appointed to examine such 
teachers. The State Department of Education bears the expense of 
such examination. Reports of these examinations are forwarded to 
the Medical Board of the Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates 
are issued only to those teachers, reports of whose physical examina- 
tion are approved by the Medical Board. The number examined, 
accepted, and rejected during the four years the regulation has been 
in force are shown in Table 198, page 263. 

Inventory of Value of Equipment 

The equipment in the office of the State Teachers' Retirement 
System was valued at $2,997.50 as of September 30, 1934, and the 
corresponding figure for the State Department of Education was 
$15,594.41. 



t See Chapter 89 of the laws of 1935. 



Teachers' Retirement System: Financial Statement 281 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1934 



Account 


State 
Appropriation 


Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid, and 
by Budget 
Amendment 


Withdrawals 
by Budget 

or Returned 

LO oldie 

Treasury 


Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 


Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Towson 
Maryland State Nor- 

IIld-10LIlUUl,o<illoU Ui y 

Maryland State Nor- 
rn<iiocriooi,r robLDur^ 

Maryland State Nor- 
mal School, Bowie .. 

State Department of 
Education 


$138,558.00 

00,10<i<.V/v 

33,212.00 
25,674.00 
51,668.00 
10,000.00 
fi 000 00 


$84,152.68 

91 fiQ 
^l,OiO.Do 

12,395.65 
155.43 

0,«JO 1 .-iO 


$727.19 
1.03 


$221,983.49 

59,447.97 

54,727.63 

38,069.65 

49,697.92 

13,138.17 

4,283.66 

18,000.00 
15,914.40 

17,194.29 

876.25 
750.00 

1,616.50 

522,515.55 

152,624.80 

Ck^ AAA A A 

2 ( ,000.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
308,786.00 

10,000.00 




2,125.51 
429.28 
1,716.34 


Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 


Physical and Health 

T^!Hn PQf inn 


15,000.00 
9,000.00 

10,000.00 

OUU.UU 


Q 000 00 


Vocational Education 
Vocational 

rveriaiJiiitfition 

Exoenses of State 

Board of Education 
v^unsuiLanL /vrcniieci 
Medical Examination 

oi 1 eacners 


6,914.40 




1 ^7 
J .o / 

123.75 




QQQ cn 
ooo.oyj 

5,067.45 


State Aid to Approved 
High Schools. 


527,583.00 

152,624.80 
28,500.00 




1 dii X ayment oi oai- 
dries OI ocnooi 
Officials 




oLate /Via to i^oiorea 
Industrial Schools ... 
Free Textbooks 




1,500.00 


200,000.00 




Materials of 

Instruction.- 


50,000.00 






Fund distributed on 
basis of Census and 
Attendance 


i,oUU,UUU.UU 






Equalization Fund 


308,786.00 






State Aid for Handi- 
capped Children 


10,000.00 






Totals 








$3,415,337.50 
76,838.00 


$163,363.90 


$12,075.42 


$3,566,626.28 
* 

472,550.00 
10,000.00 


Teachers' Retirement 
System : 

County Teachers 


Baltimore City 
Teachers 


472,550.00 






Expense Fund 


10,000.00 






Totals ._ 






$3,974,725.80 


$163,363.90 


$12,075.42 


$4,049,176.28* 





* Excludes $76,838.00 still due and to be paid. 



282 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements, Normal Schools and State Department 



283 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1934 



Receipts 



Purpose 


State 
Appropriations 


Other 
Receipts 


Total 
Receipts 


Vocational Education 


$9,000.00 
15,000.00 
10,000.00 
6,000.00 
750.00 
800.00 
2,000.00 
10,000.00 


a$6,914.40 
3,000.00 
3,567.45 


$15,914.40 
18,000.00 
13,567.45 
6,000.00 
750.00 
1,000.00 
2,000.00 
17,195.66 
4,649.73 
200.00 


Physical and Health Education 

Educational Measurements 

Publications and Printing 


Consultant Architect 




State Board of Education 

Medical Examination of Teachers 


200.00 


Vocational Rehabilitation 


b7,195.66 
c4,649.73 
d200.00 


Supervision of Colored Schools 


Julius Rosenwald Fund 









Expenditures 



Purpose 


Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to Treasury 


Total 
Disburse- 
ments 


Vocational Education 


$12,471.10 
7,923.91 
5,972.00 

750.00 


$2,654.21 
2,290.02 
2.75 


$789.09 




$15,914.40 
18,000.00 
13,567.45 
6,000.00 
750.00 
1,000.00 

2,000.00 
17,195.66 

4,649.73 
200.00 


Physical and Health Ed. 


7,786.07 
7,163.42 
4,283.66 




Educational Measurements .. 
Publications and Printing 
Consultant Architect 


429.28 
1,716.34 


State Board of Education 


876.25 




123.75 

383.50 
1.37 


Medical Examination of 
Teachers 






1,616.50 
8,650.57 


Vocational Rehabilitation 
Supervision of Colored 
Schools 


7,197.13 
3,750.00 


1,346.59 
899.73 


Julius Rosenwald Fund 


200.00 















a From Federal Government. 

b $6,924.07 from Federal Government. 

c From General Education Board. 

d From Julius Rosenwald Fund for library. 



Construction Accounts at Normal Schools 



Balance, October 1, 1933.. 

Disbursements : 

Purchase of Grounds. 

Construction 

Equipment 

Transfer of Interest.... 

Total Disbursements. 

Balance, October 1, 1934 .. 



Towson 
$315.00 



16.62 
298.38 



$315.00 



Frostburg 
$35,865.60 



$11,234.45 

$11,234.45 
$24,631.15 



Salisbury 
$6,141.10 



Bowie 
$2,493.67 



3,700.93 

723.52 

3.04 

$4,424.45 $3.04 

$1,716.65 $2,490.63 



14 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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286 1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE III 

Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30. 1934 



County 


No. 


WHITE 
Enrollment 


No. 


COLORED 




of 




Com- 


of 










Schools 


Elemen- 


mercfal 


Teachers 


No. of 


Enroll- 


No. of 






tary 


and 




Schools 


ment 


Teachers 






Secondary 











t Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1933 



Allegany 


9 


2,279 


435 


78 








Anne Arundel 


1 


320 


10 


1 


87 


2 


Baltimore 


17 


3,096 


178 


100 
3 




Calvert 


1 


25 


5 








Caroline-^ 


1 


23 


9 


7 








Carroll 


2 


215 


47 


9 








Charles 


2 


303 


70 


14 




118 


2 


Frederick.. 


7 


545 


259 


45 


2 


30 


2 


Garrett 


1 


88 




4 








Harford 


1 


113 




4 








Howard. 


3 


265 


8 


10 


1 


26 


1 


Montgomery 


3 


272 


73 


21 








Prince George's 


5 


812 


104 


32 


1 


88 


2 


St. Mary's 


9 


1,072 


106 


43 


2 


258 


7 


Washington 


1 


334 


82 


11 




















Total Counties 


63 


9,762 


1,376 


391 


8 


607 


16 


Baltimore City 


67 


31,387 


3,699 


874 


9 


al,082 


40 


Total State 


130 


41,149 


5,075 


1,265 


17 


al,689 


56 



*Non-Catholic Private Schools 



Anne Arundel 


4 
8 
7 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 


55 
381 
436 
10 
26 
171 
27 
11 
26 


257 
573 
261 


21 
128 
47.2 
1 
2 

31.7 
4 
1 

15.5 








Baltimore 








Cecil 








Garrett ... 








Kent 


1 
88 








Montgomery ... 








Prince George's 








Queen Anne's 










St. Mary's.... 


115 








Somerset 


1 


b8 


2 


Washington 


2 
1 


25 
44 


53 


14 
6 


Wicomico 








Total Counties . 
Baltimore City 

Total State 










32 
16 


1,212 
1,552 


1,348 
684 


271.4 
221.8 


1 
1 


b8 
cl38 


2 
4 


48 


2,764 


2,032 


493.2 


2 


bcl46 


6 



Schools for Exceptional Children' 



Md. School for the Deaf 


159 
62 

284 
84 


31 
12 
34 
26 


19 
16 
7 
7 








Md. School for the Blind 




d68 


10 


Md. Training School for Boys 




Montrose School for Girls 








Md. Training School for Colored 
Girls._ 




73 


3.2 













a Includes 16 high school pupils. c Includes 13 high school pupils, 

b High school pupils. d Includes 41 who are deaf. 

■\ Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools. 



Enrollment in Non-Public Schools 



237 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1934 



County and 
School 



EnrollmeJit Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
men- ond- Full Part 
tary ary Time Time 



White Schools 

Anne Arundel 

Cochran-Bryan 113 

Severn 89 

Holladay 55 

U. S. Naval Acad. 
Prep 



Total. 



55 



Baltimore 

McDonogh 

Hannah More ... 
St. Timothy's .... 
Garrison Forest. 

Greenwood 

Oldfield's 

Robert's Beach . 
Sylvanside 



Total 



Cecil 

Tome Town 

Parish 

Tome Institute 

West Nottingham.. 
Seventh Day 

Adventist 

Blythedale Church 
Reynold's 



Total 



Garrett 

Zion Lutheran 



Kent 

Seventh Day 
Adventist... 



10 



26 



Montgomery 
Washington 

Missionary College 128 
Chevy Chase 

Country 43 

Chevy Chase 

Total 171 



55 
257 



71 16 



17 



5 

3.1 



24.1 



273 


257 


50. 


5 




12 


83 


13 




5 




83 


12 




4 


44 


35 


3. 


.5 


1 


26 


53 


10 




7 




42 


10 




3 


6 


20 


7 






20 




1 






381 


573 


107 




21 


228 


95 


13. 


2 


1 


114 


13 


3 








90 


15 




2 


5 


47 


5 




2 


34 


8 


2 






33 


8 


2 






22 




1 




1 


436 


261 


41. 


2 


6 



2.6 
7.6 



County and 
School 

Queen Anne's 
Seventh Day 
Adventist... 



Enrollment Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
men- ond- Full Part 
tary ary Time Time 



11 



St. Mary's 

Charlotte Hall 



12 72 

St. Mary's Seminary 43 

Mrs. Townshend's. 



14 



6.5 
1 



Total 26 115 



15.5 



Washington 

St. James' 

Seventh Day 
Adventist... 



53 



Total. 



Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's.. 



25 53 



44 



Colored School 

Somerset 

Princess Anne Acad. 8 



Baltimore City White Schools 



Roland Park Country 

Park 

Immanuel Lutheran.... 

Boys' Latin..._ 

GiYls' Latin._ 

St. Paul's for Boys 

Mt. Washington 



Seventh Day 

Adventist 

Miss Crater's Country 

School 

Little School in 

Guilford..._ 

Morven 



Baltimore City Colored School 
Seventh Day 

Adventist 125 13 3 



213 


118 


26 


.8 


208 


88 


16 


3 


248 




16 


6 


114 


130 


24 


2 


163 


76 


19 


12 


121 


63 


24 


6 


118 




3 




46 


68 


12 




33 


59 


10 


6 


44 


36 


8 




76 




9 


1 


39 


36 


4 




50 


10 


3 




33 




3 


2 


33 




3 


2 


13 




1 




1,552 


684 


181 


40.8 



Prince George's 
Avondale Country 



27 



Total State 

White Schools 2,764 2,023 412.8 80. 

Colored Schools 125 21 5 1 



288 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1933 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 
Allegany 

SS. Peter and Paul's, 

Cumberland 511 84 16 

St. Patrick's, Cumberland 400 50 10 
St. Mary's, Cumberland 368 75 12 
St. Peter's, Westernport.. . 233 56 9 

St. Michael's, Frostburg .. 273 7 

La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 93 150 12 

St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage 177 20 5 

St. Joseph's, Midland 137 4 

St. Michael's, Eckhardt.... 87 3 

Total 2,279 435 78 



Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis 320 

St. Mary's, (Colored) 

Annapolis 87 



10 



Baltimore 

St. Mark's, Catonsville 391 9 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 363 6 

St. Michael's, Overlea 368 7 

School of the Immaculate, 

Towson 236 85 10 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton 240 5 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 187 5 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 157 4 

St. Charles', Pikesville 173 6 

St. Stephen's, Bradshaw ... 171 50 6 

St. Clement's, Lansdowne 174 5 

Ascension, Halethorpe 182 5 

St. Clement's, Rosedale. .. 168 4 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 84 5 

St. Joseph's, Texas 85 3 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 15 43 12 

Little Flower, Woodstock 53 4 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon 49 4 

Total _ 8,096 178 100 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 



Solomons 


25 


5 


3 


Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 


23 


9 


7 


Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster ... 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown .. 


172 
43 


47 


7 
2 


Total 


215 


47 


9 


Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata .... 
St. Mary's, Bryantown .... 


207 
96 


45 
25 


7 
7 


Total 


303 


70 


14 



St. Mary's, (Colored) 

Bryantown 118 



Total. 



St. Peter's, (Colored) 
Liberty town 

St. Euphemia's (Colored) 
Emmitsburg 



Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland. 



88 



Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. ... 113 



Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick 153 58 7 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 185 5 

St. Joseph's College High, 

Emmitsburg 148 16 

St. Anthony's, Emmitsburg 116 4 

Visitation, Frederick 30 53 9 

St. Peter's, Libertytown .. 27 3 

St. Francis', Brunswick .... 34 1 



545 259 45 

20 1 

10 1 



Enrollment in Individual Catholic Parochial Schools 



289 



TABLE V— (Continued) 
Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1933 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City... 
St. Augustine's, Elkridge. 
St. Louis', Clarksville 



Total. 



St. Augustine's, (Colored) 
Ellicott City 



Montgomery 

St. Martin's, Gaithersburg 
St. Michael's, Silver Spring 
Georgetown Prep., 

Garrett Park 



Total. 



Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier . 

St. Mildred's, Laurel 

Holy Redeemer, Berwyn 

St. Mary's, Marlboro 

La Salle Hall, Amendale... 

Total 

St. Mary's, (Colored) 

Upper Marlboro 



St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 138 

St. Michael's, Ridge 144 

Little Flower, Great Mills 177 

Holy Angel's, Abell 133 

St. John's, Hollywood 139 

St. Joseph's, Morganza .... 139 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood 79 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck 81 
Leonard Hall, 

Leonardtown 42 

Total 1.072 



115 




4 


102 




3 


48 


8 


3 


265 


8 


10 


26 




1 


139 




4 


133 




5 




73 


12 


272 


73 


21 


386 




9 


126 


25 


7 


175 




5 


125 


17 


6 




62 


5 


812 


104 


32 



106 



43 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- era 
mercial 



St. Mary's — Continued 
St. Peter Clavers, 

(Colored) Ridge 162 

St. Joseph's, (Colored) 

Morganza 96 

Washington 

St. Mary's, Hagerstown 334 



82 



11 



Total County White 

Catholic Schools 9,762 1,376 391 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 607 16 

Baltimore City 

Seton 1,173 43 

Institute of Notre Dame 259 376 28 

Mt. St. Joseph's 39 429 22 

Calvert Hall 426 15 

Loyola 402 21 

Notre Dame of Maryland 138 173 21 

Mt. St. Agnes' 157 127 21 

Calvert Hall 

Country School 15 2 

Visitation 8 2 12 

Total 616 3,108 185 

White Parish Schools 29,829 503 636 

Institutions for White 

Children 942 88 53 

Grand Total 31,387 3,699 874 

St. Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 25 16 5 

Colored Parish Schools 739 13 

Institutions for Colored 

Children 302 J2 

Grand Total 1,066 16 40 

Total State 

White 41,149 5,075 1,265 

Colored 1,673 16 5G 



290 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Average Number Belonging and Attending; Per Cent of Attendance 291 




292 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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294 



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Teaching Positions; Certification, White Elementary Schools 295 

TABLE XI 

White Elementary Teachers Holding Various Grades of Certificates, October, 1954 



WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS HOLDING 
CERTIFICATES OF THE FOLLOWING GRADES 



COUNTY 




Number 


1 


v^riJS 1 
















Elementary 










TT'l ^ 

rjle- 










Principal, 










men~ 


Ad- 








Advanced 










tary 


vanced 


rirst 


ond 


i nird 


First, First 


ond 


TViirrl 
i niru. 






rnn- 


First 








and High 










cipal 










School As<?'t 






Total 


2 741 


205 


41U 


2,071 


A 1 
4i 


14 


J70.U 




• o 


Allegany 


265 


21 


yb 


Ci4 i 


-1 
1 




c99.6 


.4 




Anne 








Arundel.... 


160 


Q 

u 




144 


I 


I 


98.8 


.6 


.6 


XJ<XL\^LIH\JIKZ 


350 




a D4 








Q 1 no n 






Calvert 


20 


2 


18 






100.0 






Caroline 


56 


r 

5 


o 


40 






100.0 






Carroll 


136 


16 


21 


94 


3 


2 


Qfi ^ 


9 9 




Cecil..._ 


90 


5 


***19 


60 


4 


2 


93.4 


4.4 


2.2 






1 


8 


29 


2 




z o.u 






Dorchester 


85 


6 


**8 


69 


2 




97.6 


2.4 




Frederick 


195 


19 


*26 


148 


2 




99.0 


1.0 




Garrett 


111 


5 


17 


89 






100.0 




Harford 


125 


4 


7 


110 


3 


1 


96.8 


2.4 


.8 


Howard 


57 


2 


6 


47 


2 




96.5 


3.5 




Kent 


44 


4 


6 


34 






100.0 






Montgomery 
Prince 


185 


12 


e***16 


155 


2 




e98.9 


1.1 










George's .. 
Queen 


210 


18 


**29 


dl62 




1 


d99.5 




.5 












Anne's 


43 


7 


1 


35 






100.0 






St. Mary's .. 


35 




12 


21 


1 


1 


94.2 


2.9 


2.9 


Somerset 


65 


5 


1 


52 


5 


2 


89.2 


7.7 


3.1 


Talbot 


50 


2 


1 


46 


1 




98.0 


2.0 




Washington 


269 


21 


b**40 


dl99 


6 


3 


bd96.7 


2.2 


1.1 


Wicomico .... 


93 




18 


65 


3 




96.8 


3.2 




Worcester.... 


57 


5 


3 


45 


3 


1 


93.0 


5.3 


1.7 



* Each (*) represents a teacher holding a high school certificate. 

a Includes one holding a certificate in elementary supervision. 

b Includes one holding a high school principals' certificate. 

c Includes one whose first grade certificate is pending on account of Health. 

d Includes one who cannot hold a certificate. 

e Includes one holding a provisional high school certificate. 



296 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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5. ,1, ^ S -r "f^ <i> o rt 



Certification in White Rural Schools and in White High Schools 



29' 



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298 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



53 Efi 



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Certification of Colored Teachers; 



Turnover All Schools 



299 



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300 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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§85 

sis 



r« C'-; bfi bo 

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Average Number Belonging, Average Salary Per Teacher 301 



H 



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C/2 



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1— ' T-^ T-^ CO O 05 05 ' 



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oeooosMOOioocotDrt-HCONcO'—ost-coco^^oeo 

00-Hi-(OJt-mcOCOOOlNt-«DOOOOT}<-HT}<oomOCJeO'H 
^r-iTfO05CT>'--0504OOO05Oi-i--O05OOO©O 



; M c 



cot-iftoo-^o>Tf(Nn<T-ixia5-^;ceocot-^o-«j<cDN(M 

COOT}<COt--<1<00(NtCi-<CO'^OOT}'-HCO'-iOOOb-T}<C^O 
O(NC0O050>O-h05OOOC;ON — 00500500C 



— i-^oc^to — c-^^cOrHt>c^ost-cccitcooeo^5£>^D 
T-t;Dma5-<3«05£i-HrtC-'#cooot--»r^oco-<5'ooo^-<s<t~ 

lft-^;OC0<N(NCOCOCOC0CO-^(MW-VCOT}'--(NC0-«rMiM 



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Oi "3 



X K 

WW 



1934 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Girls 




00 O 00 tC IN 

(M tD CO O lO 
C0_^ lO 

oo"" ^ 


oo CO ^ T-H ^ O »-l 00 r-( -T}* 00 CO T-H ^ 

oo coooO(M Oim-^oi t-(Nt--^ i-iintD 

CO CO CO d CO t— i-H T-^ 1-^ iO T-H 




24.138 

2,702 
1,468 
3,785 
318 

788 


(M i-i 05 00 O 00 irtOm^ OS CO CO CO ^Olrri 
O-'t Ol-^W-^ OU5O00 UO(Mi-HCg TtoocO 
0>rj< OOCOTfO CDIO t> CO tJ< cO lO CO C0__0_-^ 


Boys 


W. 


4,987 

589 
261 
653 
43 

190 




CO 1-1 00 C<i 05 ^ c<J a; ojooio mom 

CO ^ ^ CO t— d d O O 03 CO CO ^ 
.-Hi-H T-4C0.-lC<J .-IrHCO-* ^^^-r^ IM IN —1 




17,328 

2,167 
975 

2,129 
176 

546 


UO t- N CO to ifi TtiOOlOi 00 00 C~ ^ O IfS CO 
t>lrt eOlNlOOO OOOCOOS IN'-^t-m OiOlOl 
U5(N COCO-^CO Tf-^IN'* eOWCO'i* (Nt-03 









• Gold 




CO 
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05 t~ M CO 
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05 


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1,717 
601 

1,937 
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2,372 
2,440 

2.7 

1,238 
1,795 

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Disbursements White Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 



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Disbursements Junior, Junior-Senior; Last Four Years of High School 319 



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$2,220,063.43 

221,195.33 
131,697.73 
268,898.14 
22,117.86 
60,026.63 
136,315.15 
86,037.15 
50,793.67 
71,883.65 
136.514.17 
81,056.68 
92.840.38 
44,525.92 
44.338.44 
133,681.25 
150,625.21 
47,210.07 
27,883.71 
51.684.33 
56,555.15 
152.713.90 
85,658.06 
65,810.86 

1,209.503,97 
3,429,567.40 


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$1,747,065.16 

bl89,384.48 

b99,648.25 
ab217,922.05 
13,347.50 
47,161.52 

101,891.88 
68,478.7S 
33,771.77 
52,929.36 
bl 15.123.68 
54,837.00 
81,510.76 
33.185.01 
32.065.74 
abl 14.689.82: 

118,634.76 
32,442.42 
13,300.68 
40,748.75 
45.276.58 

127.547.12 
61.528.38 
48,638.90 

bl,059,069.04 
2.806,134.20 



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Disbursements Colored Elementary and High Schools 



321 



sasuadxg 


N t>t-ot-oo-*«>xoooc5Mt-.-i<x>a5^N'— c 
as oca5<c<iD'-HcooN05Ti'Troqa5in^a5t>inec a 
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cc NoiNasinaieoxoiMcooocoin-Tc^toooto c 
eo o OS inosi-iaiTrmtDC-t-Tf ec_oo__oo^in to 

.-T i> oT CO oTn -^^ to' to' to" to* Neo-^'-^'c^* «"ec ^ 


245,634.72 


saiouaSy 


$16,870.81 

740.63 

170.16 
1,740.63 
3,035.00 

269.17 
1,195.50 

867.90 
1,637.64 

1 




2,558.44 
2,753.59 
200.00 
1,665.68 




3.24 
33.23 

e34.45 
16,905.26 


Suipnpuj 

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t-' c<i a> N t-' o6 to* d CO* co' Ti< »->' in Tf CO 
t> 00 CO t- o in CO N in oi to 0" 
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38.09 
304.40 
165.03 

5,333.95 
8,711.40 




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$41,736.8r> 
2,581.20, 

5,000.00 
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2,880.00 
4,137.66 
650.00 
650.00 


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$35,455.02 


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Costs, Teachers, Pupils, Courses in Individual High Schools 



323 



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INDEX 



A 

Absence: 

Caus?s of long, 21-22 

Colored schools, 144-147, 160, 291, 322-327 
White elementary schools, 18-22, 26-27, 291 
White hi?h schools, 81-83, 291, 322-327 

Academic course, high schools, 161, 271-272, 
322-327 

Administration and supervision: 
Administranon, 256-261, 309-310 
Attendance officers, 259-261, 310 
General control costs, 213-214, 216-217, 219, 
30P-310 

Superintendents, 3, 256-259, 310 
Supervision, 213-215, 218, 220, 311 
Colored schools, 189, 320 
White elementary schools, 77-79, 314 
White high schools, 108-109, 138-140 



Adult Program, Emergency, 202-204 

Agriculture: 

Cost, 130, 132-133, 220, 222 
Enrollment, 96-97, 100, 102, 133, 328-333 
Failures and v-ithdrawals, 104-106 
Salaries of teachers, 132-133 
Schools having, 96, 108-109, 132, 328-333 
Teachers, 108-109 

Aid, State, Federal and other, 7-13, 208-212 
220-222, 281-283, 307-309, 322-327 
Books and materials, 8, 62, 134, 307 
Census and attendance fund, 8, 281, 307 
Colored schools, 8, 281, 283, 307, 322-327 
Emergency Adult Program, 202-204 
Equalization fund, 8-12, 47, 211-212, 224, 
281, 307 

Federal, 130, 132-133, 210-212, 220-222, 

283, 307, 322-327 
High school, 7-8, 133, 281, 307, 322-327 
Medical examinations, 8, 263, 280, 281, 283 
Normal schools, 8, 12, 191-192, 268, 274-276, 

281-282 

$1,500,000 distributed on census, 8-9, 
210, 307 

Part-payment of salaries, 8, 281, 307 
Physical education, 199, 281, 283 
Retirement system, 8, 280, 281, 307 
Rosenwald fund, 177, 283, 308 
State, 7-12, 133, 208-212, 279, 281, 282, 283, 

307-308, 322-327 
Vocational education, 8, 130, 132-133, 202, 

220-222, 281, 283, 307 
Vocational lehabilitation, 8, 12, 281, 283, 

307 



A — (Continued) 

Appropriations: 

County, 208-212, 242-245, 308 
State, 7-12, 130, 132-133, 208-212, 220-222, 
280, 281-283, 307-308, 322-327 
Public school budget, 7-12, 281-283 

Approved high schools, 118-119, 156-157, 
322-333 

Architect, consultant, 8, 12, 281, 283 

A.rt, enrollment taking, 96, 98, 108-109, 328- 
333 

Assessable basis, 232-234, 245-249 
Federal reports on, 246-247 

Athletics: 

Colored schools, 181-183, 305-306 
Expenditures for, 199-200, 281, 283 
mite schools, 193-200, 302-304 

Attendance : 

Aggregate days of, 292 

By months, 19-20, 82-83, 145 

Cause for failure, 37-39 

Colored schools, 144-147, 160, 291-292, 320, 

321, 322-327 
Elementary schools, white, 18-22, 26-27, 

291-292, 314-317 
High schools, white, 81-83, 291-292, 319, 

322-327 
Index of, 26-27 

Junior high schools, 291-292, 318 

Number in, 80-81, 157, 159, 291, 314-321, 

322-327 
Officers, 259-261, 310 

Per cent of, 18-20, 26-27, 81-83, 144-145, 
160, 291, 322-327 

Summary of, 291-292 

Summer school: 

Colored teachers, 164-165 
White elementary teachers, 48-49 
White high school teachers, 110-111 

Auxiliary agencies, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 213-215, 218, 223-227, 309, 312 
Colored, 176, 320-321 

White elementary, 60, 61, 62-64, 66, 218, 
314-317 

White high, 131, 134-136, 138, 218, 318, 319 
B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners. 
Colored, 181-183, 305 
White, 193-197, 302 



Index 



335 



B — (Continued) 

Baltimore City schools: 
Birth rate, 14, 16, 142 
Budgets, 208-211 

Capital outlay, 61, 72-73, 178, 208-210, 214- 
215, 230-232, 309, 313, 314, 318-321 

Colored, 44-45, 161, 163, 192, 200-201, 320- 
321, 327 

Emergency Adult Program, 202-204 
Enrollment, 14, 16, 29, 80-81, 141, 150, 157, 

159, 285-288, 327 
Evening, 200-201, 312 
Expenditures, 208-211, 309-314, 318-321 
Graduates, 86-87, 89-90, 93, 161 

High schools, 80-87, 89-90, 93, 113, 118-119, 
122, 124-125, 128-129, 131, 144, 156-157, 

160, 161, 170-171, 172, 318, 319, 321, 
327 

Occupations of graduates, 93 
Special classes, 43-45 

Teacher turnover, 50-51, 112-114, 166-167, 
299 

Towson Normal School, 264-274 
Vocational program, 200-201, 221-222 

Belonging, average number, 290, 300 
By months, 19-20, 82-83, 145 
Colored schools, 145, 157, 159, 160, 290, 320- 

321, 322-327 
Elementary schools, white, 19-20, 290, 314- 

317 

High schools, white, 80-81, 82-83, 290, 318, 

319, 322-327 
Per teacher, 300 

Colored, 170-171, 300, 321 
White elementary, 53-55, 300 
White high, 121-122, 300 
Proportion in high school, 83-84, 159-160 
Birth Rate, 14-16, 141-142, 143 
Board of Education, State, 2,5-6 
Bonds: 

Authorized and issued, 1929-1935, 236-237 

Outstanding, 232-236 

State, for Retirement System, 8, 279-280 

Books and instructional materials, 8, 10, 213- 
215, 218, 307, 311 
Colored, 320-321 

White elementary, 60-62, 218, 314-317 
White high, 130-132, 134, 218, 318-319 

Boys to girls: 

Giade enrollment, 27-28, 102-103, 149-151 

Graduates, 30-32, 85-87, 151-152, 160-161, 

162, 322-327 

Non-promotions, 32-36, 103-107, 153-155, 

293 

Ratio in high school, 84-85 



B— fContinued) 

Budgets: 

County, 208-212, 242-245, 308 
Normal school, 8, 12, 275, 276, 281, 282 
Reduction in, 7-12, 208-210, 242-245, 275 
State public school, 7-12 

Buildings: 

Cost, 230-232 

Colored schools, 177-178, 230, 232, 320-321 
White elementary, 61, 72, 230, 232, 314- 
317 

White high, 131, 138-139, 230, 232, 318, 
319 

Emergency repair of, 222-223 
Number of, 284 
Sanitary inspection of, 70-71 
Value of, 177, 179, 237-241 

C 

Capital outlay, total and per pupil, 209-210, 
214-215, 229-232, 242-245, 250-251, 309 
313 

Colored schools, 177-178, 230, 232. 320-321 
White elementary, 61, 72, 230, 232, 314-317 
White high, 131, 138-139, 230, 232, 318, 319 

Causes of : 
Absence, 21-22 

Late entrance, 22-24, 147-148 
Non-promotion, 37-39, 154 
Resignations of teachers, 49, 111-112. 165-166 
Teacher turnover, 49, 111-112, 165-166 
Withdrawals, 24-26, 148-149 

Census and attendance fund, 8, 281, 307 

Certificates, 261-263, 295-298 
Attendance officers, 261 
Elemental y principals, 261 
Medical examinations for, 8, 263, 280 
New regulations re, 262-263 
Number issued, 261-262 
Provisional. 109, 164, 262, 295-298 
Substitutes, 295, 298 
Teachers and principals : 

Colored schools, 163-164, 298 

Non-public schools, 261 

White elementary, 45-47, 261-262, 295-296 

White high, 109, 261-262, 297 

Classes: 

Evening school, 200-202 
Size of, 300 

Colored, 170-171, 300, 321 

White elementary, 53-55, 300 

White high, 121-122, 300 
Special for handicapped, 41-45 

Clerks, 109, 310, 319 



336 



Index 



C— (Continued) 
Clinics, Mental Hygiene, 43-44, 260 

Colleges: 

Attended for summer courses, 48-49, 110- 

111, 164-165 
Graduates entering Maryland colleges, 89-90, 

94-95, 271-272, 322-327 
Per cent of high school graduates entering, 

91-95, 162, 271-272, 322-327 
Teachers', 13, 269 

Training Maryland teachers, 114-115, 166- 
168, 263-267 

Colored schools, 141-192, 298, 305-306, 320-321 
Aid, 7, 281,283,307 
Attendance, 144-147, 160 
Baltimore City, 44-15, 161, 163, 192, 200- 

201, 320-321, 327 
Capital outlay, 177-178, 230, 232, 320-321 
Cost per pupil in, 174-176, 219 
Enrollment in, 141-142, 149-151, 157-159 
Graduates of, 151-152, 160-161, 162 
Health, 183-185 
Late entrants, 147-148 
Legislation re higher education, 162 
Libraries, 176-177 
Men teachers in, 168, 170, 294 
National Negro Health Week, 184 
Non-promotions in, 153-155 
Normal school, 161-162, 189-192, 322-327 
Number enrolled, 141-142, 149-151, 157- 

159, 285, 322-333 
Number of, 156-157, 179-181, 182 
Parent-teacher associations, 185-186 
Physical education, 181-183, 305-306 
Rosenwald Fund, 177, 283, 308 
Session, 142, 144, 292 
Size of, 179-181, 182 
Size of class, 170-171, 300, 321 
Supervision, 189, 320 
Teachers, 294, 298, 320-321, 322-327 

Certification, 163-164, 298 

Experience, 168-169 

Resignations, 165-166 

Salaiies, 158-159, 171-174, 301, 320-321 

Summer school attendance, 164-165 

Training, 163-164, 166-168 

Turnover, 165-167, 299 
Tests, 155-156 

Transportation of pupils, 176, 227-229 
Value of school property, 177, 179, 238-241 
Withdrawals, 148-149 

Commercial subjects: 

Enrollment taking, 96-97, 101-102, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Schools having, 96, 108, 328-333 
Teachers of, 108 



C— (Continued) 

Conferences, programs of: 
Attendance officers, 259-261 
Superintendents, 257-259 
Supervisors, 79, 189, 258 

Consolidation: 

Decrease in number of one-teacher schools, 

74-77, 179-181 
Schools closed, 284 

Transportation of pupils, 63-64, 134-136, 
176, 223-229 

Cost per pupil, 215-220 
Capital outlay 

White elementary, 61, 72 
White high, 131, 138 
Current expenses, 215-220 
Auxiliary Agencies: 

White elementary, 60, 61, 62-64, 66, 218 

White high, 131, 134-136, 138, 218 ' 

Colored, 176 
Books and materials of instruction: 

White elementary, 60-62, 218 

White high, 130-132, 134, 218 
Colored schools, 174-176, 219 
Elementary schools, white, 59-64, 63, 71- 
72, 217-220 

By type, 71-72, 219 
General control, 216-217, 219 
Health activities: 

White elementary, 63, 66 

White high, 135, 138 
High schools, white, 128-132, 134-136, 

138,217-220, 322-327 
Instruction: 

White elementary, 59-62, 217-218, 220 

White high, 130-132, 134, 217-218, 220 
Libraries, 62-64, 135-136 
Maintenance: 

White elementary, 60-62, 218 

White high, 131, 134, 218 
Normal schools: 

Colored, 191-192 

White, 275-277 
Operation: 

White elementary, 60-62, 218 

White high, 131, 134, 218 
Salaries: 

White elementary, 60-62, 217-218 
White high, 130-132, 217-218 

Excluding federal vocational ai.i, 
130, 132 
Supervision, 60-62, 218, 220 
Transported, 224-227 
Colored, 176 
White elementary, 63-64 
White high, 135-136 



Index 



337 



C— (Continued) 

Co&ts (See also expenditures) 208-211, 309-313 
Capital outlay, 72-73, 138, 177-178, 209-210, 
230-232, 242-245, 250-251, 309, 313, 
314-321 

Colored schools, 176, 177-178, 186, 188, 281, 

283, 320-321 
Debt service, 242-245, 250-251, 309-313 
Elementary schools, white, 314-317 
Evening schools, 200-202, 312 
General control, 309-310 
Health, 63, 66, 135, 138, 312 
High schools, white, 127-128, 132-133, 134- 

136, 138, 281, 319 
Instruction, 309, 311, 314-321 
Junior and junior-senior high schools, 318 
Libraries, 63-64, 135-136, 312 
Maintenance, 309, 312, 314-321 
Normal schools, 8, 12, 191-192, 275-277, 281- 

282 

Operation, 309, 311, 314-321 
Supervision, 311, 314, 320 
Total current expenses, 208-212, 309, 314-321 
Transportation, 63-64, 135-136, 176, 223, 
227, 312 

Vocational education, 130, 132-133, 220-222, 
281, 283 

County: 

Assessments, 232-235, 245-249 

Budgets, 7-12, 242-245 

Residents attending adjoining county 

schools, 241-242 
Tax rates, 249-251 

Courses in high school, 161, 322-327 

Court decision, 257-258 

Current expenses, expenditures and cost per 

pupil, 208-220, 309 
Colored schools, 174-176, 320-321 
White elementary schools, 59-64, 66, 71-72, 

21V-220, 314-317 
White high schools, 128-132, 134-136, 138, 

217-220, 318, 319 

C. W. A. Program, 222-223 
D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools: 
Colored, 142, 144 
White, 17 

Days in session, 292 

Colored schools, 142, 144 
White schools, 17-18 

Debt service, 242-245, 250-251, 309, 313 



D— (Continued) 
Decline in birth rate, 11-16, 141-142, 143 

Deciease in school salary budgets, 7-13, 208- 
210, 242-245 

Dental clinics, 69-70 

Disbursements, 208-211, 281-283, 309-321 

Distribution of expenditures, 213-216, 281- 
283, 309-321 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White schools, 314-319 

Division of school dollar, 213-216 
E 

Elementary schools: 
Coloied: 

Attendance, 144-147, 291, 292, 320 
Certification of teachers, 163-164, 298 
Consolidation, 179-181 
Cost per pupil, 174-176, 219 
Enrollment, 141-142, 149-151, 285-289 
Expenditures, 320 
Graduates, 151-152 
Late entrants, 147-148 
Non-promotions, 153-155 
Number belonging, 145, 290, 320 
Number of teachers, 164. 165-167, 172-174, 

179-181, 294, 320 
Salaries, 171-174, 301, 320 
Session in, 142, 144, 292 
Size of class, 170-171, 300 
Tests, 155-156 
Withdrawals, 148-149 
White: 

Attendance, 18-22, 26-27, 291-292, 314-317 
Books and materials, 60-62, 218, 314-317 
Certification of teachers, 45-47, 295-296 
Consolidation, 74-77 

Cost per pupil, 59-64, 66, 71-72, 217-220 

Enrollment, 14, 16, 27-30, 285-289 

Expenditures, 62-64, 66, 72-73, 314-317 

Failures, 32-39, 293 

Graduates, 30-32 

Health program, 63, 66-71 

Late entrants, 22-24, 26-27 

Libraries, 63, 64-66 

Men teachers, 59, 294 

Non-promotions, 32-39, 293 

Number belonging, 19-20, 290, 314-317 

Number of, 72, 74-77, 284 

Pupil-teacher ratio, 53-55, 300 

Session, length of, 17-18 

Size of, 72, 74-77 

Size of cUiss in, 53-55, 300 

Special classes, 41-45 



338 



Index 



E— (Continued) 

Elementary Schools: 
White— (Continued) 
Standard tests, 39-41 
Supervision, 60-62, 77-79, 218, 220, 314 
Teachers: 

Certification, 45-47, 261-262, 295-296 

Experience, 51-53 

Number of, 72, 74-77, 294 

Resignations, 49 

Salaries, 55-58, 301, 314-317 

Sex of, 59, 294 

Summer school attendance, 48-49 

Turnover, 50-51, 299 
Tests, state-wide, 39-41 
Transportation, 63-64, 227-229 
Withdrawals, 24-27 

Emergency Adult Program, 202-204 

English: 

Enrollment taking, 96-97, 102-103, ;328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Schools having, 96, 108, 328-333 
Teachers, 108 

Enrollment, 210, 285-289 

Colored, 141-142, 149-151, 157-159, 285-289, 

322-333 
Course, 161, 322-327 

Elementary, white, 14, 16, 27-30, 285-289 
Grade, 27-30, 149-151, 322-327 
High school, white, 27, 29, 80-81, 82, 95-103, 
126-128, 285-289 

Courses, 322-327 

Subjects, 95-103, 328-333 

Years, 27-30, 102-103, 322-327 
Non-public schools, 16, 81, 142, 286-289 
Normal schools, 189-191, 267-271 
Private and parochial schools, 16, 81, 142, 

286-289 
Public schools, 285 
Subject, 95-103, 328-333 
Summer schools, teachers, 48-49, 110-111, 

164-165 
Total, 285 

Entrants: 

Athletic events: 

Colored, 181-183, 305-306 
White, 193-199, 302-304 
Colored: 

Late, 147-148 

Normal school, 161-162, 322-32-7 
White: 

College and normal school, 89-90, 91-95, 

271-273, 322-327 f 
Late, 22-24, 26-27 

Normal schools, 89-90, 91-93, 271-273, 
322-327 



E — (Continued) 

Equalization Fund, 8-12, 210-212, 281, 307 

Evening schools and courses, 200-202 312 314 
319-321 

Expenditures, 208-211, 309-313 

Auxiliary agencies, 62-64, 66, 134-136, 138 

176, 309, 312, 314-321 
Capital outlay, 72-73, 138-139, 177-178, 209- 
210, 230-232, 242-245, 250-251 ' 309 

313- 321 

Colored schools, 320-321 
Current expenses, 208-211, 309-312, 314-321 
Debt service, 242-245, 250-251, 300, 313 
Distribution of, 213-216, 309-321 
Elementary schools, white, 62-64, 66, 72-73 

314- 317 

Evening schools, 200-202, 312 
Extra-curricular activities, 186, 188, 253 

255-256 
Fixed charges, 309, 312 
General control, 309, 310 
Health, 63, 66, 135, 138, 312 
High school, white, 319 
Instruction, 309, 311, 314-321 
Junior high schools, 318 
Libraries, 63-64, 135-136, 312 
Maintenance, 309, 312, 314-321 
Normal schools, 191-192, 275-277, 281-282 
Operation, 309, 311, 314-321 
Salaries, 55-58, 123-128, 171-174, 310, 311, 

314-321 

State Department of Education, 8, 281-283 
Supervision, 311, 314, 318-320 
Transportation, 63-64, 134-136, 176, 223-225, 
312 

Tuition to adjoining counties, 309, 313 
Vocational work, 130, 132-133, 220-222, 281, 
283 

Experience of teachers, 51-53, 115-117, 168-169 

Extra-curricular activities, financing, 185-188, 
253-256 



F 

Failures: 

Causes, 37-39, 154 
Colored schools, 153-155 
Grade, 34, 36, 153-155, 293 
High school subjects, 103-107 
White elementary schools, 32-39, 293 

Federal aid: 

Adult emergency program, 202-204 
Normal school students, 268 
C. W. A., 222-223 



Index 



339 



F— (Continued) 

Financial statement: 
County, 307-321 
State, 281-283 

Financing extra-curricular activities, 185-188, 
253-256 

Fixed charges, 213-216, 309, 312 
French; 

Enrollment taking, 95-97, 100, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 103-107 
Teachers, 108 

G 

General control, 213-215, 216-217, 219, 309-310 

General course, high school, 161, 322-327 

Grade or year: 
Number enrolled 

Colored schools, 149-151, 322-327 

White schools, 27-30, 102-103, 322-327 
Promotions 

Colored schools, 153-155 

White elementary schools, 34, 36, 293 

Graduates : 
Colored 

Elementary school, 151-152 
Entering normal school, 161-162, 322-327 
High school, 160-162, 322-327 
Normal school, 190 
Occupations of high school, 162 
White 

Elementary school, 30-32 

Entering normal school, 89-90, 91-95, 271- 

272. 322-327 
High school, 85-95, 322-327 
Normal school, 263-267 
Occupations of high school, 91-95 

Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries, 80-82, 126-128, 157-159 



H 

Handicapped children, 41-45, 260, 281 

Health, 312 

Colored schools, 183-185 
Cost: 

White elementary schools, 63, 66 
White high schools, 135, 138 
State Department of, 66-71, 183-185 



H— (Continued) 

High schools: 

Approved, 118-119, 156-157, 281, 322-333 
Colored : 

Attendance, 157, 160, 291, 292, 321, 322- 
327 

Cost per pupil, 175-176, 219, 322-327 
Enrollment, 157-159, 285-289, 322-333 
Expenditures, 158-159, 321 
Graduates, 160-161, 162, 322-327 
Number belonging, 157, 290, 321, 322-327 
Number of, 119, 156-157, 181-182, 284, 
322-333 

Ratio of high to total enrollment, 159-160 

Size of class, 170, 300, 321 

State aid, 7-8, 322-327 

Statistics of individual schools, 322-333 

Subjects taught, 328-333 

Teachers' certification, 164, 298 

Teachers in, 157-159, 164, 167, 181-182, 

294, 299, 322-327 
Teachers' salaries, 157-159, 172-174, 301, 

321 

Junior and junior-senior, 109, 111-117, 118- 

119, 125-126, 318 
State aid to, 7-8, 133-134, 281, 307, 322-327 
White: 

Attendance, 81-83, 291, 292. 319, 322-327 
Books and materials, 130-132, 134, 218, 
319 

Capital outlay, 131, 138, 230, 232, 319 
Classes, size of, 121-122, 300 
Clerks, 109 

Cost per pupil, 128-132, 134-136, 138, 

217-220. 322-327 
Courses, 95-103, 322-327 
Distribution of, 118-119 
Enrollment, 27, 29, 80-81, 82, 95-103, 120- 

121, 126-128, 285, 289, 322-333 
Expenditures, 319 
Failures, 103-107 
Graduates. 85-95, 322-327 

Entering normal schools, 89-90, 91-93 
Growth in enrollment, teachers, salaries, 

80-82, 126-128 
Libraries, 108-109, 134-137 
Location, 118-119 
Men teaching in, 117-118, 294 
Number belonging, 290, 319, 322-327 
Number of each group, 118-119 
Number of, 118-119, 284 
Number offering subjects, 96, 108-109, 

328-333 

Occupations of graduates. 91-95 
Persistence to graduation. 87-89 
Promotions. 103-107 
Proportion of enrollment in, 83-84 
Ratio of boys to girls, 84-85 
Requirements for each group. 118-119 



340 



Index 



H— (Continued) 

High Schools: 

White — (Continued) 

Resignation of teachers, 111-112 
Session, length of, 17-18, 292 
Size of classes, 121-122, 300 
Size of enrollment, 120-121 
Size of teaching staff, 120-121 
Special subjects, 96-98, 100-102, 328-333 
State aid, 7-8, 133-134, 322-327 
Statistics, individual schools, 322-333 
Subjects available, 95-103, 328-333 
Supervision, 138-140 

Teachers, 108-109, 126-128, 294, 297, 319, 
322-327 

Attending summer school, 110-111 

Certification, 109, 261-262, 297 

Experience, 115-117 

For each subject, 108-109 

Resignations, 111-112 

Salaries, 123-128, 130-133, 301, 319 

Turnover, 112-114, 299 
Transportation, 134-136, 227-229 
Vocational work, 96, 100, 102, 104-107, 

108, 130, 132-133, 328-333 
Withdrawals by subjects, 103-107 

Holding power of schools, 27-32, 80-82, 85-89, 
149-152, 322-327 

Home economics: 
Cost, 130, 132-133 

Enrollment, 96-97. 100, 102, 133, 328-333 
Schools having, 96, 108, 328-333 
Teache'^, 108 



Incorporated towns, levy for, 243-245 

Index of school attendance, 26-27 

Industrial courses, 96-i,7, 100, 108, 133, 328-333 

Instruction, expenditures and cost per pupil, 

213-215, 309, 311 
Colored schools, 320-321 
Normal schools, 191-192, 275-277 
White elemental y schools, 55-58, 59-62, 217- 

218, 220, 314-317 
White high schools, 123-128, 130-132, 134, 

217-218, 220, 319 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools: 
Expenditures, 318 
Growth, 111 
Teachers: 

Certification, 109, 297 

Experience, 115-117 

Resignations, 111-112 

Salaries, 125-126, 318 

Turnover, 112-114, 299 



K 

Kindergarten enrollment, 27-29, 150 
L 

Languages in high school: 

Enrollment, 95-97, 100, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 103-107 
Teachers, 108 

Late entrants, 22-24, 26-27, 147-148 
Latin: 

Enrollment taking, 95-97, 100, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Teachers, 108 

Legislation, 1935, 13 

Higher education of negroes, 13, 162 
State teachers' colleges, 13, 269 

Length of session, 17-18, 142, 144, 292 

Libraries, 312 

Colored schools, 176-177 
White elementary schools, 63-66 
White high schools, 108-109, 135-137 

Library Advisorj' Commission, 64-66, 136-137, 
176-177 

M 

Maintenance, expenditures and cost per pupil, 

213-215, 309, 312 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White elementary schools, 60-62, 218, 314- 

317 

White high schools, 131, 134, 218, 319 

Materials of instruction and books, expend- 
itures and cost per pupil, 213-215, 311 
Colored, 320-321 

White elementary, 60-62, 218, 314-317 
White high, 130-132, 134, 218, 319 

Mathematics: 

Enrollment taking, 95-97, 99-100, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Teachers, 108 

Medical examinations: 

Pupils, 43-44, 67-69, 199, 260 
Teachers, 8, 263, 280, 281 

Men teachers, 59, 117-118, 168, 170, 294 

Monthly attendance, 19-20, 82-83, 145 

Music: 

Enrollment taking, 96-97, 102, 328-333 
Teachers, 108-109 



Index 



341 



N 

New positions, number of, 50-51, 112-114, 166- 
168, 299 

Night schools, 200-202, 312 

Non-promotions, 293 

By grade, 34, 36, 153-155, 293 

Causes of, 37-39, 154 

Colored schools, 153-155 

White elementary schools, 32-39, 293 

White high schools, 103-107 

Normal schools, 189-192, 264-277, 281, 282 
Budget, 8, 12, 281, 282 
Colored, 189-192, 281, 282 
Financial statement, 191-192, 274-276, 281- 
282 

White, 264-277 

Costs, 274-276, 282 
Enrollment, 267-271 

Entrants, 89-90, 91-93, 271-272, 322-327 

Faculty, 273-274 

Federal aid to students, 269 

Graduates, 263-267 

Inventories, 277 

Training centers, 273-274 

Tuition charges, 274 

Withdrawal of freshmen, 272-273 

Number belonging, 290 

Colored schools, 145, 157, 159-160, 290, 320- 

321, 322-327 
Elementary schools, white, 19-20, 290, 314- 

317 

High schools, white, 80-81, 82-83, 290, 319. 
322-327 

Per teacher, 53-55, 121-122, 170-171, 300, 
320, 321 

Proportion in high school, 83-84, 159-160 

Number of: 

High schools, 118-119, 156-157, 181-182, 284 
Schools, by size, 72. 74-77, 120-121, 179-181, 

182, 284, 322-327 
Schools having transportation, 228-229 
Supervisors, 77-79, 138, 140, 189, 294 
Teachers in schools of each type, 294 
Colored, 158-159. 179-182, 294, 298 
White elementary, 72, 74-77, 294. 295-296 
White high, 108, 109, 120-121, 126-128. 
294, 297. 322-327 

Nurses, county health. 66-69 

Nursing, occupation of graduates, 91-93, 162 



O 

Occupations of high school graduates, 91-95, 
162 

One-teacher schools: 

Attendance, 18-22, 291, 292, 315 

Cost per pupil, 71-72, 219 

Decrease in, 74-77, 179-181 

Enrollment, 28 

Expenditures, 315 

Graduates, 32 

Late entrants, 22-23 

Non-promotions, 33-34, 36-37 

Number of, 72, 74-77, 179-181, 284 

Salaries in, 56-58, 301, 315 

Size of class in, 53, 55, 300 

Teachers. 45. 47, 52-53, 72, 74-77, 179-181, 

296, 315 
Tests, 39-41 
Withdrawals, 24-25 

Opening dates of schools, 17, 142, 144 

Operation, expenditures and cost per pupil, 
213-215, 309, 311 
Colored schools, 320-321 
White elementary, 60, 62, 218, 314-317 
White high, 131, 134, 218, 319 

P 

Parent-teacher associations, 185-186. 251-253 

Parochial and private schools, 16, 81, 142, 286- 
289 

Part-payment of salaries, 8, 281, 307 

Persistence to high school graduation, 87-89 

Physical Education, 181-183, 193-200, 281, 283, 
302-306 

Activities, 181-183, 193-199, 302-306 
Badge tests, 181-183, 193-197, 302, 305 
Expenditures 199-200, 281, 283 
High school subject, 96-98, 102, 108-109. 
328-333 

Playground Athletic League. 181-183. 193- 

200. 302-306 
Teachers of, 108-109 

Physical examinations: 
Pupils, 67-69 
Teachers, 8, 263, 280, 281 

Playground Athletic League: 

Activities, 181-183, 193-200, 302-306 
Administration, 199-200 
Appropriation, 8, 199, 281, 283 
Expenditures, 199-200. 281, 283 



342 



Index 



P — (Continued) 

Preparation of teachers, 261-263, 295-298 
Colored, 163-164, 166-168, 298 
White elementary schools, 45-47, 261-262, 
295-296 

White high schools, 109, 114-115, 261-262, 
297 

Principals of normal schools, 2, 273-274 

Private and parochial schools, 16, 81, 142, 286- 
289 

Programs of conferences, 79, 189, 257-261 

Promotions: 

Colored schools, 153-155 

White elementary schools, 32-39, 293 

White high schools, 103-107 

Property, valuation of: 
County, 232-235, 245-249 
School, 177, 179, 237-241 

Provisional certificates, 109, 163-164, 262, 295- 
298 

Pupils: 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 241 
Non-public school, 16, 81, 142, 286-289 
One-teacher schools, 28, 74-77, 179-181, 285, 

290, 315 
Per teacher, 300 

Colored, 170-171, 321 

White elementary, 53-55 

White high, 121-122 
Public school, 285, 290 
Transported, 223-229 

Colored, 176, 227-228 

White elementary, 63-64, 227-228 

White high, 134-135, 227-228 

R 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 84-85 

Ratio of high school to total attendance and 
enrollment, 83-84, 159-160 

Receipts from: 

All county sources, 308 

Extra-curricular activities, 185, 187, 253-254 
Federal Government, 130, 132-133, 202, 220- 

222, 283, 307 
Rosenwald Fund, 283, 308 
State, 7-11, 133, 208-212, 279-280, 281-283, 

307-308, 322-327 

Rehabilitation, vocational, 8, 12, 205-208, 281, 
283 

Required length of session, 17-18, 142, 144 



R— (Continued) 

Resignations of teachers, 49, 111-112, 165-166 

Retardation; 

By grade, 34, 36, 153-155, 293 

Causes, 37-39, 154 

Colored schools, 153-155 

White elementary schools, 32-39, 293 

White high schools, 103-107 

Retirement System, Teachers', 278-280, 281 

Rosenwald Fund, 283, 308 

Rural schools, decrease in, 75-77, 179-181 



S 

Salaries : 

Superintendents, 256, 310 

Supervisors, 311 

Teachers, 213-216, 301, 311 

Colored, 158-159, 171-174, 320-321 
White elementary, 55-58, 314-317 
White high, 123-128, 319 

Salary cost per white pupil, 60-62, 130-132, 
217-218, 220-222 

Sanitary inspection of buildings, 70-71 

School: 

Bonds, 232-237 

Budgets, 7-12, 208-212, 242-245, 308 

Tax dollar, 213-215 
Year, length, 17-18, 142, 144, 292 

Schools: 

Closed, 75-77, 179-181, 284 
Distribution by number of teachers: 

Colored, 179-182, 284 

White elementary, 72, 74-77, 284 

White high, 120-121, 284, 322-327 

Normal, 190, 192, 264-277 
Evening, 200-202, 312 
Number, 284 

Colored, 156-157, 179-182 

One-teacher, 72, 74-77, 179-181 

White elementary, 72, 74-77 

White high, 118-119 
Offering certain subjects, 96, 108-109, 328- 
333 

Open less than legal requirement, 17-18, 
142, 144 

Parochial and private, 16, 81, 142, 286-289 
Property, valuation of, 177, 179, 237-241 
Size of, 72, 74-77, 120-121, 179-182 
Summer, 48-49, 110-111, 164-165 
Transportation provided to, 228-229 



Index 



343 



S— (Continued) 

Science: 

Enrollment taking, 95-97, 99-] 00, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Teachers, 108 

Session, length of, 17-18, 142, 144, 292 

Sex of teachers, 59, 117-118, 168, 170, 294 

Size of: 

Classes, 300 

Colored, 170-171, 321 

White elementary, 53-55 

White high, 121-122 
Schools: 

Colored, 179-182 

White elementary, 72- 74-77 

White high, 120-121, 322-327 

Social studies: 

Enrollment taking, 95-98, 100, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Teachers, 108 

Special: 

Classes for handicapped, 41-45, 281 
High school teachers, 108, 322-327 
Subjects in high school, 96-98, 100-102, 328- 
333 

Standardized tests, 39-41, 155-156 
State: 

Aid, 7-12, 47, 62, 130, 132-33, 20e-£12, 281- 

283, 307-308, 322-327 
Board of Education, 2, 9, 281, 283 
Depaitment of; 

Education, 2, 9, 138, 140, 281-283 

Health, 66-71, 183-185 
Public school budget, 7-12, 281-283 

Statistical tables, 284-333 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping: 
Enrollment taking, 96-97, 101-102, 328-333 
Failures and withdrawals, 104-107 
Teachers, 108 

Subjects studied in high schools, 95-103, 328 
333 

Summer schools: 
Attendance: 

Colored teachers, 164-165 
Whit*> elementary teachers, 48-49 
White high school teachers, 110-111 

Superintendents, 3, 256-259, 310 



S— (Continued) 

Supervision: 

Colored, 189, 320 

Cost, 60-62, 213-215, 218-220, 311, 314, 319- 
321 

White elementary 3, 60-62, 77-79, 314 
White high, 3, 138, 140, 319 

Supervisors, 3, 258, 294 

Activities, 77-79, 138, 140, 189 
Colored, 189, 294 
Conferences, 79, 258 

Elementary schools, white, 2, 3, 60:62, 77-79, 

258, 294 
High school, 2, 3, 138, 140 
Quota, 77, 79, 294 
Salaries, 311, 314, 319-321 

T 

Taxable basis, 232-235, 245-249 

Tax rates, 249-251 

Teacher-pupil ratio, 300 
Colored, 170-171, 321 
White elementary, 53-55 
White high, 121-122 

Teacher (s) : 

Attending summer school, 48-49, 110-111, 

164-165 
Certification: 

Colored, 163-164, 298 

White elementary, 45-47, 261-262, 295-296 
mite high, 109, 261-262, 297 
White junior and junior-senior high, 109, 
297 

Changing type of position in county, 50 
Colleges, 13, 269 

Experience, 51-53, 115-117, 168-169 

Men, proportion of, 59, 117-118, 168, 170, 

294 
Number, 294 

For each high school subject, 108-109 
in schools of each type, 294 

Colored, 158-159, 179-182, 294, 320-321 
White elementary, 72, 74-77, 294-296, 
314-317 

White high. 111, 120, 294, 297, 319, 322- 
327 

Total, 294 
Of certain high sohool subjects, 108-109 
Pupils per, 7, 300 

Colored, 170-171 

White elementary, 53-55 

White high, 121-122 
Ilessignation of, 49, 111-112, 165-166 ^ 
Retirement of, 49, 112, 165-166, 279 



344 



Index 



T— (Continued) 

TeacherCs) —Continued 
Salaries, 9-10, 13, 301, 311 

Colored, 158-159, 171-174, 320-321 
White elementary, 55-58, 314-317 
White high, 123-128, 319 
White junior and junior-senior high, 125- 
126, 318 

Sex of, 59, 117-118, 168, 170, 294 
Special, 108-109, 322-327 
Teaching load, 7, 300 

Colored, 170-171, 321 

White elementary, 53-55 

White high, 121-122 
Training of, 295-298 

Colored, 163-164, 166-168, 189-192, 298 

White elementary, 45-47, 261-262, 264- 
277, 295-296 

White high, 109, 114-115, 261-262, 297 
Turnover, 50-51. 112-114, 165-167, 299 

Teachers' Retirement System, 2, 8, 21 J, 278- 
280, 281 

Tests: 

Athletic badge: 

Colored, 181-183, 305 

White, 193-197, 302 
Elementary schools: 

Colored, 155-156 

White. 39-41 

Trades and industry, courses in, 96-97, 100, 
108, 130, 132-133, 328-333 

Tiaining centers for normal schools, 190-191, 
273-274 

Training of teachers: 

At particular colleges, 114-115, 166-168 
Colored, 163-164, 166-168, 189-192, 298 
White elementary, 45-47, 261-262, 264-277, 
295-296 

White high, 109, 114-115, 261-263, 297 



Transfer of teachers from county to county, 
49-50, 111-114, 165-167 



Transportation of pupils, 10-11, 13, 223-229 
Colored, 176, 227-229 
Cost, 63-64, 134-136, 176, 223-227, 312 
Per cent transported, 63-64, 134-135, 176, 
227-228 

Type of vehicles used, 228-229 
White elementary, 63-64 
White high, 10-11, 13, 134-136 



T— (Continued) 

Tuition: 

Charge normal school, 275-277 

To adjoining counties, 242, 309, 313 

Turnover in teaching staff, 299 
Colored, 165-167 
White elementary, 50-51 
White high school, 112-114 



V 

Value of: 

County assessable property, 232-235, 245- 
249 

School property, 177, 179, 238-241 

Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 12, 205-208, 281, 
283 

Vocational work, 130, 132-133, 202-204, 220- 

222, 281, 283 
Agriculture, 96-97, 100, 102, 130, 132-133, 

220, 222, 328-333 
Baltimore City, 221-222 

Cost of, 130, 132-133, 202-204, 220-222, 281, 
283 

Evening schools, 200-201 

Home economics, 96-97, 100, 102, 130, 132- 

133, 202-204, 220-222, 328-333 
Industrial courses, 96-97, 100, 108, 130, 132- 

133, 220-222, 328-333 
Rehabilitation of handicapped, 8, 12, 205- 

208, 281-283 
Vocations chosen by high school graduates 

91-95, 162 



W 

White schools — See elementary schools, white, 
and see high schools, white 

Withdrawals of pupils: 
Colored, 148-149 
Normal school freshmen, 272-273 
White elementary, 24-27 
White high, 103-107 



Y 

Year, length of school, 17-18, 142, 144, 292 
Years of experience, 51-53, 115-117, 168-169 




DO lOT cm<ji